Unit 9 Have you ever been to an amusement park?
? 现在完成时：表示过去发生或已经完成的某一动 作对现在造成的影响或结果，或从过去开始一直延 have / has + V过去分词 续到现在的动作或保存的状态，强调的是现在的情 况，不能和表示过去的时间状语连用（如：in 1990，
last Sunday 等）。
? 一般过去时：一般过去时只表示过去的动作或状 态，和现在不发生关系（即动作或状态在现在已经 结束），它可以和表示过去的时间状语连用。
Yesterday , we Now , the classroom cleaned the is clean because classroom. we have cleaned it.
1.现在完成时用来表示过去发生或 已完成的动作或状态对现在造成的影响或结果,也 就是说,动作或状态发生在过去但它的影响现在还 存在. I have lost my wallet. (含义是:现在我没有钱花了.) Jane has just had it. (含义是:简现在不饿了.) Michael has been ill. (含义是:现在仍然很虚弱) He has returned from abroad. (含义是:现在已在此地)
2. 现在完成时可以用来表示发生在过 去某一时刻一直持续到现在的动作和 状态,常与表示持续的时间状语连用. 表示持续动作或状态的动词多是延续 性动词。 I haven’t seen her these days. Mary has been ill for three days. I have lived here since 1998.
3. 现在完成时往往同表示不确定的过去 时间状语连用,如already, yet, just, before, recently, still, lately等:
He has already obtained a scholarship. I haven't seen much of him recently (lately). We have seen that film before. Have they found the missing child yet ？
4. 现在完成时常常与表示频度的时间 状语连用,如often, sometimes, ever, never, twice, on several occasion等:
Have you ever been to Beijing？ I have never heard of Bunny. I have used this pen only three times. George has met that gentleman on several occasions.
5. 现在完成时还往往可以同包括现在时间 在内的时间状语连用,如now, now, just, today, this morning/week/month/year, up to these few days/weeks/months/years,, up to present, so far等:
Peter has written six papers so far. Man has now learned to release energy from the nucleus of the atom. There has been too much rain in San Francisco this year. Up to the present everything has been successful.
6. 现在完成时表示现在之前已完成的动作,虽 然其效果或影响仍然存在但已不再继续,但是 有一些现在完成时的句子,在后面加上for+一 段时间,则现在完成时的动作就表示延续性. Thomas has studied Russian. (现在不再学俄 语) Thomas has studied Russian for three years. (=Thomas began to study Russian three years ago, and is still studying it now.(同第2点用法
7. 现在完成时还可以用来表示过去 的一个时间到现在这段时间内重复 发生的动作. We have had four texts this semester.
have (has) gone和have (has) been的区别 1.have (has) gone表示“已经去某地了” She has gone to Shanghai .(她可能已在 去上海的路上，或已到上海，总之现在 不在这里。)
2.have (has) been表示“曾经去过某地” She has been to Shanghai three times.(她 已经不在上海，只说明她曾经去过。)
非延续性动词不能与时间段连用： go/come/begin/start/die/buy/borrow/sell/leave/arrive/ receive/become等词语是瞬间动词表示的动作是一时的， 不能延续，不能与for、since等表示一段时间的词连用， 也不能用于how long引导的疑问句中。 如不能说：He has borrowed the book for two months.(ⅹ) 但可以说：He has kept the book for 2 months. 或：It has been 2 months since he borrowed the book. 或：Two months has passed since he borrowed the book.
这些瞬间动词常与它对应的可以表示时间段的词语进行互换。 become—be borrow—keep buy—have begin (start)—be on open—be open die—be dead leave--be away come--be here/in go out—be out join--be a member/be in begin to study--study
注明：非延续性动词在否定结构中可用于现在完成时态： I haven’t bought anything for two days.
动词的过去分词的规则变化 动词的过去分词的规则变化，在动词后加ed， 规则变化有以下四种： ①原形+ ed 如：worked, passed ②词尾是e时，直接加d 如：liked lived ③若词尾为“辅音字母加y”，则改y为i加ed。 词尾 为“元音字母+y”时，直接加d； 如: played stayed studied cried ④末尾只有一个辅音字母的重读闭音节是， 双写最后一个辅音字母加ed.
如： stopped dropped
? AAA: put– put –put let—let –let ? ABA: become—became— become ? ABB: stand—stood—stood ? ABC: eat— ate—eaten
? ? ? ? ? ?
