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美国历史

发布时间:2013-10-28 13:36:23  

?I. Discovery and Colonization of the New World

?II. The American Revolution

?III. The American Civil War

?IV. Reconstruction

?V. Two World Wars Chapter Two American History

I. Discovery and Colonization of the New World

1. Discovery ?1). Who was Christopher Columbus?

?2). What led to Columbus’ discovery of America?

?3). Who financed Columbus’s voyage?

?4). When did Columbus set sail?

?5). Where did Columbus aim to reach and where did he actually reach?

2. Europeans’ colonization of the New World ?After Columbus’ discovery, what drives the European countries to establish colonies in the New World?

3. English Settlements ?1). Where and when was the first English colony founded?

?At Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607.

?2). How did the early colonists in Virginia manage to earn money?

The Pilgrims ?In England, there have been a group of people called Puritans who had broke away from the Church of England and formed their own churches. Later they fled to Holland to escape persecution in their native land.

?Several years passed when they were again threatened by religious suppression, they thought of moving, and this time to America.

?They began to call themselves Pilgrims because of their wanderings in search of religious freedom.

?In 1620, they crossed the Atlantic in the ship Mayflower and settled at Plymouth, Massachusetts.

?3). Which colony first guaranteed religious freedom and the separation of church and state?

?Rhode Island colony set up by Roger Williams.

?4). Which colony was a refuge for Roman Catholics?

?Maryland.

?5). Which settlement was renewed New York by the English in 1664?

?New Amsterdam.

Indentured Servants 契约奴

?Also called bonded servants who were the most important labor source in North American colonies in the 17th and 18th centuries. They were mostly poor Europeans who

sole their labor for a period of four to seven years in exchange for passage to America. II. The American Revolution ?Stamp Act

?Passed by English Parliament in 1765. It was the first direct tax ever levied by English Parliament upon America.

?The act placed a tax upon newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents of all types and licenses.

?The opposition to it grew immediately, leading to rioting, destruction of property, and the calling of the Stamp Act Congress.

Stamp Act Congress 印花税法会议

?A meeting of 27 delegates from 9colonies, held in New York in Sep. 1765. It was convened as a result of a call for such a meeting by the House of Representatives of the Massachusetts colony. The Congress drew up a declaration of rights and grievances for presentation to the King and Parliament in Britain. The Congress was the first example of united colonial action in the developing struggle against Great Britain. It was successful in bringing about a repeal of the Stamp Act.

Boston Tea Party 波士顿茶党

?Could you give an explanation of this term?

波士顿倾茶事件

?又称波士顿茶党事件。1773年发生的北美殖民地波士顿人民反对英国东印度公司垄断茶叶贸易的事件。1773年,英国政府为倾销东印度公司的积存茶叶,通过《救济东印度公司条例》。该条例给予东印度公司到北美殖民地销售积压茶叶的专利权,免缴高额的进口关税,只征收轻微的茶税。条例明令禁止殖民地贩卖“私茶”。东印度公司因此垄断了北美殖民地的茶叶运销,其输入的茶叶价格较“私茶”便宜百分之五十。该条例引起北美殖民地人民的极大愤怒,人们饮用的走私茶占消费量的十分之九。纽约、费城、查尔斯顿人民拒绝卸运茶叶。在波士顿,一批青年以韩柯克和萨姆尔·亚当斯为首,组成了波士顿茶党。

?1773年11月,东印度公司装载342箱茶叶的船只开进波士顿港。12月16日,波士顿八千群众集会,要求停泊在那里的东印度公司茶船开出港口,但遭拒绝。当晚,反英群众在波士顿茶党组织下,化装成印第安人闯入船舶,将东印度公司三只条船上的342箱茶叶(价值18,000英镑)全部倒入大海。英国政府采取高压政策,1774年先后颁布系列法令,封锁波士顿港口,取消马萨诸塞州的自治,在殖民地自由驻军等。这更激起殖民地人民的强烈反抗,使英国政府与北美殖民地之间的矛盾尖锐,公开冲突日益扩大。

?波士顿茶叶事件是一场由麻萨诸塞波士顿居民对抗英国国会的政治示威。它是美国革命的关键点之一,也是美国建国的主要国家神话之一。

?此举被认为是对殖民政府的挑衅,英国政府派兵镇压,终于导致1775年4月美国独立战争的第一声枪响。

American War of Independence

?After British parliament passed the Intolerable Acts(强制法案), tensions were again created between colonists and British government.

?On April 19, 1775, the fist shot was fired at Lexington and the American War of Independence began.

?Declaration of Independence

?When did the British government recognized the independence of the United States?

George Washington (1731-1799) ?The first President of the US(1789-1797), and regarded as the “father of his country”. He was a plantation owner from Virginia who took part in the French and Indian War of 1755-1763, and was a leader of the opposition to British colonial policy.

?He sat in the Continental Congress(1774-1775), and when war broke out he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.

?Later he was unanimously elected President.

?By refusing to serve a third term, Washington set a precedent that was broken only by F.D. Roosevelt.

The Constitution

?Since 1781, the 13 states had been governed by the Articles of Confederation (邦联条款) which set up a very weak central government.

?In May 1787, the Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia with instructions to revise the Articles of Confederation.

?Three of the delegates, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin and James Madison drafted a new and more workable Constitution.

? After much debate, the Constitution was accepted in 1788.

Thomas Jefferson(1743-1826)

?Third President of the US(1801-1809), a lawyer, and a man of wide learning and ability. He opposed British colonial policy before the War of Independence, was a member of the Continental Congress(1775-1776), and the main author of the Declaration of Independence.

?As president, he supported states’ rights, and arranged the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. ?After retiring as President he founded the University of Virginia, and concerned himself with political philosophy and architecture.

III. The American Civil War(1861-1865) ?The war between the northern states (the Union) and the southern states (the Confederacy).

?Here were many causes, of which the most important were disagreement over slavery, and the quarrel concerning Federal control and states’ rights.

?The direct cause of the war was the election of Lincoln as president in 1861.

?After Lincoln won the election, 11 Southern and border states seceded from the Union and form the Confederate States of America(邦联政府). The Civil War began.

?Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863. Southern General Lee surrendered in April 1865 and all other Confederate forces soon surrendered. ?Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865.

?Can you make some comments on the Civil War?

?What is the significance in history?

?P265

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