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初中语法之非谓语动词用法详解和练习

发布时间:2013-09-18 15:10:02  

英语中的非谓语动词 教学内容:动词的非谓语形式

教学目标: (1)复习代词的分类及作用。

(2)对不定代词的一些词用法进行区分。

教学重难点:(1)相近的不定代词的区分。

(2)掌握课本的重点短语及用法。

教学过程:

step1:

(1)动词的非谓语形式包括动词不定式、动名词和分词三种形式;其中分词又包含现在分

词和过去分词两种形式。它们在句子中不能单独作谓语。

(2)动词不定式:

① 形式:动词不定式基本形式由“不定式记号to+动词原形”构成。它的否定形式只要在“to” 前面加上“not”。它的疑问形式是:“wh-疑问词+to+动词原形”。*它的被动形式:“to be +过去分词”。*它的完成形式:“to have +过去分词”。

② 动词不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征,即可以在句子中作主语、宾语、定语、状语、表语和宾语补足语。但不定式也保留动词的某些特征,即不定式后面可以跟宾语、表语和状语。动词不定式加上相关成分就构成不定式短语。

③ 动词不定式可以放在谓语前句子作主语。但是通常将作主语的动词不定式或不定式短语放在谓语后面,而在主语位置用“it”作形式主语(有时在不定式的前面还会用for sb.表示不定式的逻辑主语)。如:(帮助动物就是帮助人)/ It is very difficult (for us) to learn Chinese well.((对于我们而言)学好汉语是非常的困难)/ It took me half an hour to work out this problem.(解出这道题花了我一个小时的时间)

④ 动词不定式可以作谓语动词(及物动词)的宾语。

search the room for the thief.(他们开始在屋子里搜寻小偷)/ He liked to have a swim in the pool near his house.(他喜爱在靠家的水塘里面游泳)/ When did you learn (你什么时候开始学英语的?)/ Don’t forget when you leave.(你离开时别忘了关门

[比较] He forgot to turn off the light.(他忘了关灯.) (没关)/ He forgot turning off the 1

(他忘记关过灯.)(关了) / Please remember (记得给我打电话.)(还没打电话) / I remember calling you yesterday but you forgot.(我记得昨天给你打电话了,但是你忘记了.)(打过电话)

(告诉我怎么样去火车站)/ She asked me (她问我今天家庭作业做什么)/ Can you teach me internet?(你能教我怎样上网吗?)

[C] 不定式作宾语而后面又有宾语补足语时,通常用it代替作形式宾语,而不定式则

后置。如: I found it not very easy to learn to ride a bike.(我发现学骑车不很容易)

⑤ 动词不定式可以在句子中用作定语,放在名词或代词后面。

They could not find a place to (他们找不到住的地方)/ Please give me a chair to sit on.(请给我一张椅子坐坐)/ He has got a writing brush to write with.((他找到了写字的毛笔)

⑥ 动词不定式可以在句子中用作状语,有下列几种情况:

[A] 放在不及物动词(come, go, stop, finish, wait等词)的后面。如:He came to see her

yesterday.(他昨天来看望她)(表示来的目的)/ I (我停下来休息一会儿)(表示停下来的目的)

[B] 放在完整的谓语之后(即“谓语+宾语”、“谓语+宾语+补语”、“动词+表语”之

后)。如:We cleaned the room to let him play in it.(我们打扫了房间以便让他在里面玩)/ I opened the window to see more clearly.(我打开窗子以便看得更清楚点儿)

[C] 有时表示目的的不定式短语可以放在句首。如:To arrive there on time,I got up

one hour earlier than usual.(为了按时到达,我们比平时早起了一个小时)(表示早起的目的)

[注意] stop to do 与stop doing的不同。如:They stopped to have a look.(他们停下

来看看)(不定式作“停下来”的目的状语)/ They stopped looking out of the and began to listen to the teahcher.(他们停止向窗外望,开始听老师讲课)(动名词作宾语,表示“停止”的内容)

2

⑦ 动词不定式可以在句子中用作表语,限用于连系动词之后。如:My job is to keep the .(我的工作就是守住球门)

you to see my parents.(我想要你见见我的父母)/ The boss often made the

workers (老板常让工人们一天工作14小时)/ Now let me

.(现在让我来听你拉小提琴)

