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50组同义词(第二次)

发布时间:2013-10-20 08:04:39  

在学习英语词汇中,有时同义词的辨析是很不容易的,我们一般从三方面进行区分,即:语法、语义和文体。语法主要是词性、搭配、句式等的区分;语义主要是词义的本义、引申义、比喻义和内涵和外延等的区分;文体主要是正式和非正式、褒义和贬义等的区分。下面是笔者整理的50组同义词。

1. 路 2. 时代 3. 战斗 4. 牧师 5. 服装 6. 哭 7. 美丽,漂亮 8. 拉,拖 9. 旋转 10. 生气,气愤 11. 错误 12. 图画 13. 特别的 14. 取消,消灭 15.破碎 16. 环境,形势 17. 著名的 18. 强盗 19. 摇动,颤动 20. 说话,谈话 21. 事情,事件 22. 承认 23. 走路 24. 跳

25. 特点,特征

1.路

way: Wherever there is room for an object to proceed, there is a way.

road: A road is a prepared way for traveling with horses or vehicles.

path: A way suitable to be traveled only by foot passengers or by animals.

route: A route is a line of travel, and may be over many roads.

street: A street is in some centre of habitation, as a city town or village, when it passes between houses of dwellings.

avenue: A avenue is a long, broad and imposing( 壮严) or principal street.

2.时代(期) (时期)

period: It indicates any passage of time, great or small. /an extent of time of any length. (时代)

time(s): It refers to a period in history. in ancient times/ in Victoria time (新时代)

epoch: It indicates a long period of time marked by events or development of a particular kind.

The first flight into space marked a new epoch in the history of mankind.

(纪元)

era: It refers to a very long period of time marked by a particular feature in a great new era of world revolution

(时期)

age: It shows a particular /a fairly definite period in history. the Bronze Age, Iron Age 1

3.战斗 (打仗)

fight: It is a bodily struggle (奋斗 斗争)

struggle: An effort of any kind to overcome difficulty.

(战斗) battle: A fight between armed forces.

(战役) campaign: A series of related military operations in a war.

(战争) war: A period of fight between countries or states when

weapons are used and many people are killed.

(对抗) combat: A fight, conflict, controversy.

4.牧师 (教士 牧师)

priest: A person, esp. a man specially trained for various religious duties and ceremonies, in the Christian church, esp. in the Roman Catholic church

(牧师) minister: A member of clergy, esp. Protestant churches.

(牧师) clergy(pl): The officially appointed leader of the religious activities of a particular church or temple.

clergyman: clergymen(pl) a member of clergy.

(牧师) pastor: A Christian religious leader in charge of a church and its members, esp. in a Protestant church.

(教区牧师) vicar: A priest in charge of an area(parish) in the church of England. father: A little of respect for a priest, esp. in the Roman Catholic.

5.服装

clothing(collect): (fml) General term of clothes.

clothes(no single): Coverings of the body such as coats,

dresses, suits, shoes, hats.

garment(fl): A suit of clothes used by actors./a single article of clothing.

costume: 1) The fashion of dress peculiar to a people, nation, class, period, etc. 2

2) A dress worn by actors in a play. uniform: worn by all members of the community. dress: 1) A kind of outer garment worn by women (连衣裙).

2) worn on special occasions (礼服) evening dress/ morning dress

suit: A set of outer clothes to be worn together. evening suit/swimming suit

coat: A garment with sleeves worn on top of other clothes from rain, heat, etc. overcoat: A warn coat worn in the street.

6.哭

cry: The most general one.

(哭泣) weep: To let flow tears.

(抽泣 抽嗒) sob: To weep or sigh with short quick breaths.

(哭天抹泪 涕泪交流) snivel: To sniffle and cry in a irritating manner.

(哭嚎 又哭又闹) blubber: To cry loudly noisily.

(发出低声报怨声) whine: To make a low complaining cry.

(嚎哭) bawl: To utter loud cries (always in bad sense).

(痛哭) wail: To cry aloud from pain or sorrow.

(呻吟) moan: To make a low, miserable sound in pain or sorrow.

(呻吟) grown: To make a low sound of pain, unhappiness or disapproval

(哀悼) mourn: To feel or show sadness or sorrow for someone who has died.

(哀悼) lament: To express great sorrow or regret.

7.美丽 漂亮

good-looking: Having an attractive appearance in a strong, healthy way used for men and women not things.

beautiful: ( a woman or a thing) Suggesting symmetry of features or perfection of proportion, elegance and mobility. beautiful flowers, a beautiful girl/voice/city/face beautiful weather.

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handsome: Of attractive appearance applies to men. a handsome

fellow/actor/horse/buildings/young man.

pretty: (a girl, or a small thing) Suggesting liveliness and sweetness, pleasing or nice to look at. a pretty little woman/garden, a pretty girl/ picture/piece of music,

lovely: (something) So beautiful that it makes you feel good to look at it or even to think about it. The garden looks lovely.

fair: Beautiful( of woman in poet) light in color esp., skin hair.

gorgeous: (persons or things) (inf) Extremely beautiful or handsome.

8.拉 拖

pull: The most general one.

draw: It implies a smoother, steadier motion and generally a lighter force than pull.

drag: It usually refers to horizontal motion or motion up an incline (slope) and it suggests laborious efforts over rough ground or against friction, resistance or gravity.