cost-cost-cost put-put-put let-let-let beat-beat-beat hurt-hurt-hurt rid-rid-rid
cut-cut-cut set-set-set hit-hit-hit spit-spit-spit
? 一、原形、过去式和过去分词的词形和读音都相 同的单词，结尾字母一般是t或d。 ? 特殊：动词read的过去式和过去分词虽然词形与 原形一致，read-read-read，但发音分别是[ri:d][red]-[red]。
run-ran-run come-came-come become-became-become overcome-overcame-overcome
-eep -ell -d -ay
-ept -old -t -aid
-ept -old -t -aid
keep,sweep,sleep sell,tell lend,spend,send,build say,pay,lay
meet,feed bring,buy,fight,think catch,teach
其它形式的变化。 have (has)-had-had leave-left-left lose-lost-lost make-made-made feel-felt-felt spell-spelt-spelt stand-stood-stood 2. 改变单词中间元音字母。 sit-sat-sat (babysit) win-won-won shine-shone-shone hold-held-held find-found-found hear-heard-heard hang-hung (hanged)-hung (hanged)
过去式 过去分 词
-oken -olen -orn -own -u-n
break,speak steal wear,bear,tear grow,blow,know, throw,draw
-eak -oke -eal -ole -ear -ore -ow -ew （aw） -i-i-a-o-
sink,swim,drink,ring, sing,begin drive,rise,ride,write
有些动词的过去分词是在原形词尾加n或en，变 成以en结尾的单词。 take-took-taken give-gave-given fall-fell-fallen eat-ate-eaten write-wrote-written speak-spoke-spoken freeze-froze-frozen ride-rode-ridden get-got-gotten (got) forget-forgot-forgotten (forgot) 特殊： am/is-was-been are-were-been, do (does)-did-done go-went-gone see-saw-seen show-showed-shown (showed) lie-lay (lied)-lain (lied)
比较现在完成时和过去时的区别： *现在完成时所表示的是过去的发生的动作对现在 造成的影响和结果，强调的是现在的情况，所以 不能和表示过去的时间状语连用，如：yesterday， last night, three weeks ago, in 1990。 *一般过去时表示的是过去发生的动作或状态，和 现在不发生联系，它可以和表示过去的时间状语 连用。 I have seen the film.(我了解这部电影的内容。) I saw the film last week.（只说明上星期看了这部 电影，不涉及现在的情况。）
1、构成：have / has +过去分词。 2、概念：
(1)表示过去或已经完成的某一动作对现在 成的影响或结 果。常与下列状语连用:already, just, yet, ever, never, before
(2)表示过去已经发生，持续到现在的动作或状态，可以 和表示从过去某一时刻延续到现在（包括“现在”在内） 的一段时间的状语连用。 a . for和表示一段时间的词组连用。
如：for 3 years b . since和表示过去某一时刻的词或词组连用。 如：since 1997, since two years ago,since last week
根据所给情况，用 just, already或yet造句。
1.After lunch you go to see a friend at her house. She says ‘ Would you like something to eat?’ You say: No, thank you. ____________________( have lunch ) 2.Joe I’ve just had lunch. goes out. Five minutes later, the phone rings and the caller says ‘Can I speak to Joe?’ You say: I’m afraid _______________________.( go out ) he has just gone out
3.You are eating in a restaurant this evening. The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to take your plate away . You say: Wait a moment ! (not / finish) I haven’t finished it yet.
4.You are going to a restaurant this evening. You phone to reserve(预定）a table. Later your friend says ‘Shall I phone to reserve a table? ’You say: No, I have already doneit (do)
? 1. My father bought many books for me yester
day . ? Now , I have a lot to read because my father has bought many books for me. ________________________________ ? 2. I saw this film last week. ? Now, I know this film because have seen it before I_____________________. ? 3. I did my homework yesterday. ? Now, I can give it to the teacher because have done it. I______________
“已经”通常用于肯定句中,放在句中。 already: I have already read this book. 有时，也用在疑问句中表示惊讶。 Have you eaten up all the food already ?
“仍然，还 ” 用在疑问句和否定句 中，放在句末。 I haven’t read this book yet . Have you had breakfast yet ?
“曾经”通常用于疑问句和肯定 句中,放在句中。 I have ever seen this film. Have you ever been to the USA ?
? Is he famous ?I have never
never ? “从来不” 用在否定句中,放在句中。
heard of him .
“刚刚 ”用在陈述句中,放在句 中。 I have just bought a novel。
before ? “以前”用在完成时中，放在句 末。 ? Ｉhave never read this kind of books before.
She began to work in 2005.
She still works here now. She has worked at this school for 3 years.
I began to teach English at this school five years ago.
I have taught English at this school for five years.
? 1. I am a doctor. I began to work
when I was 22.Now , I am 26. I have worked for four years.
? 2. We went to the USA last Monday.
Today is Monday . ? We have stayed (stay) in the USA since last Monday.
since and for
The woman has worked at this school for 2 years.( since two years ago)
for + 时间段
for 2 years/a long time
since 2 years ago since+时间点 since 1998 since she came to the school
has been 1. He ________ ever _________ (be) to the History Museum several times. been Have you ever __________ (be) to the zoo? 2. --- ________ saw went --- Yes. I ______(go) there last summer. I ______ (see) many kinds of animals there. 3. --- Where is Mr. Wang? has gone --- He (go) to the library. He wants to borrow some library books. planted 4. Rodgers (plant) those trees. He _______ (do) did it the day before yesterday. have learned 5. We (learn) English for more than two years. finishes will ring 6. When he ________(finish) his work, he (ring) me up.
since ______three o’clock _______a long time for for ______two days since _______1997 since ______yesterday afternoon for ______two weeks since _______three years since ______I came here ago ______last Sunday _______ last month since since
for _______a week
A 1.They’ve known each other since_______. A.1995 B. three years 2.I’ve been interested in Chinese for______. B A. last year B. one year 3. She has been a doctor for______. A A. two years B .two years ago 4. I’ve had a headache since_______. A A. I got up this morning B. five hou
rs 5. We’ve been here for______. A A. one hour B. one o’clock
A 6. My parents have owned this house for______.
A. a long time B. many years ago A 7. They’ve been in love since______. A. last spring A. one year B. three months B. last year 8. We have known each other since_____. B 9. --How long have you been like this? A --Since______. A. last night B. two days 10.--How long has she worked here? B --She has worked here for_____. A. 1993 B. six years
(C ) 1 －Have you ever been to Japan? —No, . A. only once B. I have C. I haven’t D. not (C )2 —Edward likes foreign films a lot. — does Henry. A. Neither B. Nor C. So D. But ( C)3 ---Have you ever been to water world, Tom? ---No, I ’ve _____been there. A. Ever B already C never D yet ( A )4 Mr. Green ___in this small house for thirty years. A. has lived B lives C lived D had lived
2.用所给动词的适当形式填空 1)I have seen (see) the film twice
2)I coughed (cough)a lot last night.
3)The train has justarrived (arrive). 4)_____you ever____ (be) to Beijing Have been