? 一、一般现在时( simple present tense) ? 1.形式 一般现在时通常用动词原形来表示。 be动词用am、is、are。主语是第三人称单 数时动词的变化规律: 一般动词后加-s；以 s、x、ch、sh结尾，加-es；以辅音字母加 o结尾，一般加-es；辅音字母加y结尾，变y 为i加-es。
? 2．用法 ? a. 表示经常发生的动作或现阶段的习惯性行为，常与时 间状语often， usually，always，every day，sometimes， seldom，never等连用。 ? I never do my homework in the evening. ? Sometimes we play football on the playground. ? He seldom listens to music. b. 表示现在的事实或状态。 ? China is a developing country. ? I like English very much. c. 表示格言，科学事实和客观真理。 Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。 ? All things are difficult before they are easy. 凡事总是由难 而易。 ? Shanghai lies in the east of China.上海位于中国东部。 ? The teacher told us yesterday that December 25 is Christmas Day.
3.句式 肯定 否定 疑问 回答 He likes eggs. He doesn’t like eggs. Does he like eggs? Yes, he does./No, he doesn’t. I want an apple. I don’t want an apple. Do you want an apple? Yes, I do./No, I don’t.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
4.做题时常见错误如下： 一、be动词与行为动词同时出现在句子中 例：We are plant (plant) the trees in spring. 二、单三人称形式易出错 例：1. He plays (play) football very well. 2. Danny goes (go) to school at 7:10. 三、在句式变换时易出错 例：1. Does Jenny has (has) a good friend? 2. Brian doesn’t lives (not live) in China. 四、对do的理解易出错 例：We don’t (not do) our homework in the afternoon. 五、对主语的数判断有误 例： Li Ming with me are (be) in Beijing. 另外，宾语从句中，从句部分若是表示客观真理，不管主 句是何时态，从句都要用一般现在时；在时间和条件状语 从句中，主句表将来，从句要用一般现在时。
? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ?
5.中考真题及模拟 （2009东城区一模）Mary___________ the piano well. She is often asked to play at the concert. A. play B. plays C. playing D. played (2009海淀区一模）My mother will take me to the movie if she _________ free this weekend. A. is B. will be C. was D. would be (2009崇文区一模)The girls will have a trip if it _________fine. A. is B. was C. will be D. has been (2008北京)He’ll send us a message as soon as he ________ in Sichuan. A. is arriving B. will arrive C. arrived D. arrives （2007武汉）——What do you do? ——I’m an engineer. I _____ in a company in Wuhan. I like my job very much. A. work B. had worked C. will work D. worked (2006武汉)—Is your father a doctor? —Yes, he is. He__________ in Town Hospital. A. has worked B. had worked C. works D. worked (2006
陕西)Every year many foreigners _________to China to learn Chinese. A. have come B. comes C. came D. come
二、现在进行时( present continuous tense) 1．构成 be（am/is/are）+动词的现在分 词
? 2．用法 ? a. 表示现在正在进行或发生的动作。 He is eating an ice cream.他正在吃冰激凌。 ? Let’s wait. The children are crossing the street. ? b. 表示当前一段时期内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作（说话时不一 定正在进行）。 We are working on a farm these days? 这些天我们在一个农场干活。 c. 表示位置移动或趋向的词，如go，come, start，leave, arrive, move等常用进行时表将来。 He is leaving for Shanghai tomorrow. I'm coming! What's the score now? 我就来！现在比分是多少？ ? We are moving to a big house next month. 下个月我们将搬到一所大 房子里。 ? d. 与always, constantly, forever 等词连用，表示反复发生的动作或持 续存在的状态，往往带有说话人的主观色彩。 You are always changing your mind.
? 3. 现在分词的构成规则 ? 1）一般情况， 在动词后加ing，例词workworking，study-studying，go-going 2）以不发音的e结尾，去e再加-ing，例词 have-having，live-living，take-taking ? 3）重读闭音节，只有一个辅音字母结尾， 双写该辅音字母，再加-ing， ? 例词cut-cutting stop-stopping，forgetforgetting，begin-beginning ? 4）以ie结尾，变ie为y再加-ing，例词diedying，lie-lying，tie-tying
– 4. 形式 肯定句 否定句 疑问句 I am studying. I am not studying. Am I studying? am/ No，I am not.