The escaped prisoner was dragged out of his hiding place.

haul: It implies continuous pulling or dragging of heavy or bulky objects.

The fisherman is hauling a net.

tug: It applies to hard often sudden violent effort to pull.

He tugged at my sleeve to ask directions.

jerk: To pull suddenly.

He jerked out the knife that was stuck in the wound.

tow: To pull by a rope or chain. We towed the car to the nearest garage.

wrench: To pull hard with a twisting or turning movement.

9.旋转 turn: The most general one.

(自转) spin: To turn quickly around a central point.

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It emphasizes the continuity of the action, and usually the narrow extent of the circular motion.

The wheel is spinning on its axis.

(急转) whirl: To round very fast.

It implies the lock of conscious control.

The leaves whirl in the wind in the yard.

(转动) rotate: To turn round a fixed point with a circular movement.

The earth rotates once every 24 hours.

(绕转) revolve: To turn or move in a circle around a central point.

It indicates circular or elliptical (椭圆) movement.

The planets revolve around the sun.

10.生气 气愤

anger: The most general one.

(易怒) be cross: Feeling easy to get angry.

(愤慨) indignation: (fml) Anger.

It stresses righteous anger at what one considers unfair, mean or shameful. We expressed our indignation at the ruthless exploitation.

(愤怒) wrath: Very treat anger. (literary)

It suggests a desire on intent to revenge or punish.

(狂怒) rage: Wild, violent anger.

It suggests loss of self- control from violence of emotion. in a rage /to fall into a rage. (暴怒) fury: Violent, extreme and destructive anger.

She flew into a fury.

11.错误

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(误会) mistake: A wrong thought, act. It implies carelessness Anyone can make a mistake.

(过错 弱点) fault: A bad point, but not of a serious moral kind. It refers to behavior and character. His only fault is that he lacks ambition.

find fault with sb / at fault shortcoming: Weakness, failing

It refers to failures or deficiencies in things as well as people.

In spite of all her shortcomings I still think she's one of the best teachers in the school. (疏忽) error: A mistake (formal sometimes literary)

It implies deviation from a standard or model

The accident was caused by human error.

(缺点 毛病) defect: sth lacking or imperfect.

It refers to quality.

The radio was returned because of a defect.

(失误 过失) blunder: A very stupid or unnecessary mistake.

It implies ignorance.

This is the fatal blunder of his life.

12.图画

picture: The most general one.

(彩图) painting: pictures with color.

(绘画 图画) drawing: A picture made with a pen, pencil and crayon. Sketch, diagrams and graphs are all drawings.

(草图) sketch: A rough not detailed drawing.

(图解 图表) diagram: A drawing, figure that shows the arrangement of something.

(曲线图) graph: A diagram in which a straight line, curved, or zigzag line shows how two sets of numbers or measurements are related.

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(插图) illustration: A picture to go with words of a book.

(图样 草图) draft: The first rough written form of anything.

(平面图) plan: A line drawing of a building as it might been seen from above. (主视图) elevation: A flat upright side of a building.

(海图) chart: A map esp. a detailed map of a sea area.

13.特别

(专门的,与众不同的) special: Different in some way from what is common, ordinary, or usual.

It stresses having a quality, character, identity, or use of its own.

The tube contains special gases.

(特别的) especial: (fml) To an usually great degree, exceptional

It emphasizes the importance of the things or the persons mentioned

This is a matter of especial importance.

(各别的) particular: Relating or belonging to only one thing or person.

It stresses the distinctness of something as an individual which is worth notice. In that particular case, the rule doesn't hold.(适用)

(特种的) specific: Detailed and exact, clear in meaning and explanation, fixed, determined.(used in scientific articles)

It implies a quality or character distinguishing a kind or a species.

He gave me a very specific instruction. There is a specific tool for each job.

(独特的) peculiar: Strange or perhaps unpleasant.

It implies strangeness. He has a peculiar way of speaking.

14.取消 消灭

(取消 解除) cancel: To give up, to declare something is to be effective.

He has cancelled his leave of absence.(消假)

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(废除 废止) abolish: To do away with. It refers to practices, social institutions. Bad customs should be abolished.

(消灭 排除) eliminate: To get rid of.

We should eliminate the false and retain the true.

(撤消 废除) repeal: To bring to an end of the effect of a law or an order. Some laws should be repealed.

(根除 消灭) exterminate: To destroy completely and wholly.

Colonialism must be exterminated.

15.破碎

break: The most general one.

(压碎 压破) crush: To press together violently as to break, to destroy its shape by squeezing it. It suggests the effect of great external pressure.

The tree fell on top of the car and crushed it.

(打碎) smash: To break thoroughly to pieces with a crushing sound.

She dropped the plate and smashed it.

(打裂) crack: To break without separation of parts.

It suggests the breaking out across a surface.

He cracked the window by leaning against it.

(破裂) burst: To break open by pressure from within.

The fireworks burst while they were in the air.

(砸碎 破碎) shatter: To break into pieces.

It suggests the breaking up of a thin surface.

The glass was shattered to pieces.

(撞坏) crash: To refer to the vehicle which hits something and is badly damaged.

