一. 何时使用被动语态 1. 不知道谁是动作的执行者或没有必要 Paper is made from wood. He was wounded in the fight. 2. 需要强调动作的承受者时
Books and newspapers in the reading room mustn't be taken away. He was awarded first prize in that contest.
3为了使语气婉转，避免提及自己或对方而使 用被动语 态，或由于修饰的需要，使用被动 语态，使句子得以更好的安排。
The construction of the new lab must be completed by the end of next month.
Electricity is used to run machines.
Discusion 1: the active voice 主动语态
& the passive voice被动语态 ?什么时候用主动语态或被动语态？ 主语是动作的执行者就用主动语态
We study English at school.
English is studied by us at school.
the active voice 主动语态
& the passive voice被动语态
语态动词 时态 结构 the active voice the passive voice v am v+ s is + p.p. 一般现在时 es are
Decide if these sentences are active or passive.
1. We call the doctor. 2. People don’t play football here. 3. The truck was cleaned yesterday. 4. Mr Chen teaches us English. 5. The classroom was cleaned. active active passive active
1.The key ______for locking the classroom door. B A.uses B. is used C.is using D.use B 2.A new school _______over there two years ago. A. built B. was built C. build D. builds 3.The lost child ______ on October 7,1998. A A.was found B. is found C. found D. find C 4.A talk on Chinese history________in the school hall yesterday. A.is given B.give C.was given D. gave
the active voice 主动语态
& the passive voice被动语态
?主动语态句子变成被动语态句子哪三个部分 要变？怎么变？ 1. 把原句的宾语改为主语。 2. 把原句的谓语动词改为被动语态结构( be + p.p.)。 3. 把原句的主语改为by的宾语（用宾格）,可省略。 e.g. She cleaned the room.
The room was cleaned ( by her).
1.Lucy bought some fruit. was bought by Some fruit _____ ______ _____ Lucy. 2.Uncle Wang waters the flowers every day. The flowers ___ _______ ____ Uncle Wang every day. are watered by 3.Did they build the bridge in 1998? Was built ____ the bridge _____ in 1998? 4.When did Lu Xun write these books? were by When _____these books written ____ Lu Xun? _______ 5.The farmers don’t grow apples on the farm. Apples aren’t grown on the farm. _____ _____ 6.They didn’t clean the classroom yesterday. The classroom _______ ________ yesterday. wasn’t cleaned
小结： be 形 过去分词 1、被动语态的转换，在be+过去分词中，确定_____ 是关键，_______永不变。
主动时态 被动主语 2、Be的时态由_______________确定；be的单/复数由____________确定。 be 3、问句提前__________; 否定________后加not. be动词
1.You can do the work all by yourself. can be done The work _____ _____ _____ all by yourself. 2.We must plant more trees. More trees _____ _____ ________. must be planted 3.We should dig a large hole. A large hole _____ ____ _____. should be dug 4.Can we put our bikes here? Can _____ our bikes ____ _____ here? be put 5.You mustn’t throw rubbish here. Rubbish mustn’t _____ ______ here. ______ be thrown 6.We can’t see many stars. can’t be seen Many stars ______ ______ _______ .
小结： 情态动词+be+过去分词 1.含情态动词的被动结构： ______________________. 情态动词 情态动词 2.疑问句提前_____________; 否定句：___________+not.
Exercise ： 1.They play basketball in their school.(改为被动语态) is Basketball______ played _______in their school by them. 2. The naughty boy broke the window. was broken The window ______ _______ by the naughty boy.
3. People speak English all over the world.
is spoken English ______ _______ by people all over the world.
Exercise ：translate the following sentences
1. 这些照片是上星期拍的 。
These photos were taken last week.
This book was written by Lu Xun.
3. 史密斯一家被邀请参加了派对。 The Smiths were invited to the party. 4. 长江也叫扬子江。 The Changjiang River is also called theYangteze River.
? 1.I washed my clothes once a day.
I was washed my clothes once a day. X My clothes was washed (by me) once a day. √
? 2.They took Jim to the hospital.