[注意] help之后做宾补的不定式符号to可以省略;hear / see / feel / watch之后的宾

补用不定式与现在分词时,含义不同,需特别注意,(参见现在分词部分)。试比较:

I walked past.(我路过时听到她正在哭)(指当时瞬间的

情况)

(我坐在她附近听她唱新歌)(指整

个过程)

(3)动名词

① 动名词由动词原形加词尾“ing”构成。动名词有动词的特征,可以跟宾语,可以被

状语修饰;它也有名词的特征,在句子中可以作主语、宾语(包括介词宾语)等。动名词加相关词语(宾语或状语等)构成动名词短语。

② 动名词可以作主语。一般可用it作形式主语而将动名词短语后移。如:Learning

not so easy.(自学好英语不那么容易)(=It is not so easy .)

③ 动名词可以作宾语。

[A] want / need之后用动名词时,含有被动意思。如:Your car needs reparing badly.(你

的车急需修理。)(被修)My hair needs cutting.(我要理发。)(头发被理)

[B] remember / forge / stop / finish之后用动名词时,与用不定式含义不同。如:I forgot

.(我忘了给他写封信)(根本没写) /to him.(我忘了给他写过信)(写了却忘了) / They stopped to look back.(他们停下

来向后看)(停下的目的是向后看) / They stopped looking back.(他们停止向后

看)(不向后看了)

[C] enjoy / mind / keep / hate/ go等词一般用动名词作宾语。如:Do you mind my

closing the door?(把门关上你介意吗?)/ She hates travelling by air.(她讨厌坐飞

机旅行)/ They went swimming every afternoon.(他们每天下午去游泳)/ I enjoy

我喜欢在镇上转悠)

[D] like / love / start / begin / learn后面用动名词时,与用不定式意思相近或相同。如:

when we were at primary school.(我们在小学时就开

始学英语了) / We began studying English when we were at primary school. (我们

在小学时就开始学英语了)

④ 动名词可以作表语,此时特别注意不要与现在进行时混淆。如:My job is putting

我的事情是把这些部件拼起来) / I these parts together.(把这些部件拼起来) ⑤ 动名词与现在分词构成相同,但是含义不同,动名词主要表示事情,而现在分词则主

要表示进行着的动作。如:Eating too much is not good for your health. (动名词短语,作主语) / Seeing is believing.(动名词短语,分别作主语和表语) / He ran after a 3

.(现在分词,作定语) / .(现在分词,作宾补)

(4)分词: 包含现在分词和过去分词。(高中学习重点)

① 主要区别:现在分词一般有主动的意思或表示动作正在进行的意思;过去分词有

被动或动 作已经完成的意思。分词可以有自己的宾语或状语。

② 分词或分词短语在句子中作定语、状语和复合宾语等。

[A] 作定语:分词作定语时,一般要放在修饰的名词之前,分词短语作定语时,则要放

在所修饰的名词之后。 如:I have got a running nose.(我流鼻涕) / The woman “Stop the thief!”(跟着小偷追的妇女大喊:捉小偷!) / Yesterday I met a man called Mr. Black.(昨天我遇见了一个名叫布莱克先生的人)/ He only gave me a broken glass,so I was very angry with him.(他只给了我一个坏玻璃杯,所以我很生他的气)

entered the room,I saw Jack (我进入房间时看到杰克正在吃一只大梨子)/ In the dark I felt something very cold moving on my foot.(黑暗之中我感到有个冷的东西在我的脚上移动)

[C] 现在分词可以作状语,表示伴随情况。如:She came into the classroom,holding a

(他走进教室,手上抓着一沓纸)days (这些日子我正忙着准备即将来到的口语考试)

[D] 过去分词可以作表语,放在连系动词后面,但要注意不要与被动语态混淆,“主系

表”主要表示状态,而被动语态则表示动作。常用过去分词作表语的结构有:be worried (焦虑) / be pleased (高兴) / be tired (疲劳) / get dressed (打扮好) / get lost (迷路) / get caught (遭遇) / beome frustrated (沮丧) / become intereted in (对…感兴趣)等等。例略。

[E] 过去分词可以作宾语补足语。如:I had my hair this morning.(今天早上我

让人给我理了发)(注意:have sth. done表示动作由别人来做,而have done sth.则为现在完成时的结构,两个结构不可以混淆) 8、动词用法辨析:

(1)“Why not+动词原形+…?”(干嘛不……?)是简略句,完全形式是:Why don’t you +动

词原形+…?如:Why not go and have a look?(干嘛不去看看?)/ Why not try it once again?(为什么不再试试?)