16.环境 形势

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(环境 形势) conditions: The location and other factors likely to

affect it. It suggests something that has stayed the same for

some time and which affects daily life such as food, work, and houses.

We are now studying the economic conditions in the developing countries.

(形势) situation: A position or state at a particular time, set of conditions, facts, and events having an effect on a person, society, etc.

It suggests more general matters such as government planning and finance.

The political situation in these countries are always changing.

(环境 周围 外界) environment: The circumstances, things and conditions that influence you. It refers to spirit aspect, physical aspect and

material aspect. We must try to beautify our environment.

(形势 情况) circumstance(s): A situation or event around us, a certain kind of atmosphere, the conditions that affect

what happens. in (under) the circumstances

(环境 周围事物) surrounding(s): The area and environment around a place or

person. It indicates a very narrow condition, "physically" sometimes reflects spiritual aspect.

They lived in hostile surroundings.

17.著名的

well-known: (infl)

famous: The most general one. widely known or honored.

(杰出的 知名的) distinguished: Great, outstanding marked by excellent quality or

deserved fame, used especially of people who are famous for serious work in science, the arts etc.

He was a distinguished writer.

(驰名的) celebrated: Famous, (substitute for renowned)

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It refers objectively to sb or something that has been give acclaim or honoured with awards or prizes. She was a celebrated actress.

renowned: Highly honored and famous for something good. often refers to places or things, also It suggests something that has become legendary or is no longer available for an objective evaluation.

Edison was renowned for his inventions.

noted: Well-known and admired

It often describes a more intellectual kind of effort and accomplishment indicating an authority or expert or their theories. Maybe it is not widely

known to the general public. He was a very noted expert.

(臭名昭著) notorious: Famous for something bad.

He is notorious for his crimes.

18.强盗

thief: The most general one.

(强盗) robber: It suggests a direct confrontation in which the owner is forced to give up his valuables.

(行凶强劫) mugger: A person who attacks and robs people in a street or in a lift. burglar: A person who breaks into a house at night to steal something.

(歹徒 暴徒) gangster: A member of a group of criminals, esp. those who are

armed and use guns to threaten.

(匪徒) bandit: an armed robber.

It suggests an organized group in a rural setting.

(土匪) brigand: A robber who lives by robbing travelers in the country.

(海盗) pirate: A person who robs on the sea.

19.摇动,颤动

shake: The most general one. to move up and down or back and forth.

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It refers to persons or things.

(发抖) quiver: To tremble a little.

It suggests a rapid but invisible vibration.

His lips quivered with emotion.

(颤抖) tremble: To shake uncontrollably and slightly as from fear, cold, excitement etc. It implies uneasiness and nervousness.

Her voice trembled as she began to sing.

(瞬间发抖) shiver: To tremble from fear or cold.

It suggests a slight and rapid movement.

He stood shivering in the snow.

(极度颤动) quake: to shake or tremble violently.

It suggests a more violent and sudden change.

He quaked with excitement.

An explosion cam make the ground quake.

(抽筋般颤动) shudder: To shake uncontrollably for a movement.

It suggests a more intense shaking.

She shuddered at the sight of a snake.

20.说话 谈话

(说话)

speak: To use your voice to say words.

(说) say: To speak words.

(发出声音) utter: To make sound and say words.

drawl: To speak in a slow, prolonged manner.

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mutter: To express displeasure with compressed lips.

rave: To talk in an angry, uncontrolled way.

gabble: To talk rapidly, making inarticulate sounds.

(谈论) remark: To mention it or comment on it.

(陈述) state: To say, express or put into words, esp. formally. He stated his view.

(讲述) narrate: To tell formally in writing or speech or describe something in order with intonation.

He narrated his adventure in the forest.

(详述) relate: To tell formally in details, to give an account of. He related his experiences.

(讲演) address: To say in speech or writing to a person or group. tell: To let people know about something.

talk: To say things to someone.

converse: To talk formally.

The scholars are conversing with each other on

linguistics.

chat: To talk in a friendly, familiar, informal manner.

The two friends sat in a corner and chatted.

chatter: To talk continuously rapidly about small things. The schoolgirls went along chattering.

whisper: To talk in a low voice.

She whispered me not to talk so loudly.

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murmur: To make a soft sound, esp. to speak or say in a quiet voice.

He often murmurs to himself.

(闲谈) gossip: To talk about the details of other people's actions

and private lives which may not correct or proper.

That woman is very fond of gossiping about others.

stammer: To speak with pauses and repeated sounds because of excitement,

embarrassment.

stutter: To speak with pauses and repeated sounds because of

inherent speech defect.

21.事情,事件

(事) thing: An event, a fact, a subject.

He talked of many interesting things.

(事情) matter: Seth that you have to deal with, something to be discussed, thought over. There are several matters to be dealt with at the meeting.

(事务 责任) business: A special duty, something that has to be done.

Public business is every one's business.

(事务) affair: An event or set of connected events. (pl) private and personal life. I have many affairs to look after.

(事件) event: An important happening. Events such as birthdays and anniversaries are often celebrated.

Do you know the chief events of 1986.

incident: Not as important as an event. Incidents seldom are celebrated. Sometimes an event becomes an incident after many years have passed.

