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主谓一致课件

发布时间:2013-09-17 18:01:47  

Subject-Verb Agreement
主谓一致

Can you find out some grammar rules?
Both boys have their own hobbies. The class are busying writing English passages. Neither you nor I am wrong .

The group ____ made up of nine students. is

are The group____ dancing happily.

主谓一致
谓语动词在人称和数上要和主语一致。

语法一致
主谓一致

意义一致 就近一致

(一)语法一致原则 1、当主语是:
? ? ? ? 单数名词 单数代词 动词不定式短语 动名词短语 从句

谓单

? 主语为复数

谓复

Examples
? His father is working on the farm. ? To study English well is not easy. ? What he said is very important for us all. ? The children were in the classroom two hours ago. ? Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes.

? 2、由连接词and或both … and连接起来的 合成主语后面,要用复数形式的谓语动词。
? 如:Lucy and Lily are twins. ? Both she and he areYoung Pioneers.

? Attention:
? ① 若and所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物( and 后无冠词)时,它后面的谓语动词就应用单数形式。 ? 如:The writer and artist has come.
? ② 由and连接的并列单数主语前如果分别有no, each, every, more than a (an) , many a (an)修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。

? 如:Every student and every teacher was in the room.. ? No boy and no girl likes it.

The gift is used to have western meals.
What is it?

A knife and fork

is

used to have meals.

along with, except, but, like, as well as, rather than, more than, no less than, besides, including等短语时,谓语 动词的单复数取决于主语的单复数,(舍 近求远的原则)

3、主语后面跟有with, together with,

was 1. The teacher with two students ____ at the meeting . (was / were)

2.E-mail, as well as the telephones, ________ an A important part in daily communication.
A. is playing B. have played C. are playing D. play

4、 either, neither, each, every 或no +单

数名词和由some, any, no, every构成的复合不
定代词,都作单数看待。

如:Each student has

a new book.(have)
matter.

Everything around us is

由each, every, no, many a所修饰的名 词,即使用 and连接作主语,谓语动词一 般用单数。

A e.g. Each man and woman ____ the same rights. A. has B. have C. had D. is having

注意:① 在口语中当neither后跟有“of+复数名词

(或代词)”作主语时,其谓语动词用单复数都可以。
如:Neither of the texts is (are) interesting.

② 若none of后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动
词就要用单数;若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动词

用单数或复数都可以。
如:None of us has (have) been to America.

is 1.Nothing ________ (be)difficult in the world if you set your mind to it .
2. Everything is ready. (be) 3. Someone wants to see you. (want)
不定代词everybody everyone everything anyone anybody anything someone somebody s

omething nobody no one nothing each the other 等作主语时,谓语动词用单数.

5、在定语从句里,关系代词that, who, which等作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与 句中先行词的数一致。 如:He is one of my friends who was working hard.

There are many students who come from Beijing.

6、如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语动词用单数;
如果它指集体的成员,其谓语动词就用复数形式。这些词

有family, class, group, team, crowd, 等。
如:Class Four is on the third floor.

Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.
注意:people, police, cattle等名词一般都用作复数。

如:The police are looking for the lost child.

7、由“a lot of, lots of, plenty of, the rest

of, the majority of + 名词”构成的短语以及由
“分数或百分数+名词”构成的短语作主语,其谓语动

词的数要根据短语中后面名词的数而定。
如:There are a lot of people in the classroom.

The rest of the lecture is wonderful.
注意: a number of"许多",作定语修饰复数名词,谓 语用复数;the number of"?的数量",主语是number, 谓语用单数。

(二)意义一致原则:
1、what, who, which, any, more, all等代词

可以是单数,也可是复数,主要靠意思来决定。

如:Which is your bag?
Which are your bags? All is going well.

2、表示“时间、重量、长度、价值、金钱"等的名
词的复数作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数形式, 这

是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个整体
如:Thirty minutes is enough for the work.

