haihongyuan.com
海量文库 文档专家
全站搜索:
您现在的位置:首页 > 初中教育 > 初中英语初中英语

牛津译林版2013秋新教材 8Aunit1--unit4语法

发布时间:2013-10-23 13:37:29  

语法点拨

形容词的比较等级(1)—用法讲解

大多数的形容词都有三个级别:原级、比较级、最高级。其中比较级表示“更……”,用于两者之间的比较,用来说明“前者比后者更……”,比较级前面一般用much, even, a little修饰,其中even, much 只能修饰比较级。最高级表示“最……”,用于三者及三者以上之间的比较,用来说明“某人或某物在某个范围内最……”

① 形容词的比较级(-er)和最高级(-est)的构成

a. 规则变化之口诀:直接加;去e加;双写加;变着加

② 形容词的比较级和最高级的构成及用法

③ 比较级前的修饰语

still, even, any, quite(a bit), almost, nearly, just, rather;a little, a bit;much, a lot, far, many;twice, ten times, one fourth, two pounds, three years

【小试牛刀】

1. I can't run any ____________(far). Shall we stop for a while?

3. ______________ (hard) you study, ____________ (good) you will be at English.

4.--Which do you like ____________ (well), English, Maths or Chinese?

--English is my favorite subject.

5. Our country is becoming _______________ and ________________ (beautiful).

He is as tall

as I/me. 他和我一样高。

② A≠ B They didn’t do as/so much work as you did. 他们干得事没有你多。

③ A > B 或A < B

Tom is two years older than his brother. 汤姆比他的弟弟大两岁。

Our classroom is bigger than theirs. 我们的教室比他们的大。

④ 表示倍数This room is twice as large as that one. 整个房间是那房间的两倍大。

The earth is 49 times as big as the moon.地球是月球的49倍大。

⑤ 表示程度的递增

The days are getting shorter and shorter.白天变得越来越长了。

Our country is becoming more and more beautiful.我们的国家变得越来越美了。

⑥ 表示两种情况同时变化

The more we get together, the happier we’ll be.=If we get together more, we’ll be happier. 我们聚得越多,我们就会越高兴。

The harder you study, the better you’ll be at English.= If you study harder, you’ll be better at English.

你学习越努力,你的英语成绩越好。

He is taller than any other student in his class.他比他班级中其他的任何学生高。

= He is taller than any of the other students in his class.

= He is the tallest students in his class.

【小试牛刀】

1. It is not so______________ (hot)today as it was yesterday.

2. Li Lin is not as______________ (active)as he used to be.

3. The air pollution is much______________ (serious)in our city than in theirs.

4. This is one of the______________(delicious)dishes in this restaurant.

5. Judy got the______________(many)new ideas of all the students here.

祈使句讲解

一、祈使句:用于表达命令、请求、劝告、警告、禁止等的句子叫做祈使句. 祈使句的作用是要求、请求或命令、劝告、建议别人做或不做一件事。祈使句的句末一般用感叹号,但是有些祈使句的语气较弱,可以用句号结尾

祈使句因对象(即主语)是第二人称,所以通常都省略。祈使句的动词都为一般现在时,例:Go and wash your hands. 例如:保持肃静! Be kind to our sister. Watch your steps. 表示禁止的句式有:不准、不要、别、No parking.

二、表现形式

●肯定结构:

1. Do型(即:动词原形(+宾语)+其它成分)。如:Please have a seat here.

有的祈使句在意思明确的情况下,动词可省略。如:This way, please. = Go this way, please. 。

2. Be型(即:Be + 表语(名词或形容词)+其它成分)。如:Be a good boy! 要做一个好孩子!

3. Let型(即:Let + 宾语 + 动词原形 + 其它成分)。如:Let me help you. 让我来帮你。

●否定结构:

1. Do型和Be型的否定式都是在句首加don\'t构成,如:Don\'t forget me!Don\'t be late for school! 2. Let型的否定式有两种:“Don\'t + let + 宾语 + 动词原形 + 其它成分”和“Let + 宾语 + not + 动词原形 + 其它成分”。如:Don\'t let him go. / Let him not go. 别让他走。

3. 有些可用no开头,用来表示禁止性的祈使句。如:No smoking! No fishing! 禁止钓鱼!

用"let"的祈使句时,必须注意下列几点:

1、"let" 的否定句有二。如果宾语是第三人称用"Don't let....."(见例(9));如果宾语是第一人称,则用"Let......not" (见例(10)):

Don't let this type of things happen again.

It's raining now. Let's not go out until after the rain.

2、"Let"只适用于现在时态,可以有被动语态 (the passive voice),如: Let the recalcitrant criminals be sent to prison.

Let all the dedicated capable staff be promoted.

3、"Let"后头除了是不带"to"的不定式动词 (The infinitive without"to")之外,还可以是某些适当的副词,如out, in, down, alone等:

Let the puppy out.

Open the windows and let the fresh air in.

The room is too sunny. Let the blinds down.

Let me alone, please.

用"Let\'s"时,把谈话者的对象包括在内;用"Let us"时,并不包括对方,如: Let's try it, shall we?

Let us do it by ourselves, will you?

里的"shall we"和(18)里的"will you",不难知道前者包括听话人,后者并没有。

三.祈使句与并列连词and与or 连用时可以表示条件。

Work harder,and you will catch up with your classmates.

情态动词 should ,ought to,had better 的用法

一. Should 和ought to

1表达职责或义务,提出劝告及一般人们认为应该去做的事,常用来谈论现在和将来。

Ought you to eat so much ?

2.should用于否定句,多表示做了不应该做的事。Ought to 的否定形式是ought not to ,口语中常用oughtn’t to

You oughtn’t to eat so much .

3.在大多数情况下should 和 ought to 的意思大致相同。Should比ought to 语气要轻一些。另外,当我们用should时,谈的是自己的主观看法;ought to 则更多反应客观情况。如:

You should/ought to go and see Mr Wang sometime.

二. had better

1.had better do… “最好” had常缩写为 ’d 否定式had better not do

一般疑问句把 had 放在主语的前面。

1) You’d better hurry up if you want to get home before dark.

2)We’d better not disturb him.

3) Had we better go now?

我们最好现在走吗?

2.had better 适用于任何人称和数

You’d better go with me.

3.变为一般疑问句时,如果是肯定句,就把had提前,放在句首;如果是否定句,就把hadn’t 提前即可。

Had you better go there at once?

4.含有had better的反义疑问句的简短问句部分中要用had或hadn’t.如: You had better give him the magazine,hadn’t you ?

网站首页网站地图 站长统计
All rights reserved Powered by 海文库
copyright ©right 2010-2011。
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit326@126.com