(2) seem(好象)的用法:记住几个结构:①sb./sth. + seem + (to be+)形容词+…;②sb./sth.

+ seem + like +…;③sb/sth + seem + to (do);④It seems that + 从句。如:(to be) very happy when he was called by the headmaster. (被校长叫到名字时他好象很开心) / It seems that nobody else could do such a foolish thing except Jim. (除了吉姆好象没有什么人会做出如此愚蠢的事情来)

(3) be afraid(害怕)的用法:记住几个结构:①be afraid of sth; be afraid of (doing); ②be

afraid to (do); ③be afraid that+从句。如:She is a little afraid of snakes.(她有点怕蛇)/ Don’t (别害怕晚上一个人在家).(恐怕有人要取代他了,因为他犯了那么大的错误)

(4) be sorry(抱歉)的用法:记住几个结构:①be sorry for (sth); ②be sorry for (doing sth); 4

③be sorry to (do); ④be sorry that+从句。如:I am very sorry for keeping you waiting so long.(不好意思让你久等了)I trouble you.(对不起,麻烦你了)/ I sorry (that) he isn’t here at the moment.(恐怕他现在不在)

(5) be sure (确信)的用法:记住几个结构: ①be sure of (sth); ②be sure to(do); ③be sure

that+从句。如:(她给我讲过多次她一定会来的) / Are you sure of your answer?Maybe it’s wrong.(你对你的答案有把握吗?也许是错的。)/ I am sure that Dad will help me with the job.(我确信爸爸会帮着我做这件事情的)

(6) make 与do的用法:一般情况下表示进行活动或者做工作用do,表示创造建构某事物

用make. 如:I don’t know what to do.(我不知道该干什么)/ I’m not going to do any work.(我不准备做什么)/ My father and I once (我和我爸曾经做过一只船)

此外还要记住一些固定说法:do good / harm / business / one’s best / a favour…… make a decision / an effort / a mistake / a noise / a phone call / money / war / the bed / sure,...

(7)put on、wear、have…on、be in、try on、dress的用法:put on强调“穿、戴”这个

动作过程,wear则表示“穿着、戴着”这一状态,have+衣物+on主要表示状态,be in(+颜色/衣物)也是表示一个状况,dress(+人)表示“给…人穿衣”。如:Please put on your new shoes.(请穿上你的新鞋)/ The twins are wearing the same clothes.(双胞胎穿着相同的衣服)/ Today she has an overcoat on.(今天她穿着一件大衣) / Do you know the woman black?(你认识那个身穿黑衣的女人吗?)/ Dad Tom now.(爹正在给汤姆穿衣)

[注意]dress与wear或put on的区别:wear或put on常用衣物作宾语,而dress常用人

作宾语。表示给自己穿衣时常用“get dressed”或“dress oneself”表达。be dressed in与wear基本同义。dress up意为“穿上盛装、乔装打扮”。如:Could you dress the baby for me?(你能替我给宝宝穿衣吗?)/ He is eight but can’t dress himself.(他八岁了,还不会穿衣服)/ She was dressed in a red coat.(她穿着一件红上衣)/ Do I have to to go to Jim’s party?(我得穿上好衣服去参加吉姆的聚会吗?)

