动名词： V.-ing 做主语、宾语、表语
动词不定式： （to）+ 动词原形， 在句子中做除了谓语外的任何成分 分词：V.-ing/ -ed 做表语.补语,定语,状语
To see is to believe
Seeing is believing
b, it is + adj. + for + sb.+ to do sth.
It is important for you to study hard.
Difficult/ hard/ important/ possible/impossible/comfortable/necessary等表示事物的形容词.
c.it is + adj. + of +sb.+ to do sth.
d. it is+ no use/good/value+ doing sth.
He hopes to see the film
三个希望两答应:hope, wish, want, agree, promise
两个要求未拒绝:demand, ask, fail,refuse
设法学会做决定:manage, intend,learn, decide,determine
需求假装在选择: desire, pretend,choose
He found it easy to catch a UFO
主语+find/think+it+adj.+to do sth.
Mrs.P Black missed a beef bag(P.布莱克夫人丢了一个牛肉袋)
M=mind r=risk s=succeed in p=practice
B= be busy L=look forward to a= admit
C=can’t help k=keep m=miss i=insist on S=suggest s=stand e=enjoy d=delay
a=avoid b=be worth e=excuse e=escape
f= finish b= be proud of a=advise g= give up
A. allow/advise/permit/forbid + doing sth.
allow/advise/permit/forbid sb.+ to do sth.
B. want,need, require,demand + doing 表示被动
It needs/ require repairing= It needs/require to be repaired.
To see is to believe
Seeing is believing
1.Lucy asked him to turn down the radio.
We expect you to be with us. 我们希望你和我们在一起。
Please ask him to come here quickly. 请叫他快过来。
建议允许求希望:advise, allow, ask, wish
2. They often make him cry(省略to的宾补)
二听: hear, listen to
三让: make,let, have
五看:see, notice,watch,look at. Observe
My friends were made to work the whole night by the boss
4. to do与doing作宾补的区别
I hear him singing in the classroom
See/hear sb. doing sth. 动作正在进行
I hear him sing in the classroom
See/hear sb. do sth. 动作已经完成或经常性动作.
I have a wonderful house to live in
There are many ways to solve the problem. 有许多方法能解决这个问题。 I have something important to tell you. 我有重要的事情要告诉你。
She is in the reading room
Give me a pen to write with
There is nothing to worry about
The students went out of the classroom, talking and laughing. We eat to live; we don’t live to eat
Too…to do sth./ …enough to do sth.
we are surprised to see him here.
We went to the hospital to see our teacher.
The scientist is telling the people what to do
They didn’t know how to do
He didn’t know where to go
2. to do 与doing 作宾语的区别
Stop to do-----------停下来去做(还未做)
Remember/forget to do sth.----------记着/忘记去做(还未做)
Regret to do---------------遗憾去做某事(还未做)
Regret doing sth.----------后悔做过某事(过去曾做)
Regret not doing sth------后悔没去做某事(没做某事已经发生)
Go on to do-------------开始做另一件事
Go on doing-------------继续做同一件事
Try to do--------------努力去做某事
Tyr doing sth.----------试着去做某事
Mean to do sth---------打算,想做某事
Mean doing sth.---------意味着做某事
Love/hate to do (偶尔)
Love/ hate doing (习惯)
Part 6:课堂练习 1. The first textbooks _______ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century.
A. having written B. to be written
C. being written D. written
2. —You were brave enough to raise objection at the meeting.
—Well, now I regret _______ that.
A. to do B. to be doing C. to have done D. having done
3. We agreed _______ here but so far she hasn’t turned up yet.
A. having met B. meeting C. to meet D. to have met
4. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him _______.
A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not do
5. Paul doesn’t have to be made _______. He always works hard.
A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning
6. _______ in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him.
A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. To lost
7. The patient was warned _______ oily food after the operation.
A. to eat not B. eating not C. not to eat D. not eating
8. The Olympic Games, _______ in 776 B.C., did not include women players until 1912.
A. first playing B. to be first played
C. first played D. to be first playing
9. I would love _______ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report.
A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone
10. European football is played in 80 countries, _______ it the most popular sport in the world.
A. making B. makes C. made D. to make
11. When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door _______ “Sorry to miss you; will call later.”
A. read B. reads C. to read D. reading
12. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, _______ it more difficult.
A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. do not make
13. Robert is said _______ abroad, but I don’t know what country he studied in.
A. to have studied B. to study
C. to be studying D. to have been studying
14. The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see _______ the next year.
A. carried out B. carrying out C. carry out D. to carry out
15. _______ such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river.
A. Having suffered B. Suffering
C. To suffer D. Suffered
16. Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains _______ whether they will enjoy it.
A. to see B. to be seen C. seeing D. seen
17. The research is so designed that once _______ nothing can be done to change it.
A. begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun
18. It is said that in Australia there is more land than the government knows _______.
A. it what to do with B. what to do it with
C. what to do with it D. to do what with it
19. A cook will be immediately fired if he is found _______ in the kitchen.
A. smoke B. smoking C. to smoke D. smoked
20. She looks forward every spring to _______ the flower-lined garden.
A. visit B. paying a visit C. walk in D. walking in
21. When I handed the report to John, he said that George was the person _______.
A. to send B. for sending it C. to send it to D. for sending it to
22. —What do you think made Mary so upset?
—_______ her new bike.
A. As she lost B. Lost C. Losing D. Because of losing
23. The lady said she would buy a gift for her daughter with the _______.
A. 20 dollars remained B. 20 dollars to remain
C. remained 20 dollars D. remaining 20 dollars
24. There are five pairs _______, but I’m at a loss which to choose.
A. to be chosen B. to choose from
C. to choose D. for choosing
25. _______ in 1636, Harvard is one of the most famous universities in the United States.
A. Being founded B. It was founded
C. Founded D. Founding
26. Fishing is his favorite hobby, and _______.
A. he’d like to collect coins as well B. he feels like collecting coins, too
C. to collect coins is also his hobby D. collecting coins also gives him great pleasure
27. Finding her car stolen, _______.
A. a policeman was asked to help B. the area was searching thoroughly
C. it was looked for everywhere D. she hurried to a policeman for help
28. In order to gain a bigger share in the international market, many state-run companies are striving _______ their products more competitive.
A. to make B. making C. to have made D. having made
29. Though _______ money, his parents managed to send him to university.
A. lacked B. lacking of C. lacking D. lacked in
30. There is a new problem involved in the popularity of private cars _______ road conditions need _______.
A. that; to be improved B. which; to be improved
C. where; improving D. when; improving