They was took Jim to the hospital. X Jim was taken to the hospital by them. √
? 3.Tom closed the shop just now.
The shop closed Tom just now. X The shop was closed (by Tom) just now. √
主动变被动要注意： 1.感官动词see ,hear ,watch,feel,notice,和使役 动词let,make,have这类词改被动语态时，一定 要将省略的to加上； 2.含有双宾语的句子（直接宾语+间接宾语） 方法： A.将间接宾语变成被动语态的主语 B.将直接宾语变成被动语态的主语， 切记：间接宾语前要加介词to(表示动作的方向） 或者for（表示动作的目的） Eg.We sent her some flowers.
A.She was sent some flowers by us.
B.Some flowers was sent to her by us.
3.含有复合宾语的句子（宾语+宾语补足 语）,只能把宾语作为被动结构的主语，宾 语补足语放在被动结构后面作为主语的补 足语。 We called him “glasses”.
was called “glasses” (by us)
（1） 将宾语变为主语，宾补不变。 They call her XiaoLi. She is called XiaoLi. （2) make, let, have, hear, watch, see, feel, notice. 既 动 词后变做宾补的不定式一般不 加to,变为被动,必须加to . My
brother often made me do this and that when I was young. I was often made to do this and that by my brother when I was young.
I heard her move about in her room upstairs last night.
She was heard to move about in her room upstairs last night Did you see Jack take away the magazine?
Was Jack seen to take away the magazine?
3. 情态动词的被动语态。是由情态V+be+ p.p.构成 They can not find him. He can not be found. You must pay me for this.
I must be paid for this.
4.有的动词短语相当于一个及物动词，如： look after ,look for,take care of ,pay attention to 等等改被动语态时，要将短语看做一个整 体。 例句： A)The old people should be taken good care of. B)The baby was looked after by Lily.
5 据说类动词： say, consider, think, report, know, believe, suggest, understand, hope, etc. 如：It is said that… There is said to be… Sth./Sb. is said to…
1.不及物动词没有被动语态，如 rise, happen, succeed, remain, lie, disappear, last等。 如：After the fire, nothing remained. 那场大火之后，什么也没留下来了。 误：After the fire, nothing was remained.
2.不及物动词短语没有被动语态，如： take place, break out（爆发), belong to等。 如： Great changes have taken place here since 1990. 自1990年以来这里发生了巨大的变化. 误： Great changes have been taken place here since 1990.
3.有的及物动词也没有被动语态，如 cost, leave, enter, reach, suit, have, wish, hold, own, lack, fit, resemble（像/类似), jump, mind等。 如：She entered the room just now. 他刚才进过房间。 误：The room was entered by her just now. Tom jumped the queue.汤姆插队。 误：The queue was jumped by Tom. 4.有些及物的短语动词也没有被动语态，如 agree with, arrive at/in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, walk into, belong to等。 如：I don’t agree with him.我不同意他的看法。 误：He isn’t agreed with by me.
5. 宾语是反身代词、相互代词、同源宾语、不定式、 v-ing形式及抽象名词等，都不能变为被动句子的主语， 如： I taught myself French.我自学法语。 误：Myself was taught French. They love each other.他们相爱。 误：Each other is loved. We live a happy life.我们过着幸福的生活。 误：A happy is lived by us.
She likes to swim.她喜欢游泳。 误：To swim is liked by her.
6. open, lock, write, read, sell, clean, wash, cut,
burn, drive,等词做作不及物动词时，它们的主语为物， 可以用主动语态表示被动语态。 如：These books sells well . 7. look， sound， taste， smell等系动词用主动语态 表示被动语态。 如：This food tastes delicious .
1.be worth doing sth 值得做某事 The book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读 2.在need，want，require等词的后面，动名词用主
动形式表示被动意义，其含义相当于动词不定式的被 动形式。 The house needs repairing=to be repaired. 这房子需要修理。 3 不定式to blame,to let（出租）作表语时， 主动形式表被动含义 You are to blame. The house is to let.