haihongyuan.com
海量文库 文档专家
全站搜索:
您现在的位置:首页 > 初中教育 > 初中英语初中英语

unit9

发布时间:2013-10-17 10:37:50  

Unit 9 Are Dreams as Vital as Sleep?

2. Mastery of some language points

3. Understanding “Dreams”: its movement.

4. Knowing some famous theories of dreams.

Ⅱ Key points

1. Better understanding of the text

2. Knowing the hazards of smoking

3. Understanding “Dreams”: its movement.

scientists

2. Students may not understand the hypotheses in the text.

discussion of the passage itself.

Total class hours: two periods

#History of Dreams

Dream interpretations dates back to 3000-4000 B.C. were they were documented in clay tablets. It is said that people in primal societies were unable to distinguish between the dream world and reality. They not only saw the dream world as an extension of reality, but the dream realm was a more powerful world.

Back in the Greek and Roman era, dream interpreters accompanied military leaders into battle. Dreams were extremely significant and often seen as messages from the gods. They were seen in a religious context and in Egypt, priests also acted as dream interpreters. The Egyptians recorded their dreams in hieroglyphics. People with particular vivid and significant dreams were believed to be blessed and were considered special. People who had the power to interpret dreams were looked up to and seen as divinely gifted. In the bible, there are over seven hundred mentions of dreams. Tracing back to these ancient cultures, people had always had an inclination to interpret dreams

Dreams were also seen as prophetic. People often looked to their dreams for signs of warning and advice. It was an oracle or omen from outside spirits, whether it was a message from a deity, from the dead or even the works of a demon. Dreams often dictated the actions of political and military leaders and aided in diagnosis for About one and a half periods of class will be used for the analysis and

the medicine men. Dreams was a vital clue for healers in what was wrong with the dreamer and used them to make a diagnosis. People in ancient Greece and ancient China looked to their dreams for their next course of action.

Dreaming can be seen as an actual place that your spirit and soul leaves every night to go and visit. The Chinese believed that the soul leaves the body to go into this world. However, if they should be suddenly awakened, their soul may fail to return to the body. For this reason, some Chinese today, are wary of alarm clocks. Some Native American tribes and Mexican civilizations share this same notion of a distinct dream dimension. They believed that their ancestors lived in their dreams and take on non-human forms like plants. They see that dreams as a way of visiting and having contact with their ancestors. Dreams also helped to point their mission or role in life.

#Types of Dreams

In the early 19th century, dreams were dismissed as stemming from anxiety, a household noise or even indigestion. Hence there was really no meaning to it. Later on in the 19th century, Sigmund Freud revived the importance of dreams and its significance and need for interpretation. He revolutionized the study of dreams.Type s of Dreams

*Daydream

Studies show that we all have the tendency to daydream an average of 70-120 minutes a day. Day dreaming is classified as a level of consciousness between sleep and wakefulness. It occurs during our waking hours when we let our imagination carry us away. As our minds begin to wander and our level of awareness decreases, we lose ourselves in our imagined scenario and fantasy. Click here for a more in depth look at daydreams.

*Lucid Dream

Lucid dreams occurs when you realize you are dreaming in the middle of your dream. "Wait a second. This is only a dream!" Most dreamers wake themselves up once they realize that they are only dreaming. Other dreamers have cultivated the skill to remain in the lucid state of dreaming. They become an active participant in their dream, make decisions in their dreams and influence the dream's outcome without awakening.

*Nightmare

A nightmare is a disturbing dream that causes the dreamer to wake up feeling anxious and frightened. Nightmares may be a response to real life trauma and situations. These type of nightmares fall under a special category called Post-traumatic stress nightmare (PSN). Nightmares may also occur because we have ignored or refused to accept a particular life situation. Research shows that most people who have regular nightmares have had a family history of psychiatric problems, bad drug experiences, people who have contemplated suicide, and/or rocky relationships. Nightmares are an indication of a fear that needs to be acknowledged and confronted. It is a way for our subconscious to make up take notice. "Pay attention!" Click here for a more in depth look at nightmares.

*Recurring Dreams

Recurring dreams repeat themselves with little variation in story or theme. These dreams may be positive, but most often they are nightmares. Dreams may recur because a conflict depicted in the dream remains unresolved and ignored. Once you have found a resolution to the problem, your recurring dreams may cease. Click here for a more in depth look at nightmares.

*Healing Dreams

Healing dreams serve as messages for the dreamer in regards to their health. Dreams of this nature may be telling the dreamer that he/she needs to go to the dentist or doctor.

*Prophetic Dreams

Prophetic dreams, also referred to as precognitive dreams, are dreams that seemingly foretell the future. One rational theory to explain this phenomenon is that our dreaming mind is able to piece together bits of information and observation that we normally overlook or that we do not seriously consider. In other words, our unconscious mind knows what is coming before we consciously piece together the same information.

