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过去完成时

发布时间:2013-10-21 13:42:06  

过去完成时

一、过去完成时的理解

正如我们不能将现在完成时简单地理解为现在已经完成的动作一样,过去完成时也不能简单地理解为过去已经完成的动作。但是,相对现在完成时来说,过去完成时的理解和用法要容易得多。因为过去完成时的本质用法只有五个字,那就是“过去的过去”——即过去完成时表示的是在“过去的过去”就已发生的情况或存在的状态。如何理解“过去的过去”呢?首先我们得确定一个过去时间作为参照点,在这个过去时间参照点之前的时间就是过去的过去。我们可以画出下面这样的图示来帮助理解:

————过去的过去————过去(参照点)————现在————→

如果没有参照点,“去年”是过去,“前年”是过去,“10年前”也是过去,“100年前”也是过去,“100万年前”也是过去。但是,如果我们确定了一个参照点,情况就不同了——如果我们以“去年”为参照点,那么“去年的前一年”就成了过去的过去;又如我们说“他找到了他丢失的钱包”,其中“找到钱包”属于过去,以此为参照点,“丢失钱包”就属于过去的过去;再比如说“我昨天去朋友家玩,但当我到达时朋友外出了”,在这个句子中,“到达朋友家”为过去,以此为参照点,“朋友外出”就属于过去的过去。这样解释,你应该明白了吗?

二、过去完成的构成与用法

前面讲过,现在完成时的构成方法是“have / has +过去分词”,如果我们把其中的have / has 改为过去式,变成“had + 过去分词”,这就是过去完成时的构成方法。如: When the doctor arrived the patient had died. 医生到时病人已死了。

根据句意可知,“医生到达”为过去发生的动作,故用一般过去时;而当医生到时病人已死了,所以“病人死”就是过去的过去发生的情况,故用过去完成时。

She told me she had been with IBM for five years. 她告诉我说,她在国际商用机器公司已工作5年了。

根据句意可知,“她告诉我”为过去发生的情况,用一般过去时;而“她在国际商用机器公司工作5年”显然是“她告诉我”之前的事情,即属于过去的过去,所以用过去完成时。

I woke up because I had had a bad dream. 我醒了,因为我做了个噩梦。

“我醒了”为过去发生的情况,用一般过去时;我为什么醒了呢?是因为我做了个噩梦,显然“做噩梦”发生在“醒”之前,也就是说发生在过去的过去时间里,所以“做噩梦”要用过去完成时。

When we got there the basketball match had already started. 我们到那里时,篮球赛已经开始了。

“我们到达那里”为过去发生的情况,故用一般过去时;而我们到那里时篮球赛已经开始了,这说明“篮球赛开始”发生在“我们到达那里”这一过去时间之前,即属于过去的过去,所以“篮球赛开始”要用过去完成时。

三、过去完成时的用法补充

1. 表示过去未曾实现的想法

过去完成时除表示“过去的过去”外,还可表示过去未曾实现的想法和打算,通常连用的动词是 want, think, hope, plan, mean, expect, intend, suppose 等:

I had meant to come, but something happened. 我本想来,但有事就没有来。

I had hoped to send him a Christmas card, but I forgot to do so. 我本来希望寄给他一张圣诞卡的,但我忘了寄了。

2. 过去完成时用于特殊句式

在hardly [scarcely, barely]?when [before]?和no sooner?than?等句式中,主句通常要用过去完成时,而从句则通常要用一般过去时。这类句式均表示“一??就??”。如:

I had hardly closed my eyes when the telephone rang. 我刚合上眼,电话铃就响了。 I had no sooner checked into the hotel than he arrived. 我一住进旅馆,他就到了。

四、过去完成时用法的一点注意

当两个或多个过去发生的动作紧挨着并列出现时,尽管各动词之间有先后关系,我们仍然都用一般过去时。如:

Bill saluted, turned, and went out. 比尔敬礼后转身就出去了。

He paused and shook his head. 他稍停了一下,然后摇了摇头。

另外,由after, before, as soon as 等连词引导时间状语从句,由于这些连词已经清楚地表明了主从句谓语动词的先后顺序,所以对于先发生的动作也可用一般过去时表示。如:

I told them the news after you (had) left. 你走后我把这消息告诉了他们。

As soon as I (had) put the phone down it rang again. 我刚把电话一放下,它又响了。

五、过去完成时与一般过去时

(1) 过去完成时表示以过去某时间为起点以前所发生的动作或存在的状态,即:过去完成时强调“过去的过去”,而一般过去时只表示以现在时间为起点以前所发生的事情或存在的状态。如:

