动词的种类和形式 一、 动词可分为连系动词、助动词、情态动词和实意动词四大类 1．连系动词：本身意义不完整，其后须与表语一起构成谓语。除 be 外，还 有表示感觉和变化的系动词： 感到， feel look 看起来， sound 听起来， smell 闻起来，seem 似乎，become 变成，get 变为，turn 变得，grow 变得，keep 保持,等。它们变否定句和疑问句时仍按实意动词处理。 2．助动词本身无词义，不能单独作谓语，但有人称和数的变化，只能和实 意动词一起构成谓语，来构成时态、语态、否定、疑问句等。 Do/does/did 用于一般现在时和一般过去时的否定和疑问句中。 Have/ has /had 与过去分词连用构成现在完成时或过去完成时。 be(am, is, are, was, were)与现在分词连用构成现在进行时或过去进行时， be(am, is, are, was, were)与及物动词的过去分词连用构成被动语态。 Shall(should), will(would)与动词原形一起构成将来时。 3．情态动词，有一定的意义，但不能单独作谓语，只能和主要动词原形构 成谓语， 没有人称和数的变化， 彼此之间互相排斥。 常用的有： can(could) 能，may(might)可以，dare 敢，need 需要，must 必须，have to(had to)不 得不,等。 4．实意动词：有实在意义，表示动作或状态，在句中能独立作谓语，有人 称和数的变化。 延续动词和非持续动词 延续动词可以和一段时间连用，常见的有：learn 学习，live 居住/生 活，deep 保持，stay 逗留/呆在，teach 教，work 工作,等， 非持续动词是表示瞬间的动作（即瞬间动词） ，即动作一发生就立即 结束，不能持续下去。常见的有：arrive 到达，become 成为，begin 开始，buy 买，catch 抓住/赶上，die 死，enter 进入，fall 落下，fall ill 生病， 走， 得到， go get join 参加， leave 离开/丢下， lend 借给， borrow 借入，finish 完成，stop 停止,等，它们不能与表示一段时间的状语连 用。 及物动词和不及物动词： 能跟宾语的动词叫及物动词 （vt.） 不能跟宾语的动词叫不及物动词 ， （vi.） 。 常用不及物动词有： come 来， 去/走， go walk 走路， work 工作， sleep 睡觉，swim 游泳，laugh 大笑，happen 发生，arrive 到达，fall 下落， jump 跳，lie 躺/说谎，listen 听，stay 逗留/呆在，live 居住/生活 常用及物动词有：tell 讲述/告诉，raise 举起/抬起，buy 买，find 发觉 /找到 有些动词既可作及物动词，又可作不及物动词。如：close 关闭/关， open 打开/开，begin 开始，study 学习/研究，stop 停止
① 不及物动词+介词=及物动词 look at 看……，look for 寻找，look after 照料，arrive at/in 到达， laugh at 嘲笑，knock at 敲，listen to 听，talk to/with 与……交谈， say to
对……说，speak to 向……讲话，get to/into 进入，wait for 等待， send for 派人去请， come from/into 来自于，进入，play with 玩…… ② 及物动词+副词（宾语是代词，只能放在副词之前；宾语是名词， 一般放在副词之后，也可放在副词之前。 ） send up 发射，put on 穿上，put away 收藏好，set up 建立，lookup 查阅， take out 拿出， write down 写下/记下， take away 拿走，take down 拿下，take off 脱下，turn on 打开，turn off 关上，turn down 关小点，turn up 调高 find out 查清。 ③ 不及物动词+副词（其后不接宾语） hold on 抓住，come down 下来，get up 起床，hurry up 赶快， stand up 站起来， ④ 其它短语动词及习惯搭配 catch up with 赶上， make friends with 与……交朋友， be busy doing sth 忙于做某事，spend time (in) doing sth 花时间做 某事， stop sb from doing sth 阻止某人做某事 二、动词的构成 动词的构成 英语动词有五中基本形式：动词原形；第三人称单数一般现在式；过去式； 过去分词和现在分词。这五中形式和助动词一起构成动词的各种时态、语态 1．第三人称单数一般现在式的构成，规则如下（与名词变复数同） ： 1）以元音字母结尾的一般在动词后加 S：sees, comes 2）以 o, sh, ch, x 字母结尾的一般在其后加 es: does, catches 3）元音字母加 y 结尾的，直接加 s: plays, pays 4）辅音字母加 y 结尾的，把 y 改成 i 再加 es: fly—flies, study--studies 2．规则动词过去式与过去分词的构成： 1） 一般情况在动词后加 ed：worked, helped, called, wanted, needed 2）以 e 结尾的动词加 d：hoped, liked, agreed, changed 3）以辅音字母加 y 结尾的动词先将 y 变为 i，再加 ed：carried, studied 4）以重读闭音节结尾，末尾只有一个辅音的动词，双写该辅音字母后再 加 ed：stopped, preferred 5）还有不规则动词，要记熟（已另外分类） 3．动词的现在分词构成： 1）一般情况，加 ing：going, asking 2） 以不发音的 e 结尾的动词， 去掉 e 再加 ing： come—coming, write-writing 3）以 y 结尾的动词都直接加 ed：studying, carrying, playing
4）以辅音字母结尾的闭音节动词，双写其辅音字母后，再加 ing： put—putting, cut—cutting, spit—spitting
