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初中-情态动词培优

发布时间:2013-10-27 11:52:57  

情态动词讲解

1. can的基本用法:

⑴ 表示体力或智力上的能力,即“能够,会”,可与be able to转换。

例:He can speak English. = He is able to speak English.

—Can you play basketball?

— No, I can’t.

如果表示将来具备的能力,要用will be able to。

例:If I have a good sleep, I will be able to do the problem.

⑵ 表示许可,主要用于口语,书面语一般用may。

例:—Can we go home now, please?

— No, you can’t.

You can only smoke in this room.

You can’t keep the library books for more than a month.

⑶ 表示“可能”,与may同义,但一般用在疑问句中。

例:What can he possibly want?

在否定句中,否定形式can’t表示推测“不大可能”。

例:Anybody can make mistakes.

The news can’t be true.

与第一、二人称连用时,还可以就可能的解决问题的方式或可能的行为提出建议。在这里,也可用could使语气婉转。

例:Can / Could we meet again next week? 下周我们可以再见面吗?

—What shall we do? 我们怎么办呢?

— We can / could try asking Lucy for help. ——我们可以请露茜帮忙试试看。 You can / could help me with the cooking. 你可以帮我做饭。

2. may的基本用法:

⑴ 表示“许可”,用can比较口语化。

例:You may / can come if you wish. 如果你想来,你就来。

You may not pick flowers in this park. 本公园内不许摘花。

(may not表示按规定不许可,如果用mustn’t则表示说话人不许可。)

我可以在这里抽烟吗?

—mustn’t表示明确的禁止。)

⑵ 肯定句中表示推测,“可能”。

例:It may rain tomorrow. 明天可能会下雨。

注意:如果“可能”

例:Can it be true? 那会是真的吗?

他究竟是谁呢?

⑶ 【注意】:

——No3. must的基本用法:

⑴ 表示必须,强调说话人的主观意志。

例:I must go now, or I’ll be late. ten o’clock.

【注意】:表示“必须“时,must的否定式为

,而不是mustn’t。

也就是:—Must I/we do it now?

—例:—Must I go with them?

—, you

⑵ 表示推测,一般只用于肯定陈述句,表示非常肯定。

例:She didn’t look at me. She must be angry. 她不朝我看,一定是生气了。

He is good at English. He must know the word. 他英语好,准知道这个词。

You must be Mr. Jones. 想必您就是琼斯先生吧。

4. have to的基本用法:

have to可视为情态动词,但它与其他情态动词在用法上稍有不同。其他情态动词没有人称和数的变化,而have to却有人称和数的变化,要视主语的不同而变化。 例:I / You / We / Theyto….

He / She / It

to….

You don’t to….

Does she to…?

“。

和must不同之处:must强调主观需要

have to强调客观需要。

例:Sorry, I have to leave now. 对不起,现在我得走了。

I我得去参加一个会议。

Will hework deep into the night? 他将不得不工作到深夜吗?

5. need的基本用法:

need的基本词义是“需要”,

⑴ need用作情态动词时,只用于否定句和疑问句。它只有一种形式,后接动词原形。 例:I don’t believe you need worry. 我相信你没有必要焦急。

—Need we go so soon? 我们需要这么早就去吗?

— Yes, we . / No, we . 是的,必须。/不,不必。

So I needn’t tell him, need I? 所以我不需要告诉他,对吧?

请比较以下两句话的不同意思:

你没有必要买那件外衣。(你还没买)

例如:I need to look up this word in the dictionary.

My watch needs /我的手表需要修理了。

We don’t need to work today. (= We needn’t work today.)

Does he need to go right now? (= Need he go right now?)

6. had better的基本用法:

had better常略作to的动词不定式。

例:You’d better get some sleep. 你最好睡一会儿。

You’d better not do that again. 你最好别再做那件事。

What had we better do now? 我们现在怎么做才好呢?

Hadn’t

7. could, should, would, might表示推测:

①. must多用于肯定句中表示把握性极大的推测,意思为“一定、肯定”。

如: You have worked hard all day. You must be tired. 你已辛苦工作一整天了,一定累了。 The book must be his. His name is on the cover. 这本书一定是他的,封面上写着他的名字。

【注意】 must不表推测时,在肯定句中意思为“必须(强调内在的职责)”,在否定句中意思为“不许、禁止”,以它开头的疑问句否定回答常用needn’t或don’t (doesn’t) have to。 如:We must obey the traffic rules. 我们必须遵守交通规则。

Cars mustn’t be parked here. 此处严禁停车。

—Must we hand in the papers this week? 我们必须本星期交论文吗?