(偶然事件) happening: An occurrence, and sometimes an unusual one.

There have been strange happenings here lately.

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(偶发事件) occurrence: An incident that is usually unexpected and has not been planned ahead of time.

Flood is practically an annual occurrence in this district.

22.承认 admit: To agree to the truth of, usu, something bad.

It suggests reluctance or possible objection.

He admitted his crime/stealing.

(自白 供认) confess: To admit guilt as to a crime or as to a shortcoming, in the sense of making known to others one's own error or wrong doing.

He confessed his fault/doing something wrong.

acknowledge: to agree the truth of, recognize the fact or existence of what have said or done, good or bad.

It emphasizes openly in a embarrassing or awkward and usually not voluntary way. I acknowledged my signature/mistakes/errors/having been defeated.

grant: To admit or to agree something is true.

I granted his request/his honesty.

take sth/sb for granted.

concede: To admit as true, just or proper often unwillingly because of overwhelming evidence.

I conceded you that point, but I still think you are wrong.

recognize: To accept or acknowledge it.

It refers to something about law and diplomacy.

The new regime was recognized by China.

23.走路

walk: The most general one.

stride: To walk with long steps.

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He strode through the station a few minutes before the train left.

(高视阔步) stalk: To walk stiffly, slowly, and proudly with long steps.

trot: To jog, move quickly, usu refers to horses.

(蹒跚而行) waddle: To walk from side to side with short steps like a duck.

The fat man waddled out of the room.

(蹒跚) stagger: To walk unsteadily, slide and drag the feet almost

falling at each step, usually because of illness, injury or drink.

After drinking too much, he staggered in the street.

(摇摆蹒跚) totter: To walk unsteadily showing great weakness often used

of very young children learning to walk. The child tottered before his parents.

(拖着脚走) shuffle: To move without lifting the feet clear of the floor as if wearing slippers.

The old man shuffled along the road.

(趾高气扬地走) strut To walk in a proud strong way, esp. with the chest out and trying to look important.

(慢行) amble: To walk at an easy gentle rate.

It stresses a leisurely but regular movement.

(闲逛) stroll: To walk, esp. slowly, for pleasure.

It emphasizes a slower movement, more wandering and aimless with suggestions of many starts and pauses.

They are strolling through this park.

saunter: A little more formal than stroll.

(漫步 徘徊) wander: To move about without a fixed course, aim, or purpose.

He was wandering about/down/through/up and down the street.

(漫游) roam: To wander with as very clear aim.

15

It suggests a more serious purpose behind the irregular

of circular movement in complete forgetfulness of time.

The lovers roamed around/through the fields.

(跋涉) trudge: To walk heavily and wearily with effort as when one (plod) is tired. The hunter was trudging through the deep snow.

(重步行走) tramp: To walk with firm heavy steps.

Who has been tramping all over the carpet in muddy shoes.

(扭扭捏捏地走)

mince: To walk with little short steps in an affected manner.

It was a funny sight to see her mince along.

slouch: To walk in a loose, ungainly (不雅观) way.

hustle: To walk in a busy, active way.

24.跳

jump: The most general one. to throw oneself into the air.

(跳起)

leap: (literary) To spring through the air, often landing in a different place. The boy leaped over the brook without difficulty.

(跳跃) spring: To leap suddenly and quickly.

He sprang to his feet at the sudden noise.

(跳着跑) bound: To spring lightly along.

It suggests high spirits and excitement.

His dog bounded to meet me.

(轻快地跑) skip: To move in a slight dancing way, as with quick steps and jumps. 16

The little girl skipped at her mother's side.

hop: To jump on one leg.

The boy had hurt his leg and had to hop along.

vault: To leap over something using the hands or a pole.

You can vault a fence by putting your hands on it and swinging yourself over. hurdle: To jump over some thing while running.

The horse hurdled the fence and ran into the woods.

25.特点 特征

quality: The most general one.

(特点)

characteristic: Quality typical of a particular person and thing, a special and easily recognized quality of sb/sth.

It has may scientific or technical uses.

It implies neutral description in referring to any aspect of something without evaluating its relative importance to the whole.

A useful characteristic of the cat is its ability to catch and kill mice.

(特征) character: The combination of qualities which make a particular person, thing, place, etc.

A tendency not to show emotions is supposed to be part of the British national character. (性质) nature: The qualities make someone or something different from others.

It indicates the widest range of traits, including emotional, mental and physical qualities. It is only human nature to like money.

(特征) attribute: A quality belonging to or forming part of the

mature of a person or thing.

The word is positive rather than negative.

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Darkness is an attribute of night.

(特性) peculiarity: The quality of being peculiar, strangeness, unusualness.

It shows an unpleasant attribute that is quite noticeable.

One of his peculiarities is that his two eyes are not the same size.

(特色) feature: A typical and noticeable part or quality.

It suggests something positive and specifically

It refers to physical appearance.

A lake is an important feature in this area.

(品质 特性) trait: A particular quality of sb/sth.

It refers to more abstract attributes. Honesty and diligence are the chief traits of his character.

(个性) personality: The whole nature or character of a particular person.

It refers to the whole indefinable emotional coloration that a specific person gives off. He has a strong personality.

