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语法复习八:非谓语动词

发布时间:2013-10-17 08:05:12  

语法复习八:非谓语动词(一)——动词不定式

动词不定式、分词(现在分词,过去分词)和动名词统称为非谓语动词。现代英语将现在分词和动名词合为一大类叫作v + ing形式。这些动词的形式不能在句中单独作谓语用,因而没有语法主语。但可以有逻辑主语。由于没有语法主语,也就不受人称和数的限定,因为不是谓语,也就没有时态和语态,但这些词仍能表示动作和状态,所以仍有表示与其他动词相对时间关系的形式。由于与其它词有逻辑上的主谓关系,因此也有表示主、被动的形式,同时也有自己的宾语和状语,一起构成非谓语动词的短语(动词不定式短语,分词短语,动名词短语)。非谓语动词在英语语法中占有特殊且重要的位置。非谓语动词形式多样,应用广泛,且在句中起着很活跃的作用,也是语法项目中的重点和难点,学好非谓语动词,才能正确进行口语和书面的交流。 动词不定式、过去分词及v-ing形式在句中均不能作谓语用,所以叫做非谓语动词。

(一)动词不定式:

动词不定式由“to+ 动词原形”构成,如:to study, to play,动词不定式虽然不能作谓语动词用,但仍留着动词的特征,它可以带有所需要的宾语或状语而构成动词不定式短语,如:to study hard, to play table tennis。

2、动词不定式的基本用法:动词不定式能起名词、形容词和副词的作用,可在句中作主语、表语、宾语补足语、定语和状语用,如:

(1)作主语:To help each other is good.(动词不定式作主语时,一般可用it作形式主语,而将作主语的动词不定式置于句末,如:It is good to help each other.

(2)作表语:My job is to drive them to the power station every day. 动词不定式在系动词be之后作表语,与表示将来时的be + 动词不定式结构有所区别,如:Our plan is to set up another middle school for the peasants’ children.我们的计划是给农民子弟再成立一所中学。(句中的谓语动词为is,动词不定式to set up… 为表语,主语为plan,但plan并不是动词不定式的逻辑主语,即动词不定式 to set up所表示的动作不是主语plan产生的。)We are to set up another middle school for the peasants’ children.我们将为农民的子弟再成立一所中学。(句中的are to set up整个结构为句中谓语,主语为we,同时也是动词不定式to set up所表示的动作的逻辑主语,即动词不定式to set up所表示的动作是由we产生的)。

(3)作宾语:①作及物动词的宾语,如:She wishes to be a musician.;②作某些形容词的宾语:可以有动词不定式为宾语的形容词一般有glad, sorry, afraid, pleased, determined, willing, eager, anxious, ready, sure等,如:I am determined to give up smoking.;③动词不定式一般不作介词的宾语,但动词不定式之前如有疑问词时,就可作介词的宾语,如:Can you give us some advice on what to do next?

(4)作宾语补足语,如:Tell the children not to play on the street. 如果句中的谓语动词为see, hear, watch, notice, have, make, let等,作宾语补足语的动词不定式须将to省去,如:I saw a little girl

run across the street.

(5)动词不定式在句中作宾语,如带有宾语补足语时,须先用it作形式宾语,而将该动词不定式后置,如:I don’t think it right to do it that way.

(6)作定语:动词不定式作定语时,须位于被其修饰的名词或代词之后,如:Is this the best way to help him? 和定语用的动词不定式如果是不及物动词,不定式后面就要用必要的介词,如:He is the man to depend on. 如果被不定式修饰的名词为place, time, way,不定式后面的介词,习惯上可以省去,如:The old man is looking for a quiet place to live.