? 5. 一般现在时和现在进行时的区别 (1) 一般现在时表示经常性或习惯性的动作，现 在进行时表示正在发生的行为。 ? a. He is cleaning his room now.他在打扫房间。 ? He cleans his room every day.他每天都要打扫房 间。 ? b.They are visiting China.他们正在中国观光。 ? They often come to China for a visit.他们经常来 中国观光。 ? (2) 一般现在时表示现在的状态。 ? He likes jiaozi. They have a lot of friends
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
考例：Mr. Smith ________ short stories, but he ________ a TV play these days. A. is writing …is writing B. is writing… writes C. writes…is writing D. writes… writes 6.中考真题及模拟 (2009崇文区二模)Don’t turn off the radio. I _______ to the news. A. listen B. have listened C. listened D. am listening (2009朝阳区一模)——Have you seen Mr. Smith? ——Yes. Look, he ________ his bike over there. A. cleans B. cleaned C. is cleaning D. has cleaned (2009海淀区一模)——Where’s Susan, Mike? ——She _________ in the kitchen. A. cooks B. cooked C. is cooking D. has cooked (2009西城区一模)——Have you got a job offer? ——Not yet. I ___________. A. waited B.
am waiting C. wait D. was waiting (2009宣武区一模)——Do you think John will help me move the piano? ——You’d better not ask him. He __________ a composition. A. write B. writes C. is writing D. wrote (2009崇文区一模)——Where’s the children, Mr Black? ——Oh, they _________ their PE lesson on the playground. A. have B. had C. are having D. have had （2008北京）Don’t turn on the TV. Grandma ____________ now. A. is sleeping B. will sleep C. slept D. sleeps
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
(2007北京)——What are you doing, Cathy? ——I’m __________my cat. I can’t find it. A. looking for B. looking at C. looking up D. looking after （2006北京）——What’s your brother doing in his room now? ——He ____________ a kite. A. makes B. made C. is making D. will make (2005北京) ---Where is Frank now? ---He _______ his bike in the yard. A. fixes up B. fixing up C. is fixing up D. fixed （2008辽宁）——Mary,could you help me? ——Wait a moment. I _________. A. read a book B. did my homework C. was watching TV D. am cooking dinner (2007浙江)——Listen，who _________ in the room? ——Let’s go and see. A. is crying B. crying C. cry D. cries They ________ about ―Supper Voice Girl‖.let’s join them. A. talk B. are talking C. have talked D. talked (2006山东威海)——Are you a baby-sister here? ——No. I __________after the baby instead of Ms Green.She is away for shopping. A. look B. am looking C. have looked D. looked
? 三．一般过去时(simple past tense) 1．概念 一般过去时表示过去某一时 刻，某一段时间发生的动作或存在的状态。 一般过去时用动词的过去式表示。
? 2．构成 一般过去时用动词的过去式表示。be的过去式 有was，were两种； have的过去式是had；规则动词的过 去式在动词词尾加-ed，具体构成规则如下： ? 1）一般情况，动词后加ed，例词work-worked，cleancleaned，play-played，wash-washed ? 2）以不发音的e结尾，-d，例词live-lived，move-moved， hope-hoped，arrive-arrived ? 3）以辅音字母+y结尾，变y为 i再加-ed，例词studystudied，carry-carried，cry-cried，identify-identified ? 4）以辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节，双写最后一个辅音字 母加-ed，例词plan-planned stop-stopped，beg-begged，grab-grabbed
? 3．用法 ? (1) 表示发生在过去的动作或存在的状态。如： He went shopping with his friends last week. ? They arrived ten minutes ago. ? He became a hotel manager ten years ago. Did you go to the concert last night? ? (2) 表示在过去经常发生的动作或习惯动作。如： He visited his grandparents once a month last year. ? She usually went to work by car last year. ? When I was at school, I always went to school by bus.
? 4.如何识别 一般过去时常见的标志词有： 1）. yesterday, the day before yesterd
ay. 2）. last week / year / month / term …(简称 last系列) 3）. two hours ago, three years ago, a moment ago…(简称ago系列) 4）. in / on + 过去的年/月/日，如 in 1999, on April, 2005 5）. just now, once upon a time, one day…
? ? ? ?
? ? ?