26. 增加 27. 笑 28. 疯 29.味道 30. 滑 31. 怕 32. 闪光 33. 大 34. 感情 35. 工作,职业 36. 停止 37. 旅行 38. 抓,握 39. 看,凝视 40. 静 41. 消灭 42. 结果 43. 表明,代表

44. 帮助 45. 获得,得到 46. 礼品,礼物 47. 愚蠢 48. 地区 49. 会议,集会 50. 成就,功绩

26.增加

increase: To make or become larger in amount or number.

it refers to quantity or intensity as well as size.

The population of this county has increased.

add: To put together with something else so as to increase the

number size, importance.

He added some wood to increase the fire.

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(扩大) enlarge: To grown larger or wider.

I want to enlarge this photograph/house.

(放大) magnify: To make something appear larger than in reality, esp. by means of a lens. You have magnified the peril.

(扩充) amplify: To make large or fuller, esp. give fuller information, more details etc. to amplify a radio signal/sound.

augment: (fml) To become larger or greater.

It emphasizes the action of addition.

He augmented his income by writing some short stories.

(扩展 扩张) expand: To increase in range scope or volume as well as in size. Iron expands when it is heated.

(加长) extend: To make longer in space or time, to extend a railway.

Can't you extend your visit for a few days.

27.笑

(微笑)

smile: The corners of your mouth move outwards and slightly upwards.

He smiles his consent./with satisfaction.

(大笑) laugh: To make a noise to show one's amusement and

happiness. You can laugh at a joke or at an amusing sight. You can laugh at someone without being amused.

They all laughed loudly.

(露齿而笑) grin: To smile with the teeth.

The boy grinned from ear to ear when I gave him a

sweet.

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(暗笑 含笑) chuckle: To laugh quietly.

I could hear him chuckling to himself as he read

that funny article.

(咯咯笑) giggle: To laugh repeatedly foolishly and uncontrollably, esp. by girls. I heard them giggle when I passed by the girls.

(窃笑 暗笑) snicker: To laugh in a disrespectful more or less secret way. On hearing his absurd opinion, I went snickering.

(假笑 痴笑) simper: To smile in a silly unnatural way.

When I told him the thing, he simply simpered.

(得意的笑) smirk: To smile in a false or too satisfied way.

He smirked at everyone that passed.

(窃笑) titter: To laugh very quietly from nervousness or badly

controlled amusement.

The girls tittered when they heard this.

(狂笑) guffaw: To laugh loudly and rudely.

All the people guffawed at his silly words.

(哄笑) roar: To laugh long and loudly.

They roared after they heard the joke.

(欢笑) chortle: To give a laugh of pleasure or satisfaction.

He chortled with delight when I told him the news.

(笑骂) taunt: To try to make sb angry, or upset by making unkind

remarks, laughing at faults or failures.

They taunted her with her inability to swim.

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(嘲笑 嘲弄) ridicule: To laugh unkindly at or to make unkind fun of.

They all ridiculed the idea.

(讥笑) deride: To laugh at or make fun of as of no value. /to mock

at someone with contempt They all derided his foolishness.

(嘲弄) mock: To laugh at sb(sth) when it is wrong to do so, esp.

by copying in a funny or contemptuous way.

The students mocked the seriousness of his expression.

twit: (infl) To make fun of sb because of behavior, a mistake, a fault, etc. He twitted her with her timidity.

(嘲笑 轻蔑地笑) scoff: To laugh at, to speak or act disrespectfully. /to

speak in scornful mocking way.

It was a great invention but at first many people scoffed at it.

(戏弄)

chaff: (infl) To make fun of sb in a good-humored way.

He chaffed the man about his mistakes in speaking English.

(讥笑) jeer: To laugh rudely at /to insult sb in a loud, unpleasant way.

They always jeer at the priests.

gibe(jibe): To laugh at with the intention of hurting the feeling with sarcastic remarks. Don't gibe at her behavior until you know the reason for it.

(讥笑 冷笑) sneer: To express proud dislike by a kind of usu, one- side

smile or to show scorn or contempt by looks.

She sneered at the furniture in his neighbor's home.

joke: To make fun of.

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You mustn't joke with him about religion.

(取笑) jest: To act or speak playful, not seriously.

Don't jest about serious things.

(戏弄) banter: To speak, or act playfully or jokingly.

We bantered him on the subject of marriage.

(轻视) scorn: To look down upon.

28.疯

mad: Showing that one has amanita illness which often causes them to behave in strange way.

crazy: (infl) Very strange or foolish.

psychotic: The most precise one. used by psychiatrists.

insane Not sound in mind. used in scientific articles.

lunatic: (old derog) wildly foolish.

demented It indicates sb's mentality has degenerated from a precious level.

maniac: (n) A mad person who is violent and dangerous.

29.味道

smell: The most general one.

It refers to something pleasant or unpleasant.

odo(u)r: (fml) More used in scientific articles.

fragrance: A sweet or pleasant smell.

It refers to flowers and stresses a delicate smell from plants.

Those roses have a delightful fragrance.

scent: A smell esp. left by an animals, an pleasant smell.

Our dog lost the fox's scent.

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perfume: A sweet or pleasant smell.