5) 特例：die—dying, tie—tying, lie—lying 三、常见时态的主要用法 常见时态的主要用法： 常见时态的主要用法 1．一般现在时（三人称单数动词加 S，其他用动词原形） 1） 表示经常发生的习惯性的动作，常与 often, always, usually, sometimes, every day 等时间状语连用。 We go to school by bike every day. He always gets up very early. 2） 表示现在的特征或状态 He is in Beijing now. You look pale. 3） 表示客观事实或普遍真理 Water boils at 100℃. The sun rises in the east.
4） 在时间和条件状语从句中表示将来的动作 When I grow up, I’ll be a teacher. If you see him, will you tell him to come? 计划或安排将要发生的动作， 常用 begin, go, come, leave, 5） 表示按规定、 start, arrive 等动词 Tomorrow is Sunday. School begins next Monday. 6）用于图表、戏剧、电影的说明，或体育比赛中迅速、短暂动作的解说 Jim passes the ball to Bob. Bob shoots – fine shot! 吉姆把球传给了鲍博，鲍博投篮，好球！ 2．现在进行时（be(is/ am /are)+现在分词构成） 1） 表示在说话的时刻或现阶段正在进行或正在发生的动作 He is watching TV now. 2） 表示现在时间内动作有间断的延续活动 She is translating a novel now. 3） 表示按计划或安排将要进行或发生的动作（限于 go, come, stay, leave, start） He is going to Shanghai tomorrow afternoon. They are coming to see you tomorrow. 4） 表示一种尚未完结的渐变过程 The boy is dying fast. 这个男孩快要死了。 3．一般过去时（动词加 ed） 1） 表示过去的某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态 The train arrived 10 minutes ago. He was ill yesterday. 2） 表示过去一段时间内经常或反复发生的动作 When I was a student, I often played football. He often came to see last year. 3） 表示过去发生的一连串动作 He came into the room, put down his school bag and began to do his homework. 4） 在含有状语从句的复合句中表示两个过去的动作的关系 He walked as he sang a song.
4．过去进行时 1） 表示在过去某一时刻或某一时段正在进行的动作，这一特定的时间往
往须用时间状语来表示： When I came in, he was doing his homework. I was watching TV at eight yesterday evening. 2） 表示过去将来即将发生的动作（限于 go, come, stay, leave, start） He wanted to know who was leaving for Tianjin tomorrow. He asked whether she was starting off the next day. 5．一般将来时（will+动词原形，(be going to)+动词原形） 1） 表示将来经常发生的动作 They will come to work in this factory every year. From tomorrow on, he will come to teach us English once a week. 2） 表示预见 He will come back soon. It is going to rain soon. 3） 表示意图 I will write to him tomorrow. I will do it right now. 4） 在疑问句中表示征询对方意见 Will you come with me? 5） 表示按计划安排即将发生的动作 He is going to Nanjing tomorrow. 6） 表示根据规定或时间表预计要发生的动作或事态,用于条件状语从句中. If he comes tomorrow, I will tell him about it. 6．过去将来时（would/should+动词原形, was/were going to+动词原形,） 表示过去某一时间将要发生的动作或呈现的状态。 常用在宾语从句中。 He said that he would come to see me. He said it was going to rain. 7．现在完成时（由 have/has+done 构成） 1） “已完成用法” ：指
动作或过程发生在说话之前，并且已经完成，结 果与现在的情况有联系。 He has turned off the lights.（说话时已经关完了） 2） “未完成用法” 只能用持续性动词 ：(只能用持续性动词 只能用持续性动词)指动作或状态从过去某时开始， 继续到现在，可能继续下去，也可能刚结束。 （时间一般用：for…, since…, so far…, ever since…, by the end of 等） I have just finished my work. I has not cleaned the room for two days. He has been to London twice. You have kept the book for one week. This is the best book I have ever read. 8． 过去完成时（由 had+done 构成） 1） 表示在过去某一时间或动作以前已经发生或完成了的动作。时间一般 用 by, before 等介词短语或一个时间状语从句 时间状语从句。 时间状语从句 She had learned English before she went to England. When we got to the field, the football match had already begun.