5.易错点例析： （1）——Your phone number again? I _________ quite catch it. ——It’s 4331577 A. didn’t B. couldn’t C. don’t D. can’t (2)——Mr. Smith isn’t coming tonight. ——But he _________. A. promises B. promised C. will promise D. had promised (3) ——Hey, look where you are going! ——Oh, I’m terribly sorry. _________. A. I’m not noticing B. I wasn’t noticing C. I haven’t noticed D. I don’t notice (4) ——Oh it’s you ! I _________ you. ——I’ve had my hair cut. A. didn’t realize B. haven’t realized C. didn’t recognize D. don’t recognized (5) ——Since you’ve agreed to go, why aren’t you getting ready? ——But I _________ that you would have me start at once. A. don’t realize B. didn’t realize C. hadn’t realized D. haven’t realized (6) ——It’s twelve o’clock, I think I must be off now. ——Oh, really? I _________ it at all. A. don’t realize B. haven’t realized C. didn’t realize D. hadn’t realized Key：ABBCBC
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
6.中考真题及模拟 (2009朝阳区一模)He went into his room, _______ the light and began to work. A. has turned on B. will turn on C. turns on D. turned on (2009海淀一模)——What’s the best food have you had in Beijing, Alex? ——Roast duck! I _________to a famous restaurant to have it last week. A. have gone B. go C. will go D. went (2009宣武区一模)——Do you know how many gold medals the 23-year-old Michael Phelps _____________at the 2008 Summer Olympic Games? ——Eight. A. win B. wins C. won D. has won (2008北京)We were in Qingdao last week and __________ great fun there. A. will have B. have had C. had D. have (2007北京)——What did you do after school yesterday? ——I _________basketball with my friends. A. play B. played C. will play D. am playing （2005北京）---Hi, Kate. You look tired. What’s the matter? ---I ______well last night. A. didn’t sleep B. don’t sleep C. haven’t slept D. won’t sleep (2008四川泸州)Yesterday，Tony’s family _________ a good time. A. has B. have C. had （2007湖南湘潭）I’m sorry you’ve missed the train. It _______10 minutes ago. A. left B. has left C. had left
? (2007福州)——Mr Green, __________you________ Three Lanes and Alleys（三坊七巷）last Sunday? ? ——No, but I’ll visit them next week. ? A. will; go to B. have; been to C. did; go to D. have; gone to ? (2007浙江)——What did the teacher say just now? ? ——He __________us not to play computer games all day. ? A. tells B. told C. has told D. is told ? (2007江西)——Inventors have change
d the way we live. ? ——So they are famous for the great things they _________. ? A. do B. did C. are doing D. had done ? (06江西)——Where’s the cake I made this morning? ? ——We _______ it, mum. Can you make another one for us? ? A. ate B. eat C. will it D. were eating ? (2006天津)——Have you mended your shoes，Bob? ? ——Yes，I_________ them twenty minutes ago ? A．have mended B．mend C．had mended D．mended ? (2006威海)——The office was broken into last night．Someone thinks you did it． ? ——But I___________ the whole night with my best friend，John． ? A．spend B．am spending C．spent D．had spent
? 四．一般将来时（the future tense） ? 用法：表示将来某一时间要发生的动作或 存在的状态，也表示将来经常或反复发生 的动作。I am going to/will watch a football match this evening.
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
形式：（1）“be going to/助动词will/be to+动词原形”， 主语是I、we时，助动词也可用shall. be going to do 表 示根据计划或安排将要做某事，也可表示根据目前情况 判断很有可能但不是注定会发生某事；will/ shall do表 示根据计划或安排将要做某事，也可以表示不以人的意 志为转移的客观规律，be to do表示根据计划或安排将 要做某事，也可以表示征求对方意见，还可以表示必要 性或可能性。 Eg. He will go to his hometown next week. They are going to meet outside the school gate. (2) come，go, start, move, sail, leave等非延续性动词 常用进行时表示按计划将要发生的事。 Eg. The whole family is going for two weeks.全家要去 两个星期。 My sister is coming to see me. She’ll be here soon. （3）在时间或条件状语从句中，常用一般现在时代替 一般将来时。 Eg. I’ll go to see you if it doesn’t rain tomorrow.
常用的时间状语：tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next time, ―in+一般时间”,from now on, later(on),soon等。
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
中考真题及模拟 (2009朝阳区一模) I ________ to the bookshop as soon as school is over this afternoon. A. will go B. have gone C. go D. went (2009西城区一模)——When _______________ for Hong Kong, do you know? ——I’m not sure. When he __________, I’ll let you know. A. he leaves ;leaves B. will he leave; will leave C. he leaves; will leave D. will he leave;leaves (2009崇文区一模)——Where will they go next Sunday? ——They ___________ to the Great Wall. A. will go B. go C. has gone D. went (2007北京)I _______the CDs to you if I have time tomorrow. A. will return B. returned C. have returned D. return （2005北京）Frank ______ a film if he’s free next Saturday. A. see B. saw C. has seen D. will see I want to know ______the day after tomorrow. A. what he will do B. what will he do C. what he did D. what did he do
? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
（2008襄樊）——Has he returned the library book yet? ——Not yet. Don’t worry. He _________it soon. A. returned B. has returned C. will return D. returns (2007河南)——Look at the noisy kids! ——Haven’t you heard the saying ―When the cat is away, the mice ______.‖? A. play B. played C. are playing D. will play (2006厦门)He doesn’t tell me when he__________. I’ll call you up as soon as he __________. A. will come, arrives B. comes, arrives C. will come, will arrive (2006常德)If it_____________ tomorrow, we_______ travel outside. A. will rain; will B. rains; won’t C. will rain; won’t (2006江西)——Jim, can you help me to wash the dishes? ——Sorry, Dad. I____________ to the shop. A. go B. went C. am going D. have been (2008广东) I hear that he will be back ______ two weeks’ time. A. at B. in C. after D. for
? 、现在完成时( Present Perfect Tense), ? 现在完成时是初中英语中最重要也最难掌 握的一个时态，同时也是中考英语中一个 最重要的时态考点.