(8)like、love与enjoy的用法:三个词都含有“喜欢”的意思,但是,like和enjoy后面跟动

名词,love 后面一般跟动词不定式。like后面有时跟动词不定式,表示一种习惯或嗜好(往往与具体的时间或地点有关)。enjoy后面还可以加名词、反身代词,表示“享受…乐趣;玩得开心”。如:Do you like shopping?(你喜欢购物吗?)/ He likes to have a swim when he gets home every afternoon.(每天下午放学后他总爱游个泳)/ They to sing foreign songs.(他们喜爱唱外国歌曲)/ Did you yourself at the party?(在聚会上你玩得开心吗?)(他喜欢在中国生活)

(9)study、learn的用法: study主要表示“学习、研究”,指过程;而learn主要表示“学

会”,指结果。表示“学”时可以互换。如:How many subjects do you study?(你学多少门课程?) / Have you learned it yet?(这个你学过了吗?)/ How long have you studied/learned English?(你学英语多久了?)

learn还可以表示“听说”,如:He learned the musician himself was in town.(他听说

音乐家本人就在城里)

(10)think、want、would like的用法:三个词都含有“想”的意思,但think指“思考、考

虑”,want指“想要、愿望、企图”,would like指“想要”,think后面一般跟介词短语或从句,want和would like后面跟名词或动词不定式。如:Do you think that China will become a developed country in 40 years? (你认为中国会在40年后成为发达国家吗?)/ I am thinking of the money I once lent to Li Min.((我正在想着以前借给黎敏的钱)/ What do you really want to say?(你到底想干什么?)/ Which of these cakes would (这些饼子中你想吃哪些?)

(11)look for、search…for、find、find out的用法:前面两个词语表示动作过程,后面两个

表示结果,look for指“寻找”不见的或丢失的东西,但还没有找到;search…for…指“为找…而搜寻…”;find指“找到”了东西;find out主要指“查明一个事实真相”。 5

如:Hey, Monkey, what are you looking for in the cupboard?(嘿,猴儿!你在厨子里面找什么呢?)/ Have you found the lost key to your car?(你找着丢失的车钥匙了吗?)/ The soldiers were searching the room for the spy when they heard a loud noise.(士兵们正在房间里面搜寻间谍突然间他们听到了衣声巨响)/ Let’s try to find out who broke the window.(让我们查查谁把窗子打破了)

[注解] find的几个结构:find sb. sth“为某人找到…”,find sth./sb. + adj./n.“发觉某人

是…”,find it +adj. + to do…(或+宾语从句)“发现(做……)如何”。如: His mother (他的母亲发现她的女儿是个聪明的女孩)(名词作补语补足语) / You can easily find it not good for your health to eat cold food.(你很容易就会发现吃冷食对你的身体是不利的)

(12)listen to、hear的用法:两个词与听觉有关,listen to指“听”这一过程,hear指“听到”

这一结果。如:Are you listening to me,Jim? Yes,I have heard your words.(吉姆,你在听我说吗?是的,你的话我全听见了)

(13)look、see、watch、read的用法:四个词均与眼睛有关,look指放眼去“看”(不管是

否看得到),指“看”的过程;see指“看见”这一结果,有时see还引申为“明白”,表示“看”时后面加“电影”等词;watch指专注的看,含有“注视、监视”之义,后面常跟“电视、比赛”等词;read限制为看书面材料,译为“看、阅读”,后面跟“书、报纸、杂志”等词。如:What are you looking at?(你在看什么?)/ Please look (请看黑板) (妈妈,让我去看电影吧,好吗?)/ He won’t feel well until he finishes watching the football match. (要看完了足球赛他才会感觉好些)(阅读给我们知识)

(14)hear、hear of、hear from、learn的用法: hear“听说”,后面可以跟名词、代词、

从句表示听见的内容,hear of“听说”,后面跟人,指对某人有耳闻但没有见过面;hear from“收到……的来信”,后面加人;learn“听说、得知”,后面跟从句,含义与hear相似。如:I hear Mr Green is coming to see us tonight. (我听说格林先生今晚要来看望我们)/ Have you ever heard of the man who once went to the Himalaya Mountains? (你是否听说过那个去过喜马拉雅山的人?)/ How often do you hear from your father? (隔多久你收到你父亲的信?)/ .(他听说音乐家本人就在城里)

(15)speak、talk、say、tell的用法:四个词与“说”有关。speak“讲话、发言、演说”,

是不及物动词,涉及人时要加介词to,speak作及物动词时后面跟语言名称;talk“谈话、闲谈”,是不及物动词,涉及人时用介词with、to等,涉及事情时后面跟介词about等;say 是及物动词,后面跟名词、代词、从句等,表示说的内容;tell是及物动词,后面首先要跟人,然后再跟从句或者介词短语等。如:Do you speak English? (你讲英语吗?)/ Who spoke at the meeting? (谁在会上发了言?)/ Our teacher is talking to Lin Tao’s parent. (我们的老师正在跟林涛的家长讲话)/ Can you in English? (你能用英语说出它吗?)/ Please tell me something about the strange flying object. (请跟我讲讲那个奇怪的飞行物的事情吧)

