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初中英语时态教案

发布时间:2013-10-13 12:34:59  

初中英语时态教学设计

“三个一般, 两个进行, 两个完成”

现在进行时 现在完成时

一般过去时

一般将来时 过去进行时 过去完成时

一、 一般现在时 (概念,句式结构, 常用时间状语; 用法)

1、概念, 句式结构, 常用时间状语。

(1)概念:一般现在是主要表示经常性或习惯性的动作或存在的状态,也可表示现在的

情况或状态以及永恒的真理。

(2)句式结构:

Be(is , am , are) +表语,如:She is a beautiful girl.

There be (is , are )句型,如:There is a schoolbag on the desk.

实义动词作谓语, 谓语用动词原形,但主语是第三人称单数时,谓语要用相应的单数第三人称形式

如: They usually go to school on foot.

She likes chocolate.

(3)常用时间状语:always, usually, often, everyday等。

2.一般现在时的用法

(1) 表示经常性或习惯性的动作或存在的状态,常与表频度的时间状语连用。如: My mother often does housework. 我妈妈经常做家务。

(2) 描述现在的情况,状态等。如:

He speaks Russian very well.他讲俄语讲得很好。

(3) 描述客观真理、客观存在或科学事实等。如:

Light travels faster than sound.光比声音传播速度快。

(4) 注:在含时间状语从句或条件状语从句的复合句中,若主句用一般将来时,则从句

用一般现在时表示将来,即“主将从现”如:

I will ring you if he comes back tomorrow.如果他明天回来,我就给你打电话。 例: I will send you an e-mail as soon as I _________in Canada.

A. arrive B arrived C am arriving D will arrive

(5) 在以here , there开头的句子中常用一般现在时代替进行时。如: Here comes the bus! 汽车来了!

二、 一般过去时 (概念,句式结构以及常用的时间状语; 动词过去式的构成,一般过去时

的用法)

1. 概念,句式结构及常用的时间状语

(1) 概念: 表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态。

(2) 句式结构

was/were+表语 She was a beautiful girl ten years ago.

1

there was/were There were many shops near our school.

实义动词作谓语 He got up at six o’clock yesterday morning.

(4) 常用的时间状语: yesterday(昨天), the day before yesterday (前天), last

week (上星期),two days ago (两天前),just now (刚才)等

2. 动词过去式的构成方式

一般过过去式中,谓语动词要用一般过去式, 过去式的变化分为规则(见七年级上册102页)和不规则两种(不规则动词表见八年级上册116页)

3.一般过去时的用法

(1)表示过去发生或过去经常发生的动作或存在的状态。如:

He visited the Great Wall yesterday. 昨天他旅游了长城。

He went to the hospital once a week last week. 去年他每周去医院一次。 例: I’m now in New York with my friend Jenny. We __________ by plane on Monday.

A arrive B arrived C are arriving D will arrive

( 2) 用于虚拟条件句中, 表示与现在事实相反的情况。如:

If I were you, I would take a small present.

如果我是你的话,我就带上一小件小礼物。

注: if I were you 中, were 不能改成was。

三、 一般将来时(概念, 句式结构以及常用的时间状语, 用法)

1. 概念,句式结构以及常用的时间状语

(1) 概念: 表示将来要发生的动作或存在的状态。

(2) 句式结构

Will/shall + 动词原形 They will have a good time. + 动词原形 We are going to take an exam.

现在进行时表将来 The bus is coming. 公共汽车要来了。

(3) 常用的时间状语:tomorrow, the day after tomorrow , in two hours , soon ,

in the future等

2.一般将来时的用法

(1)be going to 和will 表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态。

We are going to have a meeting to discuss the plan.

我们打算开会讨论这个计划。

She will reach here at five o’clock this afternoon.

今天下午五点她将到达这里。

例. My sister wants a new dress. She ______ it to the party.

A wears B has won C wore D is going to wear

(2) be going to 表示根据某种迹象判断将要发生某事, will 表示客观上将来势必

发生的事。 如:

Look at the dark clouds. It’s going to rain.

看那乌云,天马上要下雨了。

He will be twenty years old next year.

明年他就要20岁了。

例. There __________a basketball match between Class One and Class Three

this afternoon.

A is going to be B will have C are going to be D is going to have 2

注:There be的一般将来式是there is/are going to be 或there will be 选A

练习

1. My parents often ______ a walk after supper. They are both very healthy.(have)

2. The student __________ to school three days last week. So he can’t finish his last week’s

homework. (not go)

3. This year alone Mr. Wu ____________ a cold twice. The students all say that he needs to do

much exercise in the morning.(catch)

4. The students said that they ____________ from school in three months. (graduate)

5. The girl is friendly to her grandmother. She usually ________ to see her grandmother once

a week.(go)

6. Those tourists _______ in Kunming at ten o’clock yesterday morning. (arrive)

7. ___________ your son or your daughter __________ after you, Mr. Green? (take)

8. I don’t know what Mr. Chang’s wife does. I think she may _________ a conductor.(be)

9. ---- Zhang Xiaohui, have you been to Beijing?