He studied there two years ago. 他在那儿学习了两年。(离现在两年)

He said he had studied there two years ago. 他说他在那儿学习了两年。(离他说话时两年)

(2) 表示过去某个时间以前所连续发生的两个或两个以上的动作时,一般用and, then, but按照动作的先后顺序连接,此时通常用一般过去时而不用过去完成时。如:

He said he went the shop and bought some food. 他说他去商店买了一些食品。

六、过去完成时典型考题(附详解)

1. Helen ______ her keys in the office so she had to wait until her husband ______ home.

A. has left; comes B. left; had come C. had left; came D. had left; would come 分析:C。leave 应发生在 had to wait 这个过去动作之前,“过去的过去”用过去完成时; 后一空用一般过去时表示过去将来。又如:

The house was quiet. Everybody had gone to bed. 屋子里很安静,大家都睡觉了。

They had finished the exam and the teacher was hustling to get the papers gathered up. 他们已经考完试了,老师正在赶紧收卷子。

People were quite often rude about him, often the people he had helped. 人们经常对他很无礼,其中有很多还曾得到过他的帮助。

2. John and I ______ friends for eight years. We first got to know each other at a Christmas party. But we ______ each other a couple of times before that.

分析:D。到目前为止成为朋友八年,用现在完成时; 在那次晚会相识成为朋友之前已经见过几次面,用过去完成时。又如:

The call was answered by a recorded message saying the company had closed early. 电话被转入录音信息,称公司早些时候已经下班。

Alice had been so deep in thought that she had walked past her car without even seeing it. 艾丽斯考虑问题入了神,连走过自己的车都没看见。

3. He kept looking at her, wondering whether he ______her somewhere.

A. saw B. has seen C. sees D. had seen

分析:D。因为由语境可知,see应当发生在kept looking之前,即过去的过去,所以用过去完成时,只有D正确。又如:

When I had opened the windows I sat down and had a cup of tea. 我打开窗户后,就坐下来喝了一杯茶。

When I had written my letters I did some gardening. 我写完信之后,就在花园里干了点活儿。

When he had shut the window we opened the door of the cage. 他关了窗户之后,我们把笼门打开了。

4. She ______her hairstyle in her hometown before she came to Chongqing for a better job.

A. would change B. has changed C. changed D. was changing

分析:C。由came可知,她已来重庆了,而改变发型是在来重庆之前,即过去的过去,按理要用过去完成时,但before已经表明紧接着发生的先后两个动作,所以也可用一般过去时,所以选C。

5. He ______more than 5000 English words when he entered the university at the age of 15.

A. has learned B. would have learned C. learned D. had learned

分析:D。因为上大学是过去,学了5千个英语单词是在上大学之前,即“过去的过去”,所以用过去完成时。

6. Father ______for London on business upon my arrival, so I didn’t see him.

A. has left B. left C. was leaving D. had left

分析:D。由“我没见到他”可知,“在我到达”前“父亲已经去伦敦”了,即父亲去伦敦发生在“过去的过去”,用过去完成时。

7. The policeman’s attention was suddenly caught by a small box which ______ placed under the Minister’s car.

A. has been B. was being C. had been D. would be

分析:C。因为这个小盒子“被放在部长车下”发生在“引起警察注意”之前,即“过去的过去”,所以用过去完成时。

8. Susan decided not to work on the program at home because she didn’t want her parents to know what she ______.

A. has done B. had done C. was doing D. is doing

分析:C。因decided和didn’t want都是过去式,排除选项A和D; 因“做”发生在“决定”之后,而不是之前,不能用过去完成时,排除选项B。

9. —Hurry up! Alice and Sue are waiting for you at the school gate.

—Oh ! I thought they ______ without me.

A. went B. are going C. have gone D. had gone

分析:D。因为thought(原以为)是过去,他们“走了”就是“过去的过去”,所以用过去完成时。

10. They ______ on the program for almost one week before I joined them, and now we ______ it as no good results have come out so far.

A. had been working; are still working

C. have been working; have worked B. had worked; were still working D. have worked; are still working

分析:A。在I joined them之前,就是“过去的过去”,要用过去完成时或过去完成进行时,排除选项C和D; 由now和“到目前还没有结果”可知,现在仍在进行这项工作,用现在进行时,排除选项B。

11. The coffee is wonderful! It doesn’t taste like anything I ______ before.

A. was having B. have C. have ever had D. had ever had

分析:C。与before连用,用现在完成时。再说,此处没有一个过去时间或动作作比较,是不能用过去完成时的。

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