(16)be able to(do)、can的用法:can是情态动词,有许多含义,表示“可能、可以、会”等

意思,只有现在式can和过去式could两种形式;be able to表示能力上“会”,有多种时态形式,to后面跟动词原形,有时可以与can/could互换。如:Can you speak English? (你会说英语吗?)/ He couldn’t(wasn’t able to) swim when he was 12. (他十二岁时不会游泳)

(17)there be、have的用法:两个词都可以译为“有”,但是,have表示的是“拥有”,主语

必须是人或者物;there be表示“存在”的概念,主语在there be之后。如:How many brothers and sisters do you (你有多少兄弟?我只有一个兄弟。)/ How many chairs and desks are there in their classroom? There is none. (他们教室里有多少张桌椅?一张也没有。)

[注解]there be sb./sth doing与there be sb./sth to do 有所不同:用doing表示一个正

在发生的事情,而用to do 则表示一个滞后或迟于there be的动作。如: Look! There 6

(18)borrow、lend、keep的用法:表示“借”的三个词,borrow“借进”、lend“出借”都

是一次性动作,不可以和表示一段的时间状语连用;keep“保存”用来表示借一段时间。如: I have lost the book I borrowed from my teacher. What can I do? (我丢掉了从老师那里借来的书)/ How long have you kept my dictionary,eh?For more than two months! (呃,我的字典你借了多久了?两个多月了!)

(19)bring、take、carry、send、lift的用法:bring指从远处“拿来”;take指从面前“拿

走”;carry指一般的搬运,不涉及方向;send主要指“送、派遣、寄”;lift指把东西由低向高“提起、拎起”。例略。

(20)hope、wish的用法:两个词都表示“希望”,但是,hope表达有把握或信心实现的事

情,后面直接跟动词不定式或者宾语从句,不可以跟动名词或作宾语补足语的不定式;wish表达实现的可能性不大的事情,后面跟名词、宾语从句(用过去时)或者作宾语补足语的不定式。如:We all hope to see him very soon. (我们全都希望尽快见到他)/ I hope it will be fine tomorrow so that we can go out. (我希望明天天好,这样我们就能出去了。)/ How I wish it was not raining at the moment!(我多么希望此刻不在下雨!)(事实上天正在下雨)

(21)take、spend、pay、cost的用法:

的宾语通常是金钱或时间,

take的主语通常是事情,。(

如果是动作则常用itcost的宾语通常是时间、金钱、力气,

pay的宾语通常是金钱,

如:)/ This job (做这件事情要花我两天的时间)/ How much does a house like this cost? (像这样的房子要花多少钱?)/ I paid him twenty dollars for the book.. (我花了20元从他那儿买了书)

(22)begin、start的用法:begin在大多数情况下可以替代start,(反义词是end),后面接不定

式或动名词时区别不大,但是start还可以表示“开始、出发、启动”,反义词是stop;某事停止后再重新开始一般用start.如:When did you begin/start to learn English? (你什么时候开始学英语的?)/ They started getting in the crops after the rain stopped. (雨停后他们开始收割庄稼) / This time he could not start his car. (这次他没法启动他的汽车)

(23)arrive in/at、reach、get to的用法:arrive是不及物动词,到达具体地点时后面加介词

at,到达一个大的地方(国家、城市)时后面加介词in,arrive后面可以直接跟地点副词here/there/home等;get表示“到达”时是不及物动词,涉及地点(无论大小)时后面加to,get后面可以直接跟地点副词here等;reach是及物动词,如:He arrived in San Francisco last Sunday. (上个星期天他抵达旧金山)/ How did you get in the night? (你是怎样在夜间到达那里的?)/ We hurried all the way and . (我们一路狂奔在火车启动前5分钟到达车站)