---- Not yet . My father tells me that he __________ me there by the year 2012.(take)

3

两个进行时态

一.现在进行时 (概念,句式结构,常用的时间状语及用法)

1. 概念,句式结构及常见的时态标志词

(1).概念: 表示现在正在进行的动作

(2).句式结构: 主语+ am/is / are +现在分词+其他

(3).常见的时态标志词:now, at the moment, look, listen等

2.现在分词的构成方式

3.现在进行时的用法:

(1). 表示目前正在进行的动作。如:

She is reading a book. 她正在读书。

例:Where’s Tom? His mother __________ him now.

A. is looking for B. will look for C. has looked for D. looks for

(2). 与always,usually,forever等词连用,表示说话者的赞扬、厌恶或不满情绪等。

如:

He is always helping others. We all like him.

他总是帮助别人,我们都很喜欢他。

(3).一些表示位置移动的动词,如go , come, leave等常用现在进行时表示将来发生的;

动作。如:

He is leaving for Shanghai tomorrow.

特别提醒:以下动词通常不用于现在进行时

① 表示感觉、情感或心理活动的动词,如: hear, listen,look,smell, taste, notice,seem, hate, like , want, love, want, wish等

② 表示所有或占有的动词,如:have, own, belong等

③ 表示记忆,理解或决定的动词,如:forget, remember, understand, believe,know,decide

二.过去进行时(概念,句式结构及常用的时间状语和用法)

1. 概念,句式结构及常用的时间状语

(1).概念:表示过去某个时刻或某段时间正在进行的动作。

(2).句式结构:主语+was/were+现在分词+其他

当主语为一、三人称时用was, 其余用were。

(3). 常用的时间状语: at nine o’clock last night(昨天晚上九点), at that time(那时), at that moment(当时), this time yesterday(昨天的这个时候), from 8:00 to 9:00 last night(昨晚8:00到9:00),以及when和while引导的时间状语从句等。

2.用法

(1). 表示过去某一时刻正在进行的的动作。如:

I was watering my flowers at nine yesterday morning.

昨天上午九点我在给花浇水。

(2).表示过去某一段时间正在进行的动作。如:

What were you doing from 8:00 to 9:00 last night?

4

昨天8点到9点你在干什么? 例.

--- What were you doing this time yesterday?

--- I __________ on the grass and drawing a picture. A. sit B. sat C. am sitting D. was sitting 练习

1. Hi, Li Ping, stop crossing the road. Don’t you see that the traffic __________ ? (move) 2. The telephone rang while my uncle ___________ supper in the kitchen last Friday.(cook)

5

两个完成时态

一、现在完成时

1、概念,句式结构及常用的时间状语

(1).概念:表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响或产生的结果,还表示动作从过

去某时开始一直持续到现在,并有可能持续下去

(2). 句式结构: 主语+have/has+过去分词+其他。

2.现在完成时的用法及常用的时间状语

(1). 表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响或产生的结果, 常与already, yet,

ever等连用。如:

She has already finished the work. 她已经完成了工作。

(2).表示动作从过去某时开始一直持续到现在。

如:The teacher can teach us well. He has taught English for ten years.

(表明教这个动作从过去持续到现在,并对现在有影响。)

注: 在句中用到表示“从过去某时持续到现在” 这样的时间状语时,一般用

现在完成时,这时的谓语动词在肯定句、一般疑问句、how long提问的特殊疑问句

中,谓语要用可延续性动词。

如: a). The girl has _______ the book since two weeks ago.

A. borrowed B. bought C. kept D. broken

b). Have your friends _________ the school football team for two years.

A. joined B. been on C. heard of D. taken part in

c).How long has the man ___________ the farm?

A. bought B. had C. got D. seen

一般get, go, come, buy, borrow, return, give join, die, see, meet,open

等及其短语都是不可延续性动词(终止性动词),不可与表示从过去某时持续

到现在的时间状语连用。

3. have gone to 和have been to 的区别

Have/has gone to... “已到?地方去了,表示已去了某地,人在去的路上或在目的地,

还没回来,不在说话地。

如: Mr Li isn’t in the office. He has gone to Beijing already.

Have/has been to... 已到过.. . 地方去了, 指以前去过,现在人回来了,不在目的

地或路上。

如: Li Ping, have you been to Beijing before?

二、过去完成时

1. 概念,句式结构及常用的时间状语

(1).概念: 表示到过去某时为止或在过去谋私之前已经发生或完成的动作,即“过去

的过去”。

(2)句式结构:主语+had +过去分词+其他

(3)常用的时间状语:by the end of last term, by then 以及when,after等引导 6

的时间状语从句。

2.过去完成时的用法:

(1)表示过去某一时间之前已经发生或完成的动作,它表示发生在过去。如:

We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term. 到上学期未为止,我们已经学了2000多个英语单词。

例.The meeting _____________ by the time I got there yesterday.

A. was on B. has been on C. had begun D. has begun

(2). 用在told, knew, heard等动词后的宾语从句中。如:

She said that she had never been to Paris. 她说她从来没有去过巴黎。

用在含when, after, before,等引导的状语从句的复合句中。如:

当警察到达的时候,小偷们已经逃跑了。

7 (3). When the police arrived, the thieved had run away.

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