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初中英语时态总结

发布时间:2013-10-21 12:38:48  

初中英语时态总结

一、 一般现在时

1.概念:经常、反复发生的动作或行为及现在的某种状况。

2.时间状语: Always, usually, often, sometimes, every week (day, year, month…), once a week(day, year, month…), on Sundays,

3.基本结构:动词 原形 (如主语为第三人称单数,动词上要改为第三人称单数形式)

4.否定形式:主语+am/is/are +not+其他; 此时态的谓语动词若为行为动词,则在其前加don't, 如主语为第三人称单数,则用doesn't,同时还原行为动词。

5.一般疑问句:把be动词放于句首;用助动词do提问,如主语为第三人称单数,则用does,同时,还原行为动词。

6.例句:. It seldom snows here.

He is always ready to help others.

Action speaks louder than words..

二、 一般过去时

1.概念:过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为。

2.时间状语:ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week, last(year, night, month…), in 1989, just now, at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, once upon a time, etc.

3.基本结构:be动词;行为动词的过去式

4.否定形式:主语+was/were +not+其他;在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词。

5.一般疑问句:was或were放于句首;用助动词do的过去式did 提问,同时还原行为动词。

6.例句:She often came to help us in those days.

I didn't know you were so busy.

三、 现在进行时

1.概念:表示现阶段或说话时正在进行的动作及行为。

2.时间状语:Now, at this time, days, etc. look. listen

3.基本结构:主语+be +doing +其他

4.否定形式:主语+be +not +doing+其他

5.一般疑问句:把be动词放于句首。

6.例句: How are you feeling today?

He is doing well in his lessons.

四、 过去进行时

1.概念:表示过去某段时间或某一时刻正在发生或进行的行为或动作。

2.时间状语:at this time yesterday, at that time或以when引导的谓语动词是

一般过去时的时间状语等。

3.基本结构 主语+was/were +doing +其他

4.否定形式:主语+was/were + not +doing+其他

5.一般疑问句:把was或were放于句首。(第一个字母大写)

6.例句:At that time she was working in a PLA unit.

When he came in, I was reading a newspaper.

五、 现在完成时

1.概念:过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。

2.时间状语:yet,already,just,never,ever,so far,by now,since+时间点,for+时间段,recently, lately, in the past few years, etc.

3.基本结构:主语+have/has +p.p(过去分词)+其他

4.否定形式:主语+have/has + not +p.p(过去分词)+其他

5.一般疑问句:have或has。

6.例句:I've written an article.

The countryside has changed a lot in the past few years.

六、 过去完成时

1.概念:以过去某个时间为标准,在此以前发生的动作或行为,或在过去某动作之前完成的行为,即“过去的过去”。

2.时间状语:Before, by the end of last year (term, month…), etc.

3.基本结构:主语+had + p.p(过去分词)+其他

4.否定形式:主语+had + not +p.p(过去分词)+其他

5.一般疑问句:had放于句首。

6.例句:As soon as we got to the station, the train had left.

By the end of last month. We had reviewed four books

基本结构:主语+had+p.p(过去分词)+其他

①肯定句:主语+ had+p.p(过去分词)+其他

②否定句:主语+ had+ not+p.p(过去分词)+其他

③一般疑问句:Had+主语+p.p(过去分词)+其他

④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句

七、 一般将来时

1.概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。

2.时间状语:Tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, in a few minutes, by…,the day after tomorrow, etc.

3.基本结构:主语+am/is/are +going to + do+其他;主语+will/shall + do+其他

4.否定形式:主语+am/is/are not going to do ;主语+will/shall not do+其他

5.一般疑问句:be放于句首;will/shall提到句首。

6.例句:They are going to have a competition with us in studies.

It is going to rain.

八、 过去将来时

1.概念:立足于过去某一时刻,从过去看将来,常用于宾语从句中。

2.时间状语:The next day (morning, year…),the following month(week…),etc.

3.基本结构:主语+was/were +going to + do+其他;主语+would/should + do+其他

4.否定形式:主语+was/were/not + going to + do; 主语+would/should + not + do.

5.一般疑问句:was或were放于句首;would/should 提到句首。

6.例句:He said he would go to Beijing the next day.

I asked who was going there .

九、将来完成时

1.概念:在将来某一时刻之前开始的动作或状态

2.时间状语:by the time of; by the end of+时间短语(将来);by the time+从句(将来)

3.基本结构:主语+be going to/will/shall + have+p.p(过去分词)+其他 4例句:By the time you get back, great changes will have taken place in this area.

十、现在完成进行时

1.概念:表示从过去某一时间开始一直延续到现在的动作。这一动作可能刚刚开始,也可能仍在继续,并可能延续到将来。

2.基本结构:主语+have/has +been +doing+其他

3.时间状语:since+时间点,for+时间段等。

4.例子:I have been sitting here for an hour.

The children have been watching TV since six o'clock.

十一、 一般过去时与现在完成时的转换

在现在完成时中,延续性动词能与表示一段时间的状语连用,瞬间动词却不能。但是,可用别的表达方式:①瞬间动词用于“一段时间 + ago”的一般过去时的句型中;②瞬间动词可改成与之相对应的延续性动词及短语,与一段时间连用;③瞬间动词用于“It is + 一段时间 + since + 一般过去时”的句型中,表示“自从……以来有……时间”的意思,主句一般用it is来代替It has been;④瞬间动词用于“Some time has passed since + 一般过去时”的句型中。请看:

A. He joined the League two years ago.

B. He has been in the League for two years.

C. It is two years since he joined the League.

D. Two years has passed since he joined the League.

十二、 一般现在时与现在进行时的转换

在一般现在时中,at加上名词表示“处于某种状态”,如at work(在工作), at

school(上学、上课)等。此短语可与进行时态转换。请看:

Peter is at work, but Mike is at play.

Peter is working, but Mike is playing.

十三、 现在进行时与一般将来时的转换

在现在进行时态中go, come, leave, start, arrive等动词常与表示将来的时间状语连用表示将要发生的动作。如:I am coming, Mum! 意为“我就来,妈妈!”请看:

The train is leaving soon.

The train will leave soon.

名词复数的不规则变化

1)child---children foot---feet tooth---teeth

mouse---mice man---men woman---women

注意:与 man 和 woman构成的合成词,其复数形式也是 -men 和-women。 如: an Englishman,two Englishmen. 但German不是合成词,故复数形式为Germans;Bowman是姓,其复数是the Bowmans。

2)单复同形 如:

deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese

li,jin,yuan,two li,three mu,four jin

但除人民币元、角、分外,美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。如:

a dollar, two dollars; a meter, two meters

3)集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。

如: people. police .cattle 等本身就是复数,不能说 a people,a police,a cattle,但可以说

a person,a policeman,a head of cattle,the English,the British,the French,the Chinese,the Japanese,the Swiss 等名词,表示国民总称时,作复数用。 如: The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。

4)以s结尾,仍为单数的名词,如:

a. maths,politics,physics等学科名词,为不可数名词,是单数。

b. news 是不可数名词。

c. the United States,the United Nations 应视为单数。

The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是1945年组建起来的。 d. 以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数。

"The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book.

<<一千零一夜>>是一本非常有趣的故事书。

5) 表示由两部分构成的东西,如:glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes

若表达具体数目,要借助数量词 pair(对,双); suit(套); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers

6) 另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思,如:goods货物,waters水域,fishes(各种)鱼

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