2） 表示由过去某一时间开始一直延续到过去另一个时间的动作或状态。 时间常用 for, since 短语 状语从句 短语或状语从句 状语从句。
By the time I left the school I had taught that class for twelve years. He said that the school had changed a lot since his graduation. 四、被动语态的构成 被动语态的构成 1．一般现在时的被动语态：is/am/are +p.p. 2．一般过去时的被动语态：was/were+p.p. 3．一般将来时的被动语态：will be + p.p. 4．过去将来时的被动语态：would be + p.p. 5．现在完成时的被动语态：have/has been + p.p. 6．过去完成时的被动语态：had been + p.p. 7．现在进行时的被动语态：is/am/are being + p.p. 8．过去进行时的被动语态：was/were being + p.p. 五、情态动词的基本词义和用法 情态动词的基本词义和用法 1．can 的基本词义和用法 1） 能，可以，可能 She can speak five foreign languages. They can repair the car at once. 2） 用在否定句,疑问句,或感叹句中,表示惊异,怀疑,不相信, 可能 This can’t be true. Where can she be? How can you be so sure of yourself? 3） 用在由 so that 和 in order that 引导的状语从句中，表目的。 He is sitting in the front of the classroom so that he can hear clearly. 4） 用在口语中代替 may 表示许可 You can / may go now. Can / May I come in, Mr. Wang? 2．could 的基本词义和用法 能，可以，可能，与 can 的 1）2）3）中用法相似 4） 用在口语中用来委婉地提出问题，表“恳请” “请求” ，无时间差别 Could you help me with my English? 3．May: 可以，可能，祝（愿） 1） 表示说话人允许或征求对方的意见 You may go now. May I come in? 2） 表示说话人对某一件事可能性的猜测 The news may be true. He may come tomorrow. 3） 用在感叹句中表“祝愿、愿望” May you be happy! 4．might: 可以，可能，也许，应该 1） may 的过去
式，多用于间接引语中 She said that he might borrow her bike. He asked if he might ask a question.
2） 代替 may 表推测，语气更委婉更不肯定
She might come tomorrow. Might I ask a question? 5．must: 必须，一定 1） 表示必须做某事 I must go to see him tomorrow. We must obey rules. 2） 表示对事物的推测 It must be your book. If he leaves at five, he must be at home now. 3） 用在否定句中表“禁止” You mustn’t smoke here. 6．shall : ……好吗？ 用于第一人称作主语的疑问句中，表示说话人征求对方的意见。 Shall I get some chalk for you? Shall we go there by bus? 7．will : 请……？ ……好吗？ 用于第二人称的疑问句，表请求或询问，would 较 will 婉转 Will you please have some more coffee? Would you like to wait another few minutes? 8．need : 用于否定句和疑问句中，表“需要” “必要” （很少用于肯定句） You need not go shopping today. Need he leave so soon? 回答用 need 或 must 提问的问句时，肯定句一律用 must，否定句用 need not 或 don’t have to Need we attend the evening party? Yes, you must. / No, you needn’t. (you don’t have to.) need 也可以作实义动词，后跟 to do sth He doesn’t need to go there. = he needn’t go there. Does he need to go there? = need he go there?