It refers to either natural smell or a man-made smell and stresses a strong and rich smell compared with fragrance

aroma: A strong usu pleasant smell, often a spicy smell.

flavor: The particular quality of tasting good or pleasantly strong. The bread hasn't much flavor.

savor: The smell of food by the processes of cooking.

The meat had cooked too long and lost its savor.

stink: A strong unpleasant smell. the stink of sweaty feet.

stench: A very strong unpleasant smell.

30.怕

fear: The feeling that one has when danger is near.

(可怕) dread: A great fear esp. of some harm to come.

It suggests fear of facing whatever is coming. Usually dread also means loss of courage. Illness is the great dread of his life.

(畏惧) fright: The feeling or experience of fear. sudden great fear.

I nearly died of fright at the sight of escaped lion.

(恐慌) alarm: Sudden fear and anxiety as caused by the possibility of

danger and excitement caused by fear of danger.

The news caused great alarm.

(恐惧) terror: Extreme and intense fear.

The people ran from the enemy in terror.

(恐怖 战栗) horror: A feeling of great shock, fear and dislike.

I cried out in horror as I saw the man killed.

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(惊恐万状) panic: Sudden uncontrollable quickly-spreading fear or terror, which results in unreasonable and frantic activity.

When I realized the situation I got into a panic.

(敬畏) awe: A feeling respect mixed with fear and wonder.

He always stands in awe of his father.

31.闪光

shine: The most general one.

(闪耀) glitter: To shine brightly with flashing points of light.

All that glitters is not gold.

(发火花) sparkle: To shine in small flashes.

It suggests uneven, bright flashes reflected from light-catching objects.

We can see a diamond sparkling in the sunlight.

(闪光) flash: To give out a sudden and monetary bright ray of light/

To shine suddenly for a moment.

(闪耀) glisten: To shine from or as if from a wet surface.

His hair glistened with oil. The wet road glistened.

(闪烁) gleam: To send out a bright light moderately, mildly not violently.

A cat's eye gleamed in the dark. The lantern gleamed.

(冒火花) spark: To send out small bits of fire.

He was so angry that his eyes sparked furiously.

(闪烁不定) flicker: To burn unsteadily, shine with an unsteady light.

The candle flickered and then went out.

glimmer: To give a very faint, unsteady light.

The lights glimmered in the distance.

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(闪烁) twinkle: To shine with a unsteady light that rapidly changes from fright to faint. The stars are twinkling in the sky in the evening.

glow: To give out heat and/or light without flames or smoke.

The iron bar was heated until it glowed.

(闪烁) glint: To give out small flashes of light, as the eyes of an eager person are supposed to do

The sun glinted through the leaves after the shower.

(眩光) glare: To shine with a strong light in a way unpleasant to the eyes.

The lights of the car glared at me.

flame: To burn brightly.

You can see the burning log flaming.

(冒火苗) blaze: To burn with a bright flame.

the house is blazing.

(闪闪燃烧) flare: To burn with a bright flame, but uncertainly or for a short time. The candles flared in the wind.

dazzle: To make unable to see because of a sudden very strong light.

The headlight dazzles.

coruscate: (fml) to flash, sparkle.

The sparks coruscated.

scintillate:

The gems scintillate.

32.大

big: Large in size, extent or important.

large: Much bigger than average

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great: Very large, important, and good.

great change / great writer / great idea.

huge: Very fig in size, amount and degree.

It stresses volume.(体积)

a huge house/ make a huge profit.

vast: Very large and wide, great in size or amount.

It stresses area.(体积)two dimensional extensions

It is a vast expanse of desert.

vast plains/ vast majority / at vast expanse.

immense: Very great in size or degree./very large or huge.

It stresses three dimensional largesse.

It implies immeasurableness.

an immense palace/ immense importance

The government will build an immense stadium.

enormous: Extremely large./very large in size, amount or degree.

It stresses not only size but degree.

It implies abnormality.

He earned enormous sums of money

an enormous animal/ enormous appetite/ enormous amount

tremendous: Extraordinarily large in size, amount or degree. / large or impressive It implies astonishment, terror.

tremendous speed / tremendous noise/ tremendous amount /tremendous feeling. gigantic: Immense in size, on a very large scale like a giant.

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titanic: Very big or important.

It refers back to the Titans, a race of giant in Greek mythology. It stresses force and power.

We've made titanic effort to achieve our purpose.

colossal: Very large indeed.

It comes from Colossus of Rhodes a huge statue that is

one of the wonders of the ancient world.

It implies incredibility.

33.感情

feeling(s): It can refer to mind or body. It's either pleasant or painful.

(感觉) sensation: (u c n) A direct feeling coming from the senses and conveyed to the nervous system by the organs of seeing, hearing, touching, tasting or smelling. Sugar gives a sensation of sweetness.

(激情) emotion: (c n) Any of the strong feelings of the human spirit Love, joy, anger, hatred and grief are emotions.

His speech had an effect on our emotions rather than our reason.

(强烈的激情) passion: Strong emotions, strong, deep often uncontrollable

feeling, esp. of sexual love, hatred or anger.

The poet expressed his burning passion for the woman he loved.

(情操 情趣) sentiment: (u c n) A tender or fine feeling as of pity, love, sadness or imaginative remembrance of the past.

It's not a beautiful watch, but I wear it for sentiment because it is my father's. Admiration, patriotism and loyalty are sentiments.