(24)be made of、be made from、be made into、be made in、be made by、be made for的区别:be made of指从制成品中可以看得出原材料,而be made from则指从制成品中看不出原材料,口语中都可以换成be made out of。 be made into表示“被制成……”,be made in表达被制造的地点,be made by表达制造的人,be made for表达被制造的目的。如:This kind of paper is made from bamboo. (这种纸是由竹子生产的)/ The desk is wood and metal. (桌子是铁和木头打的)/ A lot of paper birds. (许多纸被折叠成了小鸟)/ Computers are made in these cities. (计算机是在 7

这几个城市制造的)/ This kite was made by Uncle Wang. (这个风筝是王叔叔做的)/ A .(一只大包做好了让我装废物)

(25)be used for、be used to、used to、get used to的区别:be used for + 名词/代词或动名

词, be used to + 动词原形,表示两个短语意思相近,表示“用于…”。 used to + 动词原形,表示“过去常常”,否定式可以是“didn’t use to”也可以是“usedn’t to”;get/be used to + 动名词,表示“习惯于….”。如:A knife can be used for cutting things.(刀可以用来割东西)/ A knife can be used to cut things.(刀可以用来割东西)/ He used to borrow novels from the library when he was at school. (他上学时常常在图书馆借书)/ . (他习惯早起)

(26)beat,win与lose: beat (打败),后面跟“人”,而win(赢得),后面跟“比赛、竞赛”等。如:Who won at last? (最后谁赢了?)/ Class Three beat us 5-0. (三班以5∶0打败了我们)/ I am sure to win the match. (我一定能赢得比赛)

而lose则表示“输了”,常用句型:lose sth. to sb. 如:Unluckily we lost the match to Class Three. (不幸的是我们比赛输给了三班)

(27)grow、plant、keep的区别:plant着重讲“栽、种植”这个动作,grow则指种植以后的“栽培”、“管理”,而keep则主要指“喂养”、“赡养”一个人或者动物。如 :He grew vegetables in his garden. (他在园子里种菜)/ I planted ten trees last year,but four of them died. (去年我栽了10棵树,但是死了4棵)/ Old women enjoy to kill the time. (老年的妇女喜欢养猫养狗打发时间)

(28)fall 、drop的区别:fall指东西由高处向下坠落,不及物动词;也可以作连系动词,意思是“变得,进入某种状态”。drop表示物体由高处往低处落下,不及物动词;或让物体落向低处,及物动词。如:The man fell off the tractor and hurt himself. (那个人从拖拉机上摔下来跌伤了)/ Soon after they touched the pillows they fell (系动词) fast asleep. (他们头挨枕头不久就睡着了)/ He felt as if he had to drop maths.(他觉得似乎要放弃数学)/ He dropped a letter into the mail-box.(他向邮箱里丢了一封信)

(29)join、join in、take part in的区别:join多指参加组织、团体、党派等,后面跟人时表示和某人一起参加某项活动;join in指参加某项游戏或活动;take part in多指参加群众性的活动、运动、会议等。如:He joined the army in 2001.(他2001年参军)/ They (他们和我一起向你祝贺)(千万参加我们的比赛) / He took an active part in the students’ movement in the 1940s.(在二十世纪40年代他积极参加学生运动)

(30)beat、hit、strike的用法区别:beat指“连续不断地打击;(心脏的)跳动”;hit指“一次性地撞击、命中”;strike与hit基本同义,还可以理解为“划(火柴)、给……深刻的印象”。如:The man looks dead,but his heart is still beating weakly. (那个人看上去死了可心脏还在微弱地跳动) / He hit the ball so hard that it flew over their heads and fell into the lake. (他踢球的劲太大球飞过他们的头顶落入水中) / He went into the room and struck a match(火柴). (他走进房间划着了一根火柴)

(31)carry on、carry out的区别:carry on表示“进行、继续”;carry out表示“进行、贯彻、实现”。如:I will carry on the work. (我会继续工作)/ I have some difficulties in (对于执行他的命令我有问题)

(32)be amazed与be surprised的区别:be amazed“感到惊讶”,指人对某个不可能发生却实际发生了的事情感到极其的讶异;be surprised“感到吃惊”指人对突发的事件感到惊讶。如:When he dived deep into the sea, he was amazed at the colours of all the beautiful coral reefs. (他深潜到海中时被所有美丽的珊瑚礁惊呆了) / He was very surprised when he heard a loud noise from inside the room. (听到房间里传出一个很大的声音他非常地吃惊)