(7)作状语:动词不定式可以作下列的状语:①目的状语: Every morning he gets up very early to read English. 为了强调不定式表示目的的作用,可在不定式前加in order to或so as to(以便或为了),但应注意in order to位于句首或句中均可,而so as to不能位于句首,如:She reads China Daily every day in order to (so as to) improve her English. 将表示目的的不定式置于句首,也可强调目的的作用,如:To master a foreign language, one must work hard at it. ②结果状语:They lived to see the liberation of their home town.他们活到亲眼见到了他们家乡的解放。③too + 形容词或副词 + 动词不定式,表示“足能?”的结果,如:You are old enough to take care of yourself now.

3、复合结构不定式:由for + 名词(或代词宾格)+ 动词不定式即构成复合结构的动词不定式。其中for本身无意义。for后面的名词或代词是不定式的逻辑主语,这种不定式在句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语或状语,如:It is very important for us to get everything ready for the harvest. 当作表语用的形容词表示不定式的逻辑主语的性质或特征时,就用介词of而不用for引出不定式的逻辑主语,这些形容词一般有good, nice, kind, wise, silly, stupid, foolish, right, wrong, careless, impolite等,如:It is very kind of you to help him every day.

4、疑问词 + 动词不定式:疑问代词和疑问副词后可加动词不定式构成不定式短语,在句中可作主语、表语或宾语,如:How to prevent them from swimming in this river is a problem.

5、动词不定式的否定式:动词不定式的否定式是由not + 动词不定式构成,如:It’s wrong of you not to attend the meeting.

6、动词不定式的时态形式所表示的时间关系:(1)一般式:动词不定式一般式所表示的动作是和谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,但在多数情况下,是在谓语动词所表示的动作之后发生,如:We decided to plant more trees this spring.(其后),They often watch us play table tennis.(同时);

(2)完成式:动词不定式完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,如:I am sorryto have kept you waiting.(3)进行式:动词不定式进行式所表示的动作正在进行中,而且与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,如:She happened to be writing a letter in the room when I came in.

7、动词不定式的被动语态用法:如果动词不定式的逻辑主语为这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者时,不定式一般就用被动语态形式,如:What is to be done next hasn’t been decided yet.

练习、非谓语动词(一)

1. ---- Can you ride a horse? ---- No, I never had the chance ____.

A. for learning it B. for learning how C. how to learn it D. to learn how

2. Paul said, "Give me a chair _____."

A. to sit B. sit C. sit on D. to sit on

3. I ran too fast ______ where I was going.

A. to notice B. for me to notice C. to notice for me D. and notice

4. ---- Have you enjoyed your visit here? ---- Yes, I'll be very sorry______ .

A. for leaving B.of leaving C. to leave D. with leaving

5. ---- I'll help you whenever you need me. ---- Good. I'd like _____me tomorrow.

A. you helping B. that you will help C. you to help D. that you help

6. ---- I didn't hear you come in last night. ---- That's good. We tried_____ noisy.

A. not be B. not to be C. to be not D. to not be

7. Because of air pollution being greatly reduced, this city is still ______.

A. a good place which to be lived in B. lived as a good place

C. a good place to live in D. living in as a good place

8. ---- Why was the official meeting called? ---- ______ new officers.

A. Select B. Selecting C. To select D. For selecting

9. ---- Where did he go? ---- He went to another store ______.

A. to buy pencils B. for buying pencils C. buy pencils D. buying pencils

10. ---- My baby has a heart trouble. ---- Did the doctor find it difficult ______ ?

A. in treating B. treating C. for treating D. to treat

11. ---- Did the judge ask you many questions? ---- Yes, and ______.

A. they were difficult to be answered B. to answer them was to be difficult

C. they were difficult to answer D. they had difficulty in answering

12. That beggar seems _____ anything yesterday.

A. not to have eaten B. not to eat C. didn't eat D. to not have eaten

13. The lost child desired nothing but _____ home.

A. go B. to go C. going . D. went

14.That box is____.