—No, you needn’t. 不,你们不必(本星期交)。

②. can / could多用于否定句、疑问句或感叹句中表示推测、怀疑,两者在时间上没有差别。用can时不相信的程度更强一些

如:The man under the tree can’t be Tom. He’s gone to England. 这个人不可能是Tom,他已经去英国了。

Can it be true that he was fooled by a five-year-old boy? 他被一个五岁的孩子愚弄了,这能是真的吗?

Could this be an excuse? 这会不会是个借口?

How can you be so careless! 你怎么这样粗心!

③.may / might多用来表示把握性不大的推测,意思为“也许、可能”, might比may的把握性更小一些。

(注意区分“不可能”与“可能不”在把握性大小上的差异。)

用法区别 常用位置 may be may为情态动词,be为动词原形 句中,作谓语

maybe 副词,大概、也许,相当于perhaps 句首,作状语

如:Mr. Wang may know Professor Li’s telephone number.王先生也许知道李教授的电话号码。

This 这可能就是汤姆一直在找的钥匙。 She be there today. 今天她可能不在那儿。

一、 典型例题 【中考链接】

( )1.—Who is the man over there? Is it Mr. Li?

— No, it ______ be him. Mr. Li is much taller.

A. mustn’t B. may no C. can’t D. needn’t

( )2.—Must I go with them tomorrow?

— No,

A. mustn't B. shouldn't C. needn't D. can't

( )3.—______ I take some photos in the hall?

— No, you ______.

A. Can, needn’t B. Must, mustn’t C. Could, won’t D. May, mustn’t

( )4.—Dad, must I finish my homework today?

—No, you ________. You may do it tomorrow.

A. needn’t B. mustn’t C. don’t D. won’t

( )5.—The lake is said to be dry. Is that true?

—It _______.Look, some kids are swimming in it.

A. must be true B. can’t be true C. may not be true

( )6.—What is your mother going to do this Saturday?

—I’m not sure. She _____ go to see my grandmother.

A. can B. must C. may

( )7.—Susan has bought a large house with a swimming pool.

—It ______ be very expensive. I never even dream about it.

A. must B. might C. can’t D. shouldn’t

( )8.—Listen! Is Professor Johnson giving a report in the hall?

—No, it be him. He has gone to Japan.

A. needn’t B. may not C. mustn’t D. can’t

( )9.—Let’s go to the West Hill Park by taxi.

—Oh, it is not far away from here. We _______take a taxi.

A. couldn’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. can’t

( )10.—Can you play the piano?

—Yes, I _______. I often practice it on weekends.

A. needn’t B. need C. can’t D. can

三、课后练习

一、用can, may, must, need, have to, had better的适当形式填空:

1. You ________________ return the library book on time.

2. I ______________ (not) find the way to the hospital. _______________ you show me the

way?

3. —________________ I finish the work right now?

— No, you ________________ (not). You ____________ do it later.

4. He said he ________________ (not) come tonight.

5. Her mother was ill. She ________________ stay at home and look after her.

6. It’s time for class. You ________________ stop playing football or you __________be late

for class.

7. We ________________ start right now, or they would get there first.

8. The cloud is lifting, so it ________________ (not) be a rainy day tomorrow.

二、选择填空

( )1.—Do we have to finish our homework this afternoon?

—Yes, you ________.

A. must B. can C. may D. need

( )2. —Must I be in hospital for a week, Doctor? 

—No, you 

A. mustn’t B. needn’t C. must

( )3. The desk is not dirty. You _______clean it.

A. mustn’t B. shouldn’t C. needn’t C. can’t

( )4. —May I watch TV for a while?

—No, you _______. You have to finish your homework first.

A. shouldn’t B. needn’t C. mustn’t D. won’t

( )5.—Is Jessica giving us a speech this evening?

—No, it ________be her. She________ to Japan.

A. mustn’t; has gone B. mustn’t ;has been C. can’t ;has gone D. can’t ;has been

( )6. It’s the library! So you________ know shouting is not allowed here.

A. can B. must C. need D. may

( )7. Boys and girls, don’t forget your report . It ______ today.

A. can’t finish B. can’t be finished C. should finish D. should be finished

( )8.—Mr Smith must have been to your home this morning.

—No, he ______ ,because he didn’t know my address.

A. couldn’t B. can’t C. mustn’t D. may not

( )9. —Must I mop up the window now?

—No, you________.

A. needn’t B. can’t C. shouldn’t D. mustn’t

( )10. —Is Lucy knocking at the door?

—No. It ________ be Lucy. She is in Japan now.