34.工作 职业

work: (u n) A very general one.

job: (c n) Any sort of gainful regular employment whether

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permanent or temporary.

He had a good jog in a bank.

profession: It suggests a position that can't be gained without a considerable amount of higher education.

It implies intellectual work, scholarship and mainly refers to three learned professions-law, medicine and theology.

What do you think of the profession to be a teacher?

occupation: What he is engaged in, either continuously or temporarily, for any purpose, whether of profit of amusement, learning.

Can you find occupation suitable for his abilities.

employment: (u n) What one is doing, work done in service of another in order to make a living or get pay./temporary business,

The government gives some money to the worker out of employment.

vocation: (c n) A job which one does because one thinks one has a special fitness or ability or sense of duty.

It suggests the people do it in order to help others not for the earning of a livelihood. teaching and nursing. Teaching children ought or be a vocation as well as a way of earning money.

position: (fml) A job, post, usually involving professions managerial or clerical work, not manual.

She got a position as a governess.

He lost his position as steward.

35.停止

stop: The most general one.

pause: To stop for a short time.

He paused to pick up a stone.

cease: To stop moving or acting.

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It implies a total extinction.

They ceased (from) quarrelling. to cease fire.

quit: To stop doing something and leave.

It implies the meaning of "voluntarily and completely."

He quitted his school/job.

halt: To cause to stop.

It refers to the abrupt, decisive termination of movement.

It implies the meaning of "by authority or force."

The soldiers halted for a rest.

knock off: (infm)To stop

terminate: To come to an end.

The two countries terminated their relations.

36.持久

durable: Long-lasting

It refers to the power to resist change, delay and wear.

we must make a durable peace.

(ever)-lasting: Continuing for a long time/unending.

It refers to something that may end sooner or later. a lasting sorrow/ a ever-lasting friendship.

perpetual: (strongest one) Lasting for ever or a long time.

/uninterrupted happening often. It refers chiefly to an activity that is not susceptible to interruption.

I'm tired of your perpetual complainants/chatters.

permanent: Lasting for ever.

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The permanent of the treaty is in doubt.

enduring: Lasting and continuing to exist.

It implies great resistance to both time and change.

37.旅行

journey: The most general one.

it is now usually used of travel by sand and often

suggests the covering of considerable time or distance, and a direct going from a starting point to a destination, with no necessary implication of a return.

travel: A passing from place to place, not necessarily in a direct line or with fixed destination.

trip: (infm) It suggests the covering of shorter time or distance and a direct journey and implies an final return to the starting point.

tour: A journey that returns to the starting point, and many places are visited generally over a considerable distance often by means of a circuitous route. for instance for sightseeing, inspection, honey moon, business.

excursion: It emphasizes a temporary departure from a given place and specifies a

return to it. It can point to a sea or land tour or to a short outing a short journey made for pleasure usu by several people together.

voyage: A long journey on a ship or in a spacecraft.

38.抓,握

grasp: To take hold of something firmly usu using the whole hand. Grasp all and lose all. He grasped her by the hand.

clasp: To hold something firmly and tightly with one's arms or hand round.

The child clasped his doll protectively.

clutch: To grasp something quickly and greedily.

It suggests eagerness or an anxiety in seizing or grasping and may implies less success in holding.

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The mother clutched her baby in his arms.

seize: To take hold of suddenly with force. The animal seized its prey.

to seize sb by the hand/to seize something from sb.

snatch: To grasp something quickly and suddenly sometimes secretly

It suggests more suddenness or quickness but less force than seize.

The thief snatched her purse and ran away.

grab: (infml) It implies more roughness and rudeness than snatch. She grabbed his arms and pulled him out of the room.

grip: To take a very tight hold of something esp. with your fingers or with a tool. He gripped the nail and pulled it out.

39.看 凝视

see: To experience with the eyes and it does not depend on what you want to do. look at: To use your eyes on purpose and with attention.

watch: to look for some time at something that may move.

gaze: To look long and steadily, often with the implication of

wonder, admiration.

stare: To gaze intently esp. with wide-open eyes as in amusement,

admiration, wonder, deep thought, anger or fear.

glance: To look at something quickly and briefly.

glimpse: To see by chance, just for a moment.

glare: To stare angrily, fiercely.

It emphasizes hospitality or fear.

peep: To look quickly and secretly or from a hiding place.

peer: To look sharply and curiously with a narrowing of the eyes

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often a movement of the head forward.

gape: To look hard in surprise, esp. with the mouth open.

40.静

quiet: Without any sound. A quiet person is not noisy or loud. A quiet street may have little or no traffic on it.

still: Without any movement.

An engine is still if it is not running.

silent: Without any words.

calm: Peaceful. A calm person is relaxed. He doesn't get excited easily.

peaceful: (something) Gentle and restful and calm.

It is very peaceful in the country.

41.消灭

destroy: To damage it so much that it is completely ruined.

The enemy soldiers destroyed everything in sight when they captured the village. damage: To hurt or lower the value of something.

The car was damaged in the accident.

ruin: To destroy gradually, little by little. An object that has been ruined has lost all its value or usefulness, which can't be repaired or fixed.

Moths ruined good woolen clothes by eating holes in them.

spoil: To ruin something so it can't be used.

