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中考英语词汇知识精讲

发布时间:2013-10-22 11:39:41  

中考英语词汇知识精讲

重点、难点、考点

一、重点是:

(1)常见的构词法

1)合成词:合成词是由两个或两个以上的词构成一个新的词。如:

blackboard(黑板),newspaper(报纸),afternoon(下午) ,pencil-box(铅笔盒)。

2)派生词:派生词是由词根加派生词缀构成的词,词根是派生词的基础,同一词根加不同的派生词缀可以表示不同的意义,还可以表示不同的词的词性。

动词变名词:+后缀er

drive(驾驶)——driver(驾驶员) teach(教)——teacher(教师) read(阅读)——reader(读者) invent(发明)——inventor(发明家) +后缀or visit(访问)——visitor(访问者) invent(发明)——invention(发明) operate(手术)——operation(手术)

wind(风)——windy(刮风的) +后缀tion 名词变形容词:+后缀y

sun(太阳)——sunny(晴朗的) help(帮助)——helpful(有帮助的) +后缀ful care(小心)——careful(小心的) friend(朋友)——friendly(友好的)

good(好的)——goodness(善良,美德) +后缀ly 形容词变名词:+后缀ness

kind(和善的)——kindness(和善)

bad(坏的)——badly(糟糕地) 形容词变副词:+后缀ly

quick(快的)——quickly(迅速地) happy(高兴的)——unhappy(不高兴的) 改变词义:+前缀un usual(平常的)——unusual(不平常的)

3)转化词:转化词是指由一种词类转用作另一种词类的词。例如: hand(n .)手, hand(v .)传递, dry(adj .)干燥的, dry(v .) 烘干

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[说明]初中总复习中,词汇的复习十分重要。掌握单词和词组的用法是学好语言的前提之一。没有一定的词汇量,不掌握词语的基本用法,就失去了英语知识复习的基础,也就更谈不上灵活运用和综合分析能力了。

(2)词形变化

英语词汇的词形变化除了前面讲的词根+派生词缀构成的派生词的变化外,还存在有一些单词词尾的屈折变化,它们是:

1)表示名词复数的词形变化。例如:

hand—hands(手) picture—pictures(图片)

city—cities(城市) knife—knives(小刀)

2)表示形容词、副词的比较级和最高级的词形变化。例如:

cheap—cheaper—cheapest(便宜的)

late—later—latest(迟来的,迟来地)

early—earlier—earliest(早的、早地)

3)表示动词一般现在时第三人称单数的词形变化。例如:

clean—cleans(打扫) catch—catches(按住) carry—carries(携带)

4)表示动词过去时和-ed分词的词形变化。例如:

catch—catched(捉住)

close—closea(关闭) carry—carried(搬运) stop—stopped(阻止)

5)表示动词-ing分词的词形变化。例如:

walk—walking(走) make—making(做) sit—sitting(坐)

二、难点是:如何运用词或词组。

三、考点是:(1)单词拼写。(2)词形变化。(3)对词语的理解运用和相似词语的辨析。有关词汇的考题在中考中有10分左右。

【经典范例引路】

例1按要求写出下列单词的适当形式。

1 .Well(最高级3 .busy(反义词 2.begin(现在分词4.he(反身代词2

(2001年甘肃省中考

题)

简析:此题是对词形变化和单词的正确拼写的考查。要正确解答,应熟练掌握规律性的变化形式,并牢固记忆一些特殊的词形变化。第1小题是考查副词的最高级。形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的构成分为规则变化和不规则变化。well的最高级属于不规则变化,为best。第2小题是考查现在分词的构成。现在分词的构成为:(1)直接在动词原形后加-ing。(2)以不发音的e结尾的动词,先去e ,再加-ing。(3)以重读闭音节结尾且末尾只有一个辅音字母,先双写这一辅音字母,再加-ing。此题符合第三条。故答案为beginning。第3小题是考查词义及单词拼写。busy意为“繁忙的,忙的”它的反义词应为“空闲的,闲的”free。故答案为free。第4小题是考查人称代词对应的反身代词。答案为himself。

例2选择与句中划线部分意思相同或相近的词或短语。

( A .visited B .gave a message to C .told D .phoned

( whole family .

A .on time B .all the time C .at times D .many times

( A .at first B .at the beginning C .at the end D .at last

( )4 .—Oh , sorry . John . I forgot to post your letter .

—. I’ll post it myself.

A .Never think about it

C .Don’t be sorry B .It doesn’t matter D .I don’t care

( )5 .—Hello !May I speak to the headmaster ?