3、若主语是书名、片名、格言、剧名、报名、国
名等的复数形式,其谓语动词通常用单数形式。

如: The Arabian Nights is an interesting
story-book

4、表数量的短语“one and a half”后接复数名词 作主语时,其谓语动词用复数形式, 如:One and a half apples are table. left on the

5、算式中表示数目(字)的主语通常作单数看待,其谓 语动词采用单数形式。

如:Twelve plus eight is twenty.

6. 由分数或百分数或a lot of, lots of, half of, the rest of, some of, most of, all of , (a) part of +名词作主语时,谓语动词的形式与of 后面的名 词的数一致

was e.g. Lots of damage ______(be) caused by the fire. Some students are planting trees. The are rest of them ______(be) watering them. On the earth about 75% of the surface is _____(be) covered with water

7、一些学科名词是以 -ics 结尾,

如:mathematics, politics, physics 以及news,
works等,都属于形式上是复数的名词,实际意义为

单数名词,它们作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。
如:

I think physics isn't easy to study.

8、trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, 等词作主
语时,谓语用复数,但如果这些名词前有a (the) pair

of等量词修饰时,谓语动词取决于量词的单复数。
如:My glasses are broken.

The pair of shoes under the bed is his.

(三)就近一致原则


1、当两个主语由either ? or, neither ? nor,

whether ? or ?, not only ? but also连接时,
谓语动词和邻近的主语一致。

如:Either the teacher or the students are our
friends.

Neither they nor he

is wholly right.

2、there be句型be动词单复数取决于其后

的主语。如果其后是由and连接的两个主语,
则应与靠近的那个主语保持一致。 如:There are two chairs and a desk in

the room.
There is a desk and two chairs in

the room.

Exercises: 1.One or two days ____ enough to see the city. A.is B.are C.am D.be 2.Neither my wife nor I myself ____ able to persuade my daughter to change her mind. A.is B.are C.am D.be

3.Not only I but also Jane and Mary ____ tired of having one examination after another. A.is B.are C.am D.be 4.Not only the teacher,but also the students ____ looking forward to seeing the film. A.is B.are C.am D.be

5.Nobody but Betty and Mary ____ late for class yesterday. A.was B.were C.has been D.have been 6 . A woman with some children ____ soon. A.is coming B.are coming C.has come D.have come

习惯用法归纳
? 主谓一致中有一些习惯用法要特别注意: ? 1. many a 或more than one+单数名词作主语时,谓 语动词用单数; ? 2. one or two +复数名词 ”作主语时,谓语动词用复 数; ? 3. one and a half+复数名词作主语时,谓语动词用复 数; ? 4. 不定代词做主语谓语动词用单数; ? 5, each….and each….; every… and every…;no… and no; many a…. and many a…等 作主语时,谓语动词用单数; ? 6. 分数或百分数+of+ 名词作主语, 谓语动词与of 后的 名词保持一致; ? 7. 表示“时间,距离,价格”等复数名词作主语时,谓 语动词用单数。

倒装句
? 1. 如果前面所说的肯定情况也适合后面的人或物 时,常用 ? “ so+ 助动词/ be动词/ 情态动词+动词”表示 “….也….” ? 如果前面所说的否定情况也适合后面的人或物时, 常用 ? “ neither+助动词/ be动词/ 情态动词+动 词” ,表示 “…也不…” ? Lucy is a good student.______ Lily. ? Mary didn’t watch TV last night._____ Jim.

? 注意: ? so it is. 与so is it的区别。 ? 2. 在以here , there, out, in , down, away 等表示方位的副词开头的句子中,如果主语是名 词时,要用倒装句。( 谓语动词的形式由位于倒 装句句尾的名词决定) ? eg. There goes the bell. ? Here are some books. ? Here is a beautiful picture. ? 注意: ? 如果主语是代词时,就不能用倒装了。 ? Here it is.

? Only 后跟状语(副词,介词短语或状语从句)位 于句首,句子部分倒装,即将助动词放在主语之 前,如果only后跟的是主语就不用倒装了 ? e.g. Only in this way can you learn English well. ? Only when the war was over in 19

18 was he able to get back to work. ? Only the teachers are allowed to use the room.(不倒装) ? Only five men were hurt in the accident

Homework


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