*Epic Dreams

Epic dreams are so huge, so compelling, and so vivid that you cannot ignore them. The details of such dreams remain with you for years, as if your dreamt it last night. These dreams possess much beauty and contain many archetypal symbology.

2. Text analysis

Content Summery

? #Dream Research

? ^The Sleep Cycle

One sleep cycle comprises of four stages and last for about 90-120 minutes. Dreams can occur in any of the four stages of sleep but the most vivid and memorable dreams occur in the last stage of sleep (also commonly referred to as REM sleep). The sleep cycle repeats itself about an average of four to five times per night, but may repeat as many as seven times. Thus, you can see how a person can have several different dreams in one night. Most people, however, only remember dreams that occur closer toward the morning when they are about to get up. But just because you can't remember those dreams does not mean that

they never happened. Some people swear on the fact that they simply do not dream when in reality, they just don't remember their dreams.

? ^The Stages Of Sleep

Some text lists four stages of sleep, while others say there are five stages. Some consider the first five-ten minutes when you are falling asleep as a stage in the sleep cycle. We think that it is more of a transitional phase. While the other stages of sleep repeat themselves throughout the night, this phase of sleep does not. For this reason, we have excluded it as part of the sleep cycle.

Stage 1: In this stage of sleep, your eyes move back and forth erratically. Often called REM sleep, this stage occurs at about 90-100 minutes after the onset of sleep. Your blood pressure rises and heart rate and respiration speeds up and becomes erratic. Your voluntary muscle are paralyzed. This stage may also be referred to as delta sleep and is the most restorative part of sleep. This is also where the majority of your dreaming occurs.

Stage 2: These stages repeat themselves throughout a night's sleep. You are entering into light sleep. This stage is characterized by Non-rapid eye movements (NREM), muscle relaxation and slowed heart rate. The body is preparing to enter into deep sleep.

Stage 3 and 4: Also characterized by NREM, these two stages involves periods of deep sleep with Stage 4 being more intense than Stage 3. Your body temperature drops and muscles relaxes. You are completely asleep.

? ^ Dream Theory

Sigmund Freud (1865-1939) revolutionized the study of dreams with his work "The Interpretation Of Dreams". Freud began to analyze dreams in order to understand aspects of personality as they relate to pathology. He believed that nothing we did occurred by chance; every action and thought is motivated by our unconscious at some level. In order to live in a civilized society, we tend to repress our urges and impulses. But these urges and impulses have a way of coming to the surface in disguised forms. It has to be released.

Freud understood the symbolic nature of dreams and believed dreams were a direct connect to our unconscious. Because your guard is down during sleep, your unconscious has the opportunity to act out and express its hidden desires. Freud was preoccupied with sexual content in dreams. He believed that every long slender or elongated objects (knife, represented the phalllus, while any cavity or receptacle (bowl, caves, etc) denotes the female genitalia.

The 5 Stages of Personality Development:

Freud believed that there were 5 stages in the formation of your personality. Personality Formation

1. Oral/Dependency

If needs are not satisfied during this stage, one goes through life trying to meet

them. Smoking, eating and drinking are seen as oral fixations. Recurring dreams and the feeling of incompleteness and unmet needs are common dreams.

2. Anal/ Potty Training

If not handled properly or if child is traumatized, then one might become anal retentive, controlling, rigid or develop obsessive compulsive behaviors. Dreams of being out of control or trying to keep things in order are common.

3. Phallic

Personality is fully developed by this stage. This stage is classified by the Oedipus and Electra Complexes. The Oedipus represents a male child's love for his mother and the fear/jealousy towards his father. The Electra is the female version where the female child has anger toward her mother and exhibits "penis envy"

4. Latency

5. Genital

Freud believed that the motivating force of a dream, is wish fulfillment. Dreams may be a way to gratify oral fixations not fully met during the oral stage of Freud's personality formation. Or issues of power and control or struggles with love may manifest in dreams. Thoughts repressed during the day also have a way of being fulfilled in your dreams. Freud believed that every imagery and symbol that appears in a dream have a sexual connotation. Anxiety dreams were seen as a sign of repressed sexual impulses. In keeping with the Freudian school of thought, it may also be helpful to use free association as a way to derive the significance and meaning for a particular dream symbol.

?

^Critique:

There are many critics on Freud's take on dreams. Freud lived in a sexually repressed Victorian era. His preoccupation with sexual imagery may therefore been a product of the times, the culture or his own relationship/conflict with sex. 3. Language points

-1. tangible : perceptible -4. intriguing to : fascinating to -2. paradoxical : self contradictory -5. in a position to : well-grounded -3. inhibition: restrain, prohibit

4. Topic for Discussion

? -1. What do you think the significance of studying dreams is?

? - 2. Several hypotheses have been mentioned in the passage. Try to name two of

them.

5. Exercises about the text 6. Fast Reading & Exercises

VI Homework.

1. Home reading: Mind Over Time

2. Preview Unit 10

网站首页网站地图 站长统计
All rights reserved Powered by 海文库
copyright ©right 2010-2011。
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit326@126.com