A. too heavy for me to carry B. too heavy for me to carry it

C. so heavy for me to carry D. very heavy for me to carry

15. Would you be ______ to do me a favour, please?

A. so kind as . B. too kind C. as kind as D. enough kind

16. To learn to speak English well,_____.

A. much practice is needed B. one needs much practice

C. much practice is needed by one D. one is needed much practice

17. Tom kept quiet about the accident ______ lose his job.

A. so not as to B. so as not to C. so as to not D. not so as to

18. Last summer I took a course on ______ .

A. how to make dresses B. how dresses be made

C. how to be made dresses D. how dresses to be made

19. The house is not large enough ____ .

A. to live in B. to be lived in C. to live D. for living

20. Nobody likes ______.

A. to speak ill of B. to be spoken ill of C. speaking ill of D. spoken ill of

21. I know him ______ a good football player while in college.

A. to have been B. to be C. was D. had been

22. I was surprised______.

A. watching him to eat so quickly B. watch him eat so quickly

C. watching him eat so quickly D. to watch him eat so quickly

23. Mr. White was seen ______ the Palace Museum.

A. enter B. to enter C. entered D. to entering

24. I saw Mary ____ the house.

A. open the door and go into B. to open the door and to go into

C. open the door and to go into D. open the door and went into

25. Paul does nothing but _____ all day long.

A. play B. to play C. playing D. played

语法复习八:非谓语动词(二)——动词-ing形式

(二)-ing形式:动词的-ing形式也是一种非谓语动词。-ing形式仍保留有动词的特征,可以带有其所需要的宾语或状语而构成-ing短语。

1、-ing的形式:-ing有一般式和完成式。及物动词的-ing还有主动语态和被动语态,而不及物动词的-ing则没有被动语态。现在以及物动词make 和不及物动词go为例,将其-ing各种

2、-ing形式的基本用法。 (1)作主语:Seeing is believing.百闻不如一见。Talking is easier than doing. –ing作主语时,如果其结构较长,可用it作形式主语,而将作主语的-ing后置。如:It isn’t much good writing to them again. It’s no use waiting here.

(2)作表语:Her job is washing and cooking. My hobby is collecting stamps. (3)作宾语:①作及物动词的宾语。She likes drawing very much.;②作某些短语动词的宾语。 Mary is thinking of going back to New York.;③ do+限定词(my, some, any, the等)+ -ing,表示“做?事”之意,如:We often do our cleaning on Saturday afternoon. Will you do any shopping on Saturday this afternoon? ④作介词的宾语:Her sister is good at learning physics.;⑤作形容词worth, busy等的宾语:This book is well worth reading. –ing作宾语带有宾语补足语时,要用it作为形式宾语,而将作宾语的-ing后置,如:We found it no good talking like that. Do you think it

necessary trying again?

(4)作定语:The sleeping child is only five years old. Do you know the man standing at the gate? 注:-ing形式作定语用时,如果-ing只是一个单词,就位于其修饰的名词之前,如果是-ing短语,就位于其修饰的名词之后,-ing作定语时,被-ing所修饰的名词就是该-ing的逻辑主语。另外,-ing作定语用时,其动作和句子谓语动词所表示的动作是同时进行的,如果不是同时进行的,就不能用-ing作定语,要使用定语从句,如:The girl who wrote a letter there yesterday can speak English very well.

(5)作宾语补足语:We can see steam rising from the wet clothes. 注:当-ing在复合宾语中作宾语补足语用时,句中宾语就是这个-ing的逻辑主语,可以带有这种复合宾语的动词有see, watch, hear, observe, feel, find, have, keep等。

(6)作状语:①时间状语:Seeing Tom, I couldn’t help thinking of his brother. 分词在句中作时间状语时,其前一般可加when或while,如:When crossing street, you must be careful. ②原因状语:Being ill, he didn’t go to school yesterday. ③方式或伴随状语:Mary stood at the school gate waiting for Betty.

3、主动语态-ing完成式的基本用法。主动语态-ing完成式所表示的动作之前,一般在句中作时间或原因状语用。句中的主语是它的逻辑主语,并且是它所表示的动作的执行者,如:Having answered the letter, she went on to read an English novel.