—A .Speak louder

C .Call again B .Wait a moment D .Speak out

(2001年河北省中考

题)

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简析:选出能替换划线部分的选项,这是一种常见题型。做此类题时应注意以下几点:(1)弄懂句意,特别是划线部分意思,以及各选项的意思。(2)能替换划线部分的选项与划线部分意思要相同。(3)选项与划线部分在句法功能上保持一致。第1小题划线部分called后接him(sb),首先要知道它在句中的意思,为“给??打电话”。A选项意为“访问”,B选项意为“给??捎口信”,C选项意为“告诉”,只有选项D .phoned意人“给??打电话”,与划线部分意思相同。且phoned与called的句法功能也相同。故答案为D。第2小题划线部分sometimes意为“有时,某时”。A选项意为“准时,按时”,B选项意为“一直总是”,C选项意为“有时,某时”,D选项意为“许多次”。故答案为C。第3小题划线部分in the end意为“最后,终于”。A选项意为“起初,开始”,B选项意为“在开始时”,C选项意为“在末尾”,D选项为“最后,终于”。故答案为D。第4小题划线部分That’s all right在此处意为“不要紧,没关系”,用来回答别人道歉的用语。A、B、C、D四个选项中只有It doesn’t matter与That’s all right意义相同。故答案为B。第5小题划线部分Hold on在此处意为“等一会儿”,是打电话时的交际用语。只有wait a moment与Hold on 意义相同,故答案为B。

例3 单项选择。

( )1 .Students are usually interested in sports . Some like running ;some like swimming ;_______like ball games .

A .the others B .others (2001年上海市中考题) C .the other D .other

(2001年北京市海淀区中考题) ( )2 .—Can you speak Chinese ,Peter ?

—Yes , but only_______ .

A .little B .few C .a little D .a few

( )3 .Don’t worry ,I’ll take good care Polly .(2001年天津市中考题)

A .for B .of C. with D .to

简析:此题是考查词语意义和用法上的区别,以及词语的固定搭配。在做此类题时,我们应注意:(1)先读懂题意,找出考查点。(2)观察分析空格与它的前后部分的联系及空格在句中的句法功能。(3)根据题意及分析结果,对比所有选项,选择最恰当的选项。(4)对于难度较大、很难直接从正面找到答案,就可采

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用排除法——根据题意和所学知识排除错误答案。剩下的便是正确答案。第1小题是考查the others ,others ,the other ,other这四者在意义和用法上的区别:the others特指某一范围内的“其余的人(物)”而others泛指“其余的人(物)”它常和some对比使用,即“some . . .others . . .”,the other特指“(两个中的)另一个”,other泛指“另一个”。故答案为B。第2小题是考查little ,few ,a little ,a few的用法:某一语言不可数,因此B、D两选项不成立。而little是表示否定意义,a little表示肯定意义。根据题干的意思应为肯定,故答案为C。第3小题是考查take care of这一固定词组。故答案为B。

【综合能力训练】

Ⅰ .从下列A、B、C、D四个选项中找出恰当的字母或字母组合使单词完整正确。

( ter

A .ar

B .or B .lid

C .wor C .lad

D .uar D .le

( ( day ( ble ( ( nd ( ( ful ( (

A .led

A .er

B .ir

C .ur

D .or

D .sse

A .si

B .ssi C .se

A .wi

B .wa

B .au

C .ue

D .ua

D .ua

A .ou

C .oa

A .on

B .au C .or D .ua D .eau ;i

D .e ;ture D .i ;a

A .u ;e A .e ;cher A .e ;e

B .eu ;i B .i ;ture B .i ;e

C .eau ;e

C .i ;cher C .e ;a

Ⅱ .下列每组单词中,有一个单词有拼写错误,请指出。 ( )1 .A .caught ( )2 .A .has

B .braught B .having

C .taught C .had

D .bought D .haved

( )3 .A .reech B .sweater C .street D .teacher

D .writer

( )4 .A .Japanese ( )5 .A .care

B .machine B .wear

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C .polece C .their

D .pare

( )6 .A .afraid ( )7 .A .foreign ( )8 .A .ladder ( )9 .A .dirty

B .radio

C .almist

D .Canadian

D .piece

B .friend

C .quietly

B .bottler B .piano

C .danger D .farther D .twelfth D .student

C .Wenesday

( )10 .A .suddenly B .subject

C .sunshine

Ⅲ .根据所给英语释义写出单词(首字母已给出)。 1 .become a member of

2 .have (clothes) on the body 3 .almost not

4 .not any ,no one 5 .at last

6 .the fourth day of a week 7 .the opposite of cheap 8 .father or mother 9 .ice box

10 .go in a car or on a horse or a bike

Ⅳ .根据句意和音标写单词。 1 .His sister is a [li :g] member.

2 .Our teacher often [pleiz] games with us. 3 .Bell [in′ventid] the telephone. 4 .Do you [bi′li :v] what he said ? 5 .What’s the [′we

] like today ?

6 .They started climbing the [′mauntin]. [u] he was ill ,he went to school.

8 .It took 300 workers a year to [bild] the railway bridge. 9 .By the end of last month the writer had [′ritn] 250 pages. 10 .I will go shopping if I have [′nθi] to do this Sunday.

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Ⅴ .用括号中所给词的适当形式填空。

1 .“Thank you ,”he said 2 .Children must be stopped from 3 .She spends one hour (watch) TV every day .

4 .Keep (quietly) !They are listening to the teacher .

5 .Would you please say it again more (loud) ?

