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初中英语语法纲要(修订版)

发布时间:2013-10-25 13:39:19  

中考英语语法大纲

1. 词类:1)名词 2)形容词 3)副词 4)动词 5)代词 6)冠词 7)数词 8)介词 9)连词 10)感叹词 2. 构词法:

1)合成法 classroom, something, reading-room

2)派生法 worker, drawing, quickly, careful, kindness, cloudy, unhappy 3)转化法 hand (n.)—hand (v.) dry (adj.)—dry (v.) 3. 名词

1)可数名词和不可数名词 2)名词的复数 3)专有名词 4)所有格

5. 数词 基数词和序数词

6. 介词 词汇表中所列介词的基本用法 7. 连词 词汇表中所列连词的基本用法 8. 形容词

1)作定语、表语、宾语补足语的基本用法

2)比较等级 (原级、比较级、最高级)的基本用法 (1)构成 -er, -est; more, the most (2)基本句型

as+原级形式+as...

not as (so)+原级形式+as... 比较级形式+than...

the+最高级形式+...in (of)... 9. 副词

1)表示时间、地点、方式、程度等的基本用法 2)疑问副词when, where, how

3)比较等级 (原级、比较级、最高级) (1)构成 -er, -est; more, the most (2)基本句型

as+原级形式+as...

not as (so)+原级形式+as... 比较级形式+than...

the+最高级形式+...in (of)...

10. 冠词 一般用法 an hour, a university, an accountant. 11. 动词

*1)动词种类

(1)行为动词或实义动词

1及物动词 ; 2不及物动词

(2)连系动词 be, look, turn, get, become, etc. (3)助动词 be, do, have, shall, will, etc. (4)情态动词 can, may, must, need, etc. 2)时态

(1)一般现在时

I get up at six o'clock every morning. The moon moves round the earth. (2)一般过去时

I was in Grade One last year. I got up at five yesterday. (3)一般将来时

1. shall (will)+动词原形

I shall (will)go to your school tomorrow afternoon. She will be here tomorrow.

2. be going to+动词原形 I'm going to help him. (4)现在进行时

We're reading the text now. They're waiting for a bus. (5)现在完成时

I have already posted the letter. They have lived here for ten years. (6) 现在完成进行时

We have been waiting for you for half an hour. I have been reading books all the morning. *(6)过去进行时

We were having a meeting this time yesterday.

The teacher was talking to some parents when I saw her. *(7)过去完成时

We had learned four English songs by the end of last year. The film had already begun when I got to the cinema.

She said that she had not heard from him since he left Beijing. *(8)过去将来时

He said he would go to the cinema that evening.

Betty said she was going to visit her uncle next Sunday. 3)被动语态

(1)一般现在时的被动语态

English is taught in that school. (2)一般过去时的被动语态

The song was written by that worker. (3)一般现在时带情态动词的被动语态 She must be sent to hospital at once. 4)动词不定式 *(1)作主语

To learn a foreign language is not easy. It is not easy to learn a foreign language. (2)作宾语

They began to read. (3)作宾语补足语

Jim asked me to help him with his lessons. We often heard her sing. *(4)作定语

I have an important meeting to attend. (5)作状语

She went to see her grandma yesterday.

(6)用在how, when, where, what, which等之后 I don't know how to use a computer. He didn't know what to do next. 12. 句子种类

1)陈述句 (肯定式和否定式)

2)疑问句 (一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、选择疑问句、反意疑问句) ? Jin isn’t a student, is he?

? There are some books in it, aren’t there? ? I’m late, aren’t I?

? 陈述部分有little, few, no, never, nothing, hardly, nobody等词表示否定时,疑问部分用肯定。 ? 祈使句的反意疑问句: 祈使句,后用will you? Let’s?, 后用shall we? ? I don’t think he knows it, does he?

3)祈使句 肯定形式用动词原形. 否定形式用 “Don’t / Never + 动词原形.” *4)感叹句

? What +a/an+ 形容词 +名词 + 主语+ 谓语! What a nice house it is! ? What + 形容词 +名词 + 主语+ 谓语! What fine weather!

? How + 形容词/副词 + 主语 + 谓语! How hard he works! How happy they look! ? How + 主语 + 谓语! How he runs! 13. 句子成份 1)主语

2)谓语

3)表语

4)宾语

5)直接宾语和间接宾语

6)宾语补足语

7)定语

8)状语

14. 简单句的五种基本句型

第一种 主语+连系动词+表语 (S+V+P) The bike is new.

第二种 主语+不及物动词 (S+V) He swims.

第三种 主语+及物动词+宾语 (S+V+O) Children often sing this song.

第四种 主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语 (S+V+IO+DO) She showed her friends all her pictures.

第五种 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语 (S+V+O+C) We keep our classroom clean and tidy. 15. 并列句

He likes maths, but he needs help. I help him and he helps me. 16. 复合句

1)宾语从句

2)状语从句

*3)定语从句

17. 主谓一 致

一、就近原则:either??or?? neither??nor?? not only??.but also?? There / Here be +并列主语. There is a book and some pens on the desk. 二、意义一致原则:

1.集体名词 ( class, family等 )做主语时,可根据意义判断。

? His family has moved into a new house. His family were having supper then. 主语是数目、时间、金钱、距离时,动词用单数。

2..主语+ as well as / with / together with / like / but / except + 动词单数。 ? Lily with her friends is going to the zoo tomorrow.

3.下列一些不定代词做主语,动词用单数。each, either, neither, something, everything等。 ? Everything is ready.

4.The + 形容词 / 过去分词 + 动词复数

? The wounded were looked after well in the hospital.

5. glasses, trousers, shoes, scissors等单独做主语时,动词用复数,但当它们与a pair of 连用时,动词与pair的数保持一致。 The pair of glasses fits you well

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