have/has + 动词的过去分词
东升学校 李彦梅 2005/5/30
1.表示过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响 或结果,常与一些时间状语 ?如:already, yet, ever, never, just, before, once,twice等连用,也可以和包 括现在在内的时间状语,如these days,today,this year,so far等连用. ?2.表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态,一直持 续到现在,也许还将继续下去,可以和表示从过 去某一时刻延续到现在的一段时间的状语连用
?即for +时间段,since+时间点/从句, in the last ten years等,谓语只可用延续性动词.
2. has/have been to have/has gone to
去过某地表示某人的一种经历, 可once,twice,already,ever,never 等连用. ?去某地了,说话时某人已离 开此地,在去某地的途中或已 在某地 ?逗留在某地(已经一段时 间).常和for ten days,since I came here等连用.
have/has been in
1.where is Jim?
He has gone to Wuhan.
2. My parents have been tothe Great Wall twice. They like there very much. 3. Have you ever been to to the Happy valley?
4. How long has Peter been in the West Hill farm?
5. My sister has gone to the shop. She will be back in two hours. 6. She has gone to Shanghai. She isn’t here.
7. She has been to Shanghai. She is here.
8. She has been in Shanghai for two years
She has not seen this film She has seen this film.
I have combed my hair. Have you combed your hair .
He has watched a video. He has not watched a video .
英语动词根据词义可分为两种,一种是延续性的,一种 是终止性的,终止性动词(也可称为非延续性动词,瞬 间动词,或点动词),如begin,start,die,buy,leave, come等,表示动作的发生与结束于一瞬间完成,不能再 延续,所以它的现在完成时不能和表示延续的时间状 语连用,即不能与表示一段时间的状语,for+时间段, since+时间点/从句连用,也不能用在how long引导的 特殊疑问句
?初中英语课本中常见终止性动词有:leave, go, come, arrive, begin, buy, borrow, die, join, become等.终止性动词要表示持 续时, 可用以下方法: ?⑴.将时间状语改为时间段 + ago,句中谓语动词用一般过 去时. ?eg.我弟弟参军两年了. My brother joined the army two years ? ago. ?⑵.若保留for+时间段,since+时间点/从句, 或用在 how long 句型中,则需将终止性动词改为相应的状态动词或延续 性动词
?常见终止性动词与延续性动词(或状态动词) 的对应关系如下: ?come/go/arrive/get/reach/move------be in/at ?open-----be open ?die------be dead close----be closed ?become---be borrow---keep ?begin/start-----be on put on----wear ?lea
ve-----be away (from) buy-----have ?fall asleep----be asleep ?end/finish-----be over ?catch a cold-----have a cold ?join the army----be in the army be a soldier ?join the Party----be in the Party be a Party member
Jim has had this pen for two years.
Jim has had this pen since two years ago. Jim has had this pen since 2003. It is two years since Jim bought this pen. It has been two years since Jim bought this pen. Jim bought this pen two years ago.
? 现在完成时和一般过去时的区别 ? 现在完成时所表明的是过去发生的动作 对现在的影响,强调的是现在的情况,不可 以和表示过去的时间状语yesterday,in 1991,three days ago last time,last night等连 用. ? 一般过去时表明的是过去发生的事实,和 现在不发生关系. ? 5.现在完成时中的 for 与 since ? for + 时间段 与延续性动词的现在完成时 连用 ? since + 时间点/从句 ? I have kept the library book for a week.= I have kept the library book since a week ago.
? It is /has been +一段时间 + since 从句.自 从某事发生已有一段时间了. ? eg. It is /has been two years since my brother joined the army. 注意: ? 1.since 引导的从句中动词用过去时 ? 2.when 引导 的特殊问句不与现在完成时 连用. ? 3.have got,has got 虽然是现在完成时,但 have got=have has got==has
1.It's a long time since we ____ (meet) last,isn't it? ? 2.--I know you ___________ (choose) a picture book among these. ? --Yes,Have a look at it, please. ? 3.So far,spaceships without people ___________ (reach) the moon and some other parts of the universe. ? 4.My father____ home for nearly three weeks. A.has gone away from B.has left C.has been away from D.went away ? 5.Mr and Mrs Green have_____in China for a week. A.been B.got C.arrived D.reached
? 6.--Where's Mary? --Oh,she _____the library. A.has gone to B.went to C.has been to D.had gone to ? 7.I'm not feeling well.I've caught a cold for three days. A B C D ? 8.Tom has caught a bad cold for days and he has stayed in bed since last Saturday. A B C D
近义句转换： 1. Jack joined the League five months ago.
Jack a League member months ago 2.It’s a long time since we met last.
We each other for a long time since we met last.