? 基本构成 “have / has+过去分词” 其中 have / has 为助动词，构成疑问句时，可将 其提前；构成否定句时，可直接在其后加 not. 助动词说明该谓语是属于现在时范围。 它和主语的人称、数要保持一致。过去分 词是主要的谓语动词，说明句子的意义。
? 2、主要用法 ? 现在完成时主要有两种用法，一种是已完成用法，也叫影响性用法； 另一种是未完成用法，也叫持续性用法。两种用法的特点是： ? 1). 已完成用法（影响性用法）：表示动作发生在过去某个不太确 定的时间，但对现在留下了某种影响和结果，同时说话者强调或感兴 趣的就是这个影响或结果.还可表示刚刚、已经做完某事，曾经或未曾 做某事。常与already, just, yet，ever, never，the past few years， before等连用,如： ? Has she found her car key？ 她找到她的车钥匙了吗？（对现在的影 响或结果：她能开她的车了吗？） ? ----Have you had lunch yet? ----Yes, I have. I've just had it. 你（已经）吃午饭了吗？ 我刚刚吃过。（现在我不饿了） ? Astronauts have already been to the moon.宇航员已经去过月球了。 ? I haven’t read your novel yet.我还没有读你的小说。 ? He has never driven a car before. 他过去从未开过车。 ? Have you ever been a teacher？ 你当过教师吗？ ? Our hometown has changed a lot in the past few years. 我们家乡在 过去的几年里变化很大。
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
2). 未完成用法（持续性用法）：该用法的现在完成时表示一个过去 发生的动作并未在过去完成，而是一直持续到现在，并且有可能继续 下去（也可能到此结束）。常有下列标志：for+时间段（ten years, a long time等）；since+时间
点（two o’clock, August 2003,等）； recently，so far, up to now等。如： How have you been？ 你近来怎样？ She has been a teacher for 20 years. 她已当了20年的老师。 How long have you been in Shanghai？ 你在上海已经多久了？ I haven’t seen her since last week. 自上周以来我一直未见过她。 I met him in 1975 and haven’t seen him since then. 1975年我见过 他，但自那以后就一直未见到他。
? ? ?
注：1.除以上用法外，现在完成时还可表示过去的重复动作甚至将 来动作。如： He has always gone to work by bike. 他总是骑自行车上班。 I’ll go to bed when I’ve finished my homework. 我做完作业后就上床 睡觉。 2.表示时间长度时，通常用一般现在时代替现在完成时。如： It’s a long time since I met you last. 好久不见了。 It’s about six months since we arrived here. 我们到这里大约有半年 了。
? 、注意现在完成时与一般过去时的区别 ? 1） 现在完成时的已完成用法很容易与一般过去时相混淆，其区别 是：前者强调对现在的影响和结果，后者不强调这个影响和结果，而 是强调这个动作发生的时间是在过去。如： ? I’ve lived here for ten years. 我在这里住了10年。（现在仍住这儿） ? I lived here for ten years. 我在这里住过10年。（现在不住这儿了） ? Has he got up？ 他起来了吗？ （着眼现在情况） ? Did you get up very early？ 你起得很早吗？ （着眼动作本身） ? I’ve got no news from him. 我没听到他的消息。（不知道他的情况 怎样） ? I got the news from Jim. 这消息我是从吉姆那听来的。（单纯谈论动 作） ? 2）过去时常与具体的时间状语连用，而现在完成时通常与模糊的时 间状语连用，或无时间状语。
? ? ? ?
一般过去时的时间状语: yesterday, last week，…ago, in1980, in October, just now, 具体 的时间状语 现在完成时的时间状语 for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till / until, up to now, always, the past few years 共同的时间状语: this morning, tonight, this April, once，before, already, recently， lately 例：1. The teacher was already in the room when I arrived. 我到的 时候，老师已经在屋里了。 2. I have already waited two years. 我都等了两年了。 3.I haven't seen him recently. 我最近没有看到他。 4. I recently moved to this area. 我最近搬到这一带来了。 5.----Have you met him today? -----No, I haven't. 今天你见过他吗？ 我没有。 6.How many times have you been there this year? 今年你去 过那里多少次？