4、被动语态-ing一般式的基本用法。被动语态-ing一般式所表示的动作是一个正在进行中的被动动作,而且这个被动动作也是和句中谓语所表示的动作同时发生的。它一般在句中作定语或状语用。如:The truck being repaired there is ours.

5、被动语态-ing完成式的基本用法。被动语态-ing完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,在句中一般作状语用。如:Having been shown the lab, we were taken to see the library.

6、-ing形式的复合结构。在-ing前加物主代词或名词所有格即构成-ing的复合结构。其中的物主代词或名词所有格为-ing的逻辑主语。这种结构在句中可作主语、宾语或表语,如:Your smoking and drinking too much will do harm to your health. 但在口语中,这种结构如作宾语用,其中的物主代词常用人称代词的宾格,名词的所有格常用名词的普通格代替,如:She insisted on Peter’s (or Peter)going there first.

7、-ing形式与动词不定式在句中作主语、表语、宾语时的区别。一般说来,表示一个比较抽象或泛指的动作时多用-ing形式。表示一个具体某一次的动作时,多用动词不定式,如:Our job is making steel. She likes playing the piano, but she doesn't want to play it today.

8、-ing形式与动词不定式在句中作定语的区别。-ing形式作定语用时,其动作一般与句中谓语动词所表示的动词同时发生,而动词不定式作定语时,其动作一般发生在句中谓语动词所表示的动作之后。如:The girl writing a letter there can speak English very well./I have three letters to write.

9、-ing形式与动词不定式在作宾语补足语时的区别。(1)不定式作宾补时,其动作一般发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之后,如:I have told them to come again tomorrow.(2)在see, watch, hear, feel等之后,如果用-ing形式作宾补,表示其动作正在进行中,而用不带to的不定式作宾补

时,不定式所表示的动作是一个动作的过程,如:I hear her singing in the room.我听见她正在屋里唱歌。 I hear her sing in the room.我听见她在屋里唱过歌。

10、-ing形式与动词不定式在句中作状语的区别。-ing形式在句作状语表示时间、原因、方式或伴随情况,而动词不定式一般式在句中作状语时,一般是作目的或结果状语,如:Not receiving his letter, I wrote to him again./ I looked into the window to see what was going on inside.

练习、非谓语动词(二)

1. Alien said that his trip was _______.

A. interested B. interest C. interesting D. of interest

2. We can't understand ______ a decision until it is too late.

A. him to postpone to make B. his postponing to make

C. him to postpone making D. his postponing making

3. I couldn't understand ______ at the poor child.

A. you to laugh B. you laugh C. why laugh D. you laughing

4. It's no use______ with him. You might as well ______ with a stone wall.

A. arguing, argue B. to argue, arguing C. arguing, arguing D. to argue, argue

5. It is no good ______ today's work for tomorrow.

A. to leave B. leaving C. that you leave D. leave

6. The old man's ______ pity on the snake led to his own death.

A. take B. taking C. being taken D. have

7. It's very kind ______ you ______ say so.

A. of, to B. for, to C. to, to D. of, /

8. Some people's greatest pleasure is ______ .

A. fishing B. to fish C. to be fish D. being fishing

9. Remember ______ the book, when you have finished it.

A. putting back B. having put back C. to put back D. will put back

10. You didn't hear us come back last night. That's good. We tried ______ noisy.

A. to not be B. not to be C. being not D. not being

11. Though he failed, he tried _______ it again and again.

A. to do B. doing C. do D. done.

12. You'll regret ______ those words. You may hurt her feelings.

A. say B. to say C. having said D. to have said

13. You can keep the book until you ______ .

A. have finished reading B. finish to read

C. will finish reading D. have finished to read

14. We are looking forward to ______ another chance ______ it again.

A. be given, to try B. give, to try .C. giving, trying D. having, to try

15. Most of the students enjoy_____ stamps.

A. collect B. to collect C. collecting D. collected

16. Excuse me for _____ in without ______.

A. coming, asking B. coming, being asked C. to come, asking D. to come, being asked

17. People couldn't help ______ the foolish girl.

A. laugh at B. to laugh at C. laughing at D. laughing :

18. "What do you think of the book?"