6 .Keep on 7 .I’ve been on the Great Wall (two) .

8 .Thank you for 9 .I often write “Best 10 .Meimei did (badly) than Lucy in the high jump .

11 .After ten minutes’ rest ,they went on (walk) .

12 .I saw a wallet (lie) on the ground on my way home . 13 .There is a fire (burn) in the fireplace .

(have) classes .

15 .They went to the park instead of 16 .“See you” is another way of (say) “Goodbye” .

17 .They enjoy 18 .I don’t feel like 19 .The teachers are busy (get) ready for tomorrow’s work. 20 .Don’t forget to take the (shop) list with you.

【创新备考训练】(选自2001年各地中考题)

Ⅵ .根据句意,选择与句中划线部分意思相同或相近的解释。 A .sorry B .sad C .pleased A .visit

B .move 7 C .watch

A .some B .many C .much A .buy something B .borrow books C .wash clothes A .is poor at B .is slow at C .does well in A .are workers B .work here C .are working A .a small B .a short C .a few A .has a walk B .walks around C .wants a walk A .got on B .got up C .got to A .both us B .we both C .us both

11 .—Hello ,may I speak to Mr. White ,please ?

—Hold on for a moment ,please .

A .Wait B .Sit C .Stop

12 .It’s really A .wrong B .easy C .hard A .must B .can C .need A .many B .some C .no A .worried

Ⅶ .根据句意及汉语提示,在下列各句空缺处写出各单词的正确形式。

8

B .sad C .pleased

1 .Can you answer my (三) question in English ?

2 .Mary did 差) in the exam than Lucy .

3 .Look !They are talking 高兴) in the room .

4 .I 驾驶) my car to Beijing last summer .

5 .My house is not far from my (叔叔) .

6 .The sun is 照耀) brightly in the sky .

7 .They will bring some (土豆) for a picnic tomorrow .

8 .He gets on very well with his 父母) .

9 .I like (浅) colours ,for example ,white .

10 .Mr Wang 搬迁) here last week .He is a new comer .

11 .I usually go to work on (步行) .

12 .There are ten (班级) in our grade .

13 .Lucy studies (努力地) than Lily

14 .Mr Smith will give us a talk at the (会议) .

15 .—Excuse me ,may I (借) your eraser ?

—Certainly .here you are .

16 .It is an 容易的) question .I can answer it .

17 .He won’t do it .I won’t do it ,也) .

18 .Is there a (书桌) in your room ?

19 .Your hands are so (脏的) again .Go and wash them .

20 .They have planted more than two 千) young trees this spring .

Ⅷ .根据句子的意思和首字母提示,用适当的词填空,使句子的意思连贯与正确。

1 .Whose is this T-shirt ?It isn’t m .It’s hers .

one .

.

month of the year .

,the traffic can go .

.

9

Day .

is spoken by the largest number of people in the world .

comes ,everything begins to grow .It’s my favourite season of the year .

10 .—Pardon ,doctor ?

—I said ,“three times a day ,and you’ll be well soon .”

11 .Mr Turner liked visiting some places of great interest ,but he didn’t want to s too much money .

12 .—Have you watched the seven o’clock CCTV news report ?

—Yes .There is a lot of i news in it .

.What’s wrong with you ?

14 .—Do you mind cleaning your room ?It’s very d.

—Certainly not .I’ll do it as soon as possible .

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[参考答案]

综合能力训练

Ⅰ .1—5 DACBD 6—10 ABDBD Ⅱ .1—5 BDACD 6—10 CABCC Ⅲ .1 .join 2 .wear 3 .hardly 4 .none 5 .finally 6 .Wednesday 7 .expensive 8 .parent 9 .fridge 10 .ride Ⅳ . 1 .League 2 .plays 3 .invented 4 .believe 5 .weather 6 .mountain 7 .Though 8 .build 9 .written 10 .nothing

Ⅴ .1 .politely 2 .skating 3 .watching 4 .quiet 5 .loudly 6 .working 7 .twice 8 .lending 9 .wishes 10 .worse 11 .walking 12 .lying 13 .burning

14 .Picking ;having 15 .staying 16 .saying 17 .taking 18 .eating 19 .getting 20 .shopping

创新备考训练

Ⅵ . 1 .C 2 .A 3 .B 4 .A 5 .C 6 .C 7 .B 8 .A 9 .C 10 .C 11 .A 12 .C 13 .B 14 .B 15 .C Ⅶ . 1 .third 2 .worse 3 .happily 4 .drove 5 .uncle’s 6 .shining 7 .potatoes 8 .parents 9 .light 10 .moved 11 .foot 12 .classes 13 .harder 14 .meeting 15 .borrow 16 .easy 17 .either 18 .desk 19 .dirty 20 .thousand Ⅷ .1 .mine 2 .small 3 .doctor 4 .fourth 5 .green 6 .quarter 7 .Teacher’s 8 .Chinese 9 .spring 10 .medicine 11 .spend 12 .important/interesting 13 .worried/weak 14 .dirty

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