(33)warn的用法:“warn sb. of/about sth”意思是“针对…而警告某人”;“warn sb (not) to do sth”意思是“告戒某人(不)要做某事”;“warn sb. + that从句”意思是“警告某人说……”。如:They warned the passengers of thieves. (他警告路人小心窃贼) / I warn (我警告你:如果你还这么懒在即将来到的考试中你会不及格的。) / He was warned not to go out in the late 8

night. (他受到警告不要在深夜出去)

(34)think of与think about等短语的区别:think of表示“考虑、思念、认为、想起、建议”等;“think about”表示“看待、认为”;“think much /highly /a lot of”表示“高度评价…”;“think over”表示“仔细考虑”;“think out”表示“想出”。如:The headmaster this boy. (校长高度地评价了这个男孩) / We’regoing to France for our holiday. (我们在考虑去法国度假的事情) / Think it over and you will have a way. (仔细考虑就有办法). (我想不起他的名字我忘了) / -What do you think about his composition? -Very good! (他的作文你觉得怎么样? 很好。)

(35)agree with/ agree to / agree on等词语用法:“agree to+动词”表示“同意做某事”,“agree with + sb./观点”表示“赞同…的观点”/ agree about表示“对…话题有相同看法”/“agree to +建议”表示“同意”某人的建议,“agree on + 决定”表示“赞成某人的决定”。例略。

(36)deserve(应该,应得)的用法:deserve后面可以加不定式,也可以加名词。如:They had tried their best and they win. (他们尽力了该赢。) / The little boy always made troubles around and beating. (小男孩总是处处惹麻烦活该被打) / The girl did a good deed and deserved praise. (女孩做了好事应该受到表扬)

Step2:练习

一.单句改错。(每行只有一个错误)

1.David and I wanted go off to find help but Bill insisted

on staying near the car.

2. I want to thank you again for have me in your home for

the summer holidays.

3. I look forward to hear from you soon.

4.Play football not only makes us grow up tall and strong

but also gives us a sense of fair play and team spirit.

5. I’ll spend the whole weekend reading and prepare for it.

6. Shake her head, she said, “It isn’t a good time to do that, dear.”

7. I dream of standing on the platform in the classroom and give lessons to lovely boys and girls.

8. He was made wash the boss’s car once a day.

9.I’ll let you to know as soon as I hear from her.

10.Teach a child to sing and dance is very interesting.

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二.填空(用括号内所给动词的适当形式填空。)

1.He walked up and down, ________(lose) in thought.

2.I sat before the desk until after mid-night, ________(absorb) in writing

3.Greatly ________(disappoint), some staff decided to leave the place.

4. ________(give) more time, the slow learners would have done better.

5. When ________(ask) about his previous job, Bill said he had been doctor.

6. Though ________(warn) of the danger, they still went walking.

7.He explained what ________(do) if the car broke down.

8.Your watch is always slow; it needs ________(repair).

9.He had no choice but ________(give) up the plan.

10.The police had everybody ________(write) down his name and address.

11.The police office had every detail ________(write) down.

12.________(walk) slowly down the road, he saw a woman ________(accompany) by two children.

13. Bob said that his trip was _________(excite).

14. One can’t avoid ________(make) mistakes.

15. What about _________(put) off the football match till next week?

16. He looked around and caught a man _____(put) his hand into the pocket of a passenger.

17. The program was so exciting that the children kept their eyes _____(fix) on the screen.

18. ____ down the radio---the baby's asleep in the next room.

19. Cleaning women in big cities usually get ______(pay) by the hour.

20. The joke told by Tom made us _____(laugh), so the teacher couldn’t make himself _____(hear).

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三.对比题

1.〈1〉________many times , but he still couldn't understand it . 〈2〉________many times , he still couldn't understand it .

A. Having been told B. Telling

C. He was told D. Though he had been told

2. 〈1〉________to the left , you'll find the post office .

〈2〉If you ________to the left , you'll find the post office . 〈3〉________to the left , and you'll find the post office .