19. "I usually go there by train."

20. I was too excited ______ .

A. speak B. to speak C. not to speak D. speaking

21. Charles Babbage is generally considered ______ the first computer.

A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented

22. It is no use _____to come now. He is busy.

A. ask him B. to ask him C. that you ask him D. asking him

23. The murder was brought in, with his hands _______ behind his back.

A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied

24. Mrs Smith warned her daughter ____ after drinking.

A. never to drive B. to never drive C. never driving D. never drive.

25. The computer centre, ______ last year is very popular among the students in this school.

A. open B. opening C. having opened D. opened. "Oh. excellent, it's worth _______ a second time." A. to read B. to be read C. reading D. being read "Why not ______ by boat for a change?" A. to try going B. trying to go C. to try and go D. try going

语法复习八:非谓语动词(三)——过去分词

(三)过去分词:

1、过去分词的基本用法:过去分词只有一种形式,也没有主动语态,它所表示的动作是一个被动的或是已完成的动作。过去分词在句中也可用作定语、表语、宾语或状语等成分。过去分词在句中作某种成分时,其逻辑主语一般为该分词所表示的动作的承受者,如:

(1)作定语:过去分词作定语时,如果这个分词是一个单词,就位于其修饰的名词之前,如果是分词短语,就位于其修饰的名词之后。被过去分词所修饰的名词,就是该分词的逻辑主语,如:The stolen car was found by the police last week.

(2)作表语:过去分词作表语时,表示其逻辑主语所处的状态,其逻辑主语就是句中的主语,如:The glass is broken.这个玻璃杯是破的。 注:过去分词作表语时,和动词的被动语态结

构相似,但两者表达的意义不同,如:The glass was broken by my little brother.这个玻璃杯是被我小弟弟打破的。作表语用的过去分词在许多词典中已列为形容词,如:crowded, devoted, discouraged, done, dressed, drunk, experienced, frightened, gone, hurt, interested, killed, known, learned, lost, pleased, satisfied, shut, surprised, tired, undressed, worried, astonished, broken, completed, covered等。

(3)作宾语补足语:过去分词作宾语补足语时,句中的宾语就是其逻辑主语,如:When I opened the door, I found the ground covered by fallen leaves. 注:动词have后的复合宾语中,宾语补足语如为过去分词,常表示该分词所表示的动作是由别人来执行的而不是句中主语自己来执行的,如:I had my bike repaired yesterday. 昨天我(找别人)把我的自行车给修了。

(4)作状语:过去分词作状语时,相当于一个状语从句,该结构的逻辑主语一般都是主句的主语,是过去分词所表示意义的逻辑宾语。为了使作状语的过去分词意义更加明确,常在分词前加when, if, while, though, as等连词,如:Seen from the hill/ When seen from the hill, our town looks beautiful.; Given more time/ If given more time, we could have done it better.(we是该结构的逻辑主语,是give的逻辑宾语。)

独立主格:上述-ing和过去分词的用法中,-ing和过去分词在句中均有逻辑主语,但有时它们也能有自己的独立的主语,这种独立的主语,一般为名词或代词,位于其前之前,和-ing或过去分词构成独立主格。独立主格在句中一般只作状语用,而-ing和过去分词作用的形式,则要根据它们所表示的动作和句中谓语动词所表示的时间关系而定。至于独立主格中是使用-ing或是过去分词,则要根据它们的主语和其所表示的动作的主动被动关系而定,如:The bell ringing, we all stopped talking. 注:The work having been finished, she sat down to have a rest. ①独立结构中的being或having been常可省去,如:The meeting (being) over, all left the room. ②作伴随状语的独立结构常可用with短语来代替,如:She read the letter, tears rolling down her cheeks./ She read the letter with tears rolling down her cheeks.