( ( ) 1. I’ll go with you as soon as I my homework. A. will finish B. finish C. am finishing D. finishes tomorrow, I won’t go to the cinema. ) 2. If it A. will rain B. rains C. is raining D. rain
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) 3. She is going to be a nurse when she up. A. is going to grow B. grows C. growing D. grow ) 4. He this colour TV set for half a year. A. used B. uses C. has used D. is used ) 5. 这本书我已经买了三个月了。Which of the following is wrong? A. I have had this book for three months. B. I have bought the book for three months. C. I bought this book three months ago. D. It is three months since I bought the book. ) 6. By the end of last term we four English films. A. have seen B. had seen C. saw D. see ) 7. My father usually breakfast. A. cook B. cooks C. is cooking D. is cooked ) 8. Do you know why an apple down and not up? A. falls B. falling C. fall D. fallen ) 9. The twins Chinese in an evening school now. A. is studying B. are studying C. studies D. have studied ) 10. We to learn English three years ago. A. begin B. began C. begun D. have begun ) 11. We often this game when we were young. A. playing B. played C. play D. have played terrible at this time yesterday. ) 12. She looks better now. She A. felt B. feeling C. feels D. was feeling ) 13. He asked me what I the next Sunday. A. will do B. would do C. had done D. have done ) 14. When I got up this morning, it . A. was raining B. rained C. rains D. is raining ) 15. You at home with me. A. had better stay B. have better stay C. had better to stay D. have bette
r to stay . ) 16. I’m sorry to have kept you A. waited B. wait C. to wait D. waiting ) 17. I have finished two English novels since I came to this school. A. to read B. read C. reading D. readed ) 18. He to Beijing. He left this afternoon. A. has gone B. was C. has been D. goes for ten minutes. ) 19. The train A. has gone B. has left C. has been away D. has been ) 20. Don’t while the glass. It’s dangerous. A. play B. make C. clean D. wash ) 21. Don’t forget in your maths exercises tomorrow. A. hand B. to hand C. handing D. for handing ) 22. The teacher told the students in class. A. didn’t talk B. not talk C. not to talk D. talk ) 23. It is not easy a foreign language. A. to learn B. learning C. for learning D. learn ) 24. Would you please show us where ? A. going to B. to go C. go D. going ) 25. The man downstairs asked Peter down the radio a lot. A. to turn B. turning C. turn D. turns ) 26. They heard the girl in the next room just now. A. to sing B. sing C. sings D. sang ) 27. He got up very late the early bus. A. to catch B. catching C. caught D. catch ) 28. Please put up your hand if you have any questions . A. asking B. ask C. asks D. to ask too much meat. ) 29. You’d better
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A. don’t eat B. not to eat C. eat not D. not eat ) 30. May I smoke here? No, you . A. don’t B. mustn’t C. can’t D. may not ) 31. Must we clean our classroom now? A. mustn’t B. can’t C. don’t D. needn’t ) 32. I would like your ten – speed bicycle. A. to see B. seeing C. see D. saw ) 33. I’ll lend you my dictionary, but you can only it for one day. A. lend B. borrow C. have D. keep ) 34. carefully and try to what he says. A. Listen to, hear B. Listen, listen C. Hear, listen to D. Listen, hear ) 35. This kind of wine is made wheat. A. of B. from C. in D. into ) 36. We Nanjing on Tuesday morning. A. got B. arrived at C. reach D. reached ) 37. They the sick man to hospital at once. A. brought B. got C. carried D. took ) 38. Can you it in English? A. speak B. say C. tell D. talk me two hundred yuan. ) 39. The watch A. spent B. paid C. cost D. costed ) 40. It takes me 30 minutes to school by bike. A. going B. to go C. on going D. go ) 41. He play on the playground just now. A. was seen to B. was seen C. saw D. was seeing in the daytime. ) 42. The stars A. can’t see B. can’t be seen C. isn’t seen D. see ) 43. A present to me by Mother next week. A. will give B. is given C. will be give D. will be given ) 44. The Communist Party of China in Shanghai in 1921. A. was found B. found C. was founded D. founded in my hometown since liberation. ) 45. Great changes A. have been taken place B. took place C. have taken place D. were taken place ) 46. The flowers every day, or they will die. A. must water B. should water C. can be watered D. must be watered ) 47. I’ll catch up with Lucy before she the finishing line. A. reach B. is reaching C. reaches D. will reach ) 48. Excuse me, could
you tell me ? Certainly. A. when can I get to the station B. I can get to which station C. which station can I get to D. how I can get to the station ) 49. We are going to have a picnic tomorrow. What’s the weather like, Mike? the radio and listen to the weather report? Why not A. turn on B. turn off C. take away D. find out ) 50. John the factory since 1978. He is one of the oldest workers . A. came to B. comes to C. has been in D. has come to