A. needn’t B. must C. can’t

( )11. —Another cup of coffee?

—No, thanks. I _____ be off. Mary is waiting for me.

A. can B. may C. must D. might

( )12. —I’m a little tired. Let’s go to the zoo by taxi.

—We take a taxi. It’s not far from here.

A. can’t B. mustn’t C. couldn’t D. needn’t

( )13. If the traffic light is red, you ________ cross the road. It’s very dangerous.

A. don’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. wouldn’t

( )14. —Must I finish watering the flowers now?

—No, you________.

A. must B. won’t C. needn’t D. can’t

( )15. —I can’t give up smoking, doctor.

—For your health, I’m afraid you ________.

A. may B. can C. have to D. must

( )16. It is usually warm in my hometown in March, but it _______ be rather cold sometimes.

A. must B. can C. should D. would

( )17. —Our class won the English speaking contest.

—Congratulations! You _______ be very proud of it.

A. can B. need C. would D. must

( )18. —Excuse me, where are we going to have our class meeting?

—I’m not sure. Ask our monitor, please. He know.

A. can B. may C. need D. shall

( )19. —____________I borrow these magazines?

—Sorry, only the magazines over there can be borrowed.

A. Must B. Would C. May D. Need

( )20. If the traffic light is red, you ________ cross the road. It’s dangerous.

A. don’t B. needn’t C. mustn’t D. wouldn’t

( ) 21 John___ come to see us tonight, but he isn't very sure yet.

A. may B. can C. has to D. must

( ) 22 They ___ do well in the exam.

A. can be able to B. be able to C. can able to D. are able to

( ) 23 -May I take this book out?

-No, you___.

A. can't B. may not C. needn't D. aren't

( ) 24 You___ go and see a doctor at once because you're got a fever.

A. can B. must C. dare D. would

( ) 25 -Can you speak Japanese?

-No, I____.

A. mustn't B. can't C. needn't D. may not

( ) 26 -He___ be in the classroom, I think.

-No, he ___ be in the classroom. I saw him go home a minute ago.

A. can; may not B. must; may not C. may; can't D. may; mustn't

( ) 27-Shall I get one more cake for you, Dad?

-Thanks, but you___, I've had enough.

A. may not B. must not C. can't D. needn't

( A. may B. must C. can D. need

( ) 29 He isn't at school. I think he ___ be ill.

A. can B. shall C. must D. has to

( ) 30 ___ I take this one?

A. May B. Will C. Are D. Do

( ) 31 The children___ play football on the road.

A. can't B. can C. mustn't D. must

( ) 32 You ___ be late for school again next time.

A. mustn't B. needn't C. don't have to D. don't need to

( ) 33 -Must I do my homework at once?

-No, you___.

A. needn't B. mustn't C. can't D. may not

( ) 34 His arm is all right. He___ go and see the doctor.

A. has not to B. don't have to C. haven't to D. doesn't have to

( ) 35 He had to give up the plan, ___ he?

A. did B. didn't C. does D. doesn't ( ) 36 They had to walk here, ___ they?

A. mustn't B. did C. didn't D. hadn't ( ) 37 He had better stay here, ___ he?

A. didn't B. don't C. hadn't D. isn't ( ) 38 You'd better___late next time.

A. not to be B. not be C. won't be D. don't be ( ) 39 You'd better ___ your hair ___ once a month.

A. had; cut B. had; cutted C. have; cut ( ) 40 You___ ask that man over there. Maybe he knows the way.

A. had better not to B. had not better C. had better ( ) 41 -Shall we go and visit the History Museum next Sunday? -______________.

A. Here you are B. Sorry, I can't C. Yes, please ( ) 42 -Why don't you ask Mike to go with us? -Thanks, ___.

A. I will B. I won't C. lean ( ) 43 -___ I take the newspaper away?

-No, you mustn't. You____read it only here.

A. Must; can B. May; can C. Need; must ( ) 44 Excuse me. ___ you please pass me that cup?

A. Do B. Should C. Would ( ) 45 ___ you like to have another try?

A. Could B. Will C. Would ( ) 46 -Would you like to go boating with us? -Yes, ___.

A. I'd like B. I want C. I'd like to ( ) 47 You___ worry about your son. He will get well soon.

A. needn't B. can't C. mustn't ( ) 48 The poor man needs our help, ___ he?

A. need B. needn't C. does ( ) 50 -Must we do our homework first? -No, you___. You may have a rest first.

A. mustn't B. needn't C. may not

D. have; cutted D. had better not D. Let me try D. I may D. Must; must D. Must D. Do D. I do D. have to D. doesn't D. can't

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