2、-ing形式与过去分词的区别:

(1)语态不同:-ing形式表示主动概念,及物动词的过去分词表示被动概念。an inspiring (2)时间关系不同:现在分词所表示的动作一般是正在进行中的动作,而过去分词所表示speech鼓舞人心的演说;the inspired audience受鼓舞的听众。 的动作,往往是已经完成的动作,如:The changing world正在发生的世界;the changed world已经起了变化的世界。

练习、非谓语动词(三)

1. There is no question of _____ able to finish it himself.

A. Tom was B. Tom's being C. Tom's be D. Tom is

2. The new shopping center _____ now will be put into use by the end of this year.

A. built B. be built C. being built D. to be built

3. "Have you had supper?" "Not yet. The meal_____."

A. are being cooked B. is being cooked C. is cooked D. are cooked

"It's my great pleasure to have you ______ us."

D. to meet, of 4. "I'm glad ______ you here in the hotel." A. meeting, to B. to have met, with C. having met, among

5. I'm afraid I can't make myself _____ in English.

A. understanding B. understand C. to be understood D. understood

6. Although in a hurry, Wilson ______.

A. couldn't stop walking B. couldn't help the stranger

C. stopped to help the stranger D. didn't answer the stranger

7. Janet is easy _____.

A. for getting along with B. by getting along with

C. to get along with D. got along with

8. Don't forget ______ the light when you leave.

A. turn off B. to turn off C. turning off D. turned off

9. The mother is very glad; her baby is beginning ______.

A. understanding what she means B. to understand that she meant

C. to understand what she means D. noticing what she means ,

10. I think this story is _____ .

A. worth being read B. worth reading C. worth to read D. worth of reading

11. This scientist is a man ______ praise.

A. worth to B. worthy to be C. worthy of D. worth

12. I don't want ______ any more trouble, you see?

A. there being B. it to be C. it being D. there to be

13. When she returned home, she found the window open and something ______.

A. stealing B. missed C. stolen D. to steal

14. Strictly _____, it isn't worth the price you are asking.

A. to speak B. speaking C. speak D. spoken

15. Time ______, they'll come here to watch us ______ football.

A. permitted, playing B. permitted, to play C. permitting, play D. permitting, to play

16. The man was seen _____ into the courtyard.

A, stealing B. stolen C. be stealing D. had stolen

17. Bob should love _____ to the party tomorrow evening.

A. taking B. to be taken C. to take D. being taken

18. Tom had no choice but _____ the classroom with his classmates.

A. to clean B. clean C. cleaning D. cleans

19. Mr. Brown said that his car needed

A. to be repaired B. being repaired C. be repairing D. to repair

20. The old man didn't know whether to sell the car or____ .

A. being kept for later use B. kept for later use

C. to keep it for later use D. to be kept it for later use

21. The noise of the desks _____ could be heard in the next classroom.

A. being opened and closed B. opened and closed

C. having been opened and closed D. to be opened and closed

22. I remember _____ someone ____ the umbrella away.

A. to see, take

C. to see, to take B. having seen, to take D. having seen, take

23. She was noticed ______ the shop.

A. to enter B. enter C. having entered D. entered

24. I couldn't help _____ when I heard the joke.

A. being laughed B. laughing C. to be laughing D. to laugh

25._____, she burst into tears.

A. Deeply moved B. Deeply moving

C. As she deeply moved D. As she was deeply moving

语法复习八:非谓语动词(一)——动词不定式

1~5 DDACC 6~10 BCCAD 11~15 CABAA 16~20 BBAAB 21~25 ADBAA

语法复习八:非谓语动词(二)——动词-ing形式

1~5 CDDAB 6~10 BAACB 11~15 BCADC 16~20 BCCDB 21~25 CDDAD

语法复习八:非谓语动词(三)——过去分词

1~5 BCBBD 6~10 CCBCB 11~15 CDCBC 16~20 ABAAC 21~25 ADABA

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