A.Turning B. To turn C. Turn D. Turned

3. 〈1〉The building ______now will be a restaurant .

〈2〉The building ______next year will be a restaurant .

〈3〉The building ______last year is a restaurant.

A. having been built B.to be built

C. being built D. built

4. 〈1〉 He stood there,______for his mother .

〈2〉______for two hours , he went away .

A. waiting B. to wait C. waited D.Having waited

5. 〈1〉___ more attention, the trees could have grown better.

〈2〉____ all his time to teaching. Mr.Li almost forgets his wife and son.

A. Give B. To give C. Giving D. Given

6.〈1〉_____from the hill, the park seems more beautiful.

〈2〉____ from the hill, you’ll fid the park more beautiful.

〈3〉____ from the hill, and you’ll find the park more beautiful.

A. See B. Seen C. Seeing D.To see

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7.〈1〉I can’t help ____ when I hear that noise.

A. laughing B. laughed

C. laugh D. being laughed

〈2〉I can’t help ____ the room, for I am very busy now.

A. clean B. cleaning

C. have clean D. cleaned

四.根据括号内的汉语提示并用非谓语动词形式,将下面句子补充完整。

1. ___________________________(努力学习的话),you’ll make rapid progress in your English learning.

2. ___________________________ , the earth looks blue .(从宇宙上看)

3.They recommended ______________________________(我们推迟运动会).

4. The flowers __________________________________(需要立刻浇水).

5._____________________________(下周要举行的运动会)next week is of great importance.

6. _________________________(没有收到回信), he decided to write again.

7.He is said ___________________________(据说他已经去国外学习了).

8. Mr.smith,_______________________(对这个令人厌烦的演讲感到讨厌),started to read a novel.

9.The teacher came into the classroom,_____________________(后面跟着三个学生).

10.________________________(面对如此大的困难),Jack was at a loss

答案:

一. 单句改错。

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1.wanted 后加 to,因为want 后要接不定式。

2.have改为having,因为介词后接动名词作宾语。

3. hear改为 hearing,因为其前的 to 是介词。

4.第一个play改为 playing,因为动词原形不能用作主语。

5.prepare 改为 preparing,因为它与其前的 reading 并列,与其前所用的动词 spend 有关

6.Shake 改为 Shaking,现在分词表伴随。

7.give改为giving,因它与standing并列,作dream of的宾语。

8.wash 前加 to,make sb do sth 中的 do 不能带to,但若 make 用于被动语态,则其后的 do 要带 to。

9.去掉 to,因为 let 后用作宾语补足语的不定式不能带 to。

10.Teach 改为 Teaching,用作主语要用动名词,不用动词原形。

二.填空

1.Lost 2.absorbed 3.disappointed 4.Given 5.

asked 6.Warned 7.to do 8.Repairing 9.to give 10. write 11.written 12.Walking;

accompanied 13.excited 14.making 15. putting 16. putting

17.fixed 18 .Turn 19. paid 20.laughing; heard

三.对比题

1.C A. 分析句子结构。句1. 用连词but 引导并列句子,因此,前面也是个独立句子成分,故选C。

句2. 句中用逗号隔开,且无连词引导,因此,前面不是句子结构,只是句子的一个成分,故选A,用非谓语动词作状语。

2. ACC

3.CBD 分析时态,在选定了主动或被动后,还要考虑动作发生的时间问题,即时态。

句1中 now 说明大楼正在被修,故用进行式,选C。

句2中next year 说明大楼将在明年被修,故用表将来的不定式,选B。

13

句3中 last year 说明大楼已被修,但不能选,因为现在分词的完成式不能作定语,故用过去分词,选D。

4.AD 句1表示“站在那等”,两个动词同时发生,故选A作伴随状语。 句2表示已经等了两个小时,发生在谓语动词“went away ”之前,故用完成式.

5.DC 6.BCA 7.AA

四.用非谓语动词形式,补充句子。

1.Working hard

2. Seen from the space

3. us to put off the sports meeting

4. needs/wants/requires watering或needs/wants/requires to be watered

5. The sports meeting to be held 6. Not having received a reply

7. to have gone abroad 8.tired of the boring speech

9.followed by five students

10.Facing such great difficulty 或

Faced with such great dif 14

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