?I. Discovery and Colonization of the New World
?II. The American Revolution
?III. The American Civil War
?V. Two World Wars Chapter Two American History
I. Discovery and Colonization of the New World
1. Discovery ?1). Who was Christopher Columbus?
?2). What led to Columbus’ discovery of America?
?3). Who financed Columbus’s voyage?
?4). When did Columbus set sail?
?5). Where did Columbus aim to reach and where did he actually reach?
2. Europeans’ colonization of the New World ?After Columbus’ discovery, what drives the European countries to establish colonies in the New World?
3. English Settlements ?1). Where and when was the first English colony founded?
?At Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607.
?2). How did the early colonists in Virginia manage to earn money?
The Pilgrims ?In England, there have been a group of people called Puritans who had broke away from the Church of England and formed their own churches. Later they fled to Holland to escape persecution in their native land.
?Several years passed when they were again threatened by religious suppression, they thought of moving, and this time to America.
?They began to call themselves Pilgrims because of their wanderings in search of religious freedom.
?In 1620, they crossed the Atlantic in the ship Mayflower and settled at Plymouth, Massachusetts.
?3). Which colony first guaranteed religious freedom and the separation of church and state?
?Rhode Island colony set up by Roger Williams.
?4). Which colony was a refuge for Roman Catholics?
?5). Which settlement was renewed New York by the English in 1664?
Indentured Servants 契约奴
?Also called bonded servants who were the most important labor source in North American colonies in the 17th and 18th centuries. They were mostly poor Europeans who
sole their labor for a period of four to seven years in exchange for passage to America. II. The American Revolution ?Stamp Act
?Passed by English Parliament in 1765. It was the first direct tax ever levied by English Parliament upon America.
?The act placed a tax upon newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents of all types and licenses.
?The opposition to it grew immediately, leading to rioting, destruction of property, and the calling of the Stamp Act Congress.
Stamp Act Congress 印花税法会议
?A meeting of 27 delegates from 9colonies, held in New York in Sep. 1765. It was convened as a result of a call for such a meeting by the House of Representatives of the Massachusetts colony. The Congress drew up a declaration of rights and grievances for presentation to the King and Parliament in Britain. The Congress was the first example of united colonial action in the developing struggle against Great Britain. It was successful in bringing about a repeal of the Stamp Act.
Boston Tea Party 波士顿茶党
?Could you give an explanation of this term?
American War of Independence
?After British parliament passed the Intolerable Acts(强制法案), tensions were again created between colonists and British government.
?On April 19, 1775, the fist shot was fired at Lexington and the American War of Independence began.
?Declaration of Independence
?When did the British government recognized the independence of the United States?
George Washington (1731-1799) ?The first President of the US(1789-1797), and regarded as the “father of his country”. He was a plantation owner from Virginia who took part in the French and Indian War of 1755-1763, and was a leader of the opposition to British colonial policy.
?He sat in the Continental Congress(1774-1775), and when war broke out he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.
?Later he was unanimously elected President.
?By refusing to serve a third term, Washington set a precedent that was broken only by F.D. Roosevelt.
?Since 1781, the 13 states had been governed by the Articles of Confederation (邦联条款) which set up a very weak central government.
?In May 1787, the Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia with instructions to revise the Articles of Confederation.
?Three of the delegates, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin and James Madison drafted a new and more workable Constitution.
? After much debate, the Constitution was accepted in 1788.
?Third President of the US(1801-1809), a lawyer, and a man of wide learning and ability. He opposed British colonial policy before the War of Independence, was a member of the Continental Congress(1775-1776), and the main author of the Declaration of Independence.
?As president, he supported states’ rights, and arranged the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. ?After retiring as President he founded the University of Virginia, and concerned himself with political philosophy and architecture.
III. The American Civil War(1861-1865) ?The war between the northern states (the Union) and the southern states (the Confederacy).
?Here were many causes, of which the most important were disagreement over slavery, and the quarrel concerning Federal control and states’ rights.
?The direct cause of the war was the election of Lincoln as president in 1861.
?After Lincoln won the election, 11 Southern and border states seceded from the Union and form the Confederate States of America(邦联政府）. The Civil War began.
?Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863. Southern General Lee surrendered in April 1865 and all other Confederate forces soon surrendered. ?Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865.
?Can you make some comments on the Civil War?
?What is the significance in history?