Milk will spoil if it is not kept cold.

demolish: To destroy big or substantial things such as buildings

Many buildings had to be demolished before the new highway could be built.

exterminate: To destroy in a big way or in large amount.

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wreck: To break it, destroy it, or spoil it completely.

It usually refers to vessels or vehicles.

42.结果

result: The most general one.

What happens because of something else.

It indicates a strict causal link between the two events.

The word may often suggest an earlier action

deliberately taken to gain a particular goal. It suggests a unique or unpredictable one-time action.

consequence: (fml) Something that follows from an action or condition.

More often the word suggests a negative result or at least the negative concomitant (相伴的) of an otherwise desirable effect.

Cancer is a consequence of smoking.

effect: A special or particular result.

It gives a more objective almost scientific tone and emphasizes a principle that underlies a chain of events.

Did the medical have a good effect.

43.表明 代表

mean: The most general one

show: To show that something exists or is true means to prove it. It refers to the agreed- upon ideas or thing that words or signs stand for.

suggest: To cause to come to mind.

It by contrast concentrates specifically on covert or

implicit qualities or association in signs or language.

It stresses tentative alternatives in meaning.

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He claims to mean one thing, but his choice of words suggests quite another.

The sight of birds suggested a new idea for flying machine.

indicate: To make a sign for/clear.

It stresses a rough approximation of literal meaning.

A high fever indicates severe illness.

His answer indicated that I could leave.

imply: To express indirectly.

It stresses subtlety or complexity of association.

His manner implies that he would like cone with us.

Do you realize what his words imply?

denote: To be a mark of.

It specially refers to what a term strictly or literally means.

The sign x denotes an unknown number.

A smile often denotes pleasure.

The sign "=" denotes that two things are equal.

connote: (more formal and technical) It refers to all the possible associations that are implied or suggested by a term. Connote is closer in meaning to imply than suggest. signify: To be a sign of.

It suggests a simple literal meaning and stresses any aspect of conveyed understandings. Sometimes the word is used especially to refer to the deepest import of an expression than to more obvious or superficial aspects

He signified his agreement by nodding.

A fever usually signifies a disorder of the body.

symbolize: To represent by one or more symbols.

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It suggests a rich cluster of abstract concepts that are invested in a word, gesture or object and stresses a deliberate compression of complex idea into a concrete token that stands for them.

The dove symbolizes peace.

The sign "+" symbolizes addition in arithmetic.

44.帮助

help: The general one. to supply whatever someone needs or do whatever might be useful to him.

assist: To co-operate with sb not taking an important part.

He assisted the doctor in the operation.

aid: (not followed infinitive) To help sb who is weak or is in

trouble who wanted very much by adding your work to his in order to do something. The Red Cross often aids flood victims.

45.获得,得到

get: The most general one.

obtain: (fml)It stresses the seeking out of something.

gain: to get gradually.

It indicates greater effort in the seeking process, forceful

seizure.

He gained the prize because of his good work.

acquire: To get for oneself by one's own work, skill action piece by piece little by little. He acquired good knowledge of English by hard work.

attain: To manage to achieve, to succeed in arriving at.

He attained the position of minister.

procure: It implies maneuvering to process something and suggests involved, 35

contrived or even shady (unjust) dealings.

46.礼品,礼物

present: It shows a friendly and respectful attitude usu substantial things. gift: It shows something which is given voluntarily given without expectation of return or compensation.

47.愚蠢

silly: Foolish or childish

a silly boy/story/fellow/question/mistake, silly remarks.

foolish: Very silly or unwise

a foolish act/child/old man, foolish people.

stupid: Showing lack of good judgment or intelligence and not at all sensible.

a stupid idea/mistake/person/act.

48.地区,地域

zone: A particular part of something or a particular place.

area: A small or large part not thought of a fixed land division.

A playground is an outside area.

region: Usually part of a country usually large may or may not

be thought of as fixed land division.

A desert is a barren region.

district: A fixed land division usually smaller than region.

We live in Hongkou District of Shanghai.

49.会议 集会

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meeting: The most general one. any gathering of several or many people in one place at a certain time. A meeting can be large or small, long or shirt. It is usually planned ahead of time.

(年会) convention: An annual meeting of an organization or political group.

(讨论会) conference: A meeting at which two or more people have an formal discussion and exchange views on a subject.

(代表大会) congress: A formal meeting of representatives of societies or countries to exchange information and opinion.

(集会) assembly: A group of people who have gathered together for a meeting for the purpose of being informed, being entertained or making group decisions.

(协商会) council: A meeting of a small group of people chosen from a large group to serve as advisers or consultants.

50.成就,功绩

achievement: Something which one succeed in doing esp. after a lot of effort usually dangerous or difficult.

The first space flight was a great achievement.

accomplishment: The skill that people have required. It is something that took knowledge and, usually, hard work. When you have solved a hard arithmetic problem or learned to figure out, you can be proud of your accomplishment.

Among his many accomplishments is the ability to play card tricks.

feat: It requires more courage and strength. It applies to mental acts as well physical acts. Learning a new skill is a feat.

exploit: An accomplishment that requires even greater daring and heroism than a feat. Old stories tell about the exploits of famous heroes.

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