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人教版英语8年级上unit3

发布时间:2013-10-31 13:31:47  

形容词和副词的 比较级和最高级

一、形容词和副词的概念
形容词:是修饰名词(人或事物),表示名 词的性质,特征或属性一种词类。 它在句中作定语、表语和宾语补足语。 副词:用来修饰动词、形容词及其他副词 的词叫副词。副词在句中多作状语.

二、形容词和副词的用法
①形容词作定语一般放在被修饰 的 名词之前。 如: a new book, two big trees 等。 ②形容词放在系动词be 、look、 get、 keep、turn (变得)、feel、become、seem、 grow、 smell等之后。 如:1.I am short. 2.She looks fine. 3.They turn green.

③如果形容词修饰不定代词something, anything, everything, nothing等时,要放 在不定代词_________。 后面 如:something interesting nothing new
④副词放在所修饰的动词之后、形容词和副 词之前。如果前面是行为动词,则后面用副 词。 如: 1.She works hard .(修饰动词) 2.I am very busy.(修饰形容词) 3.He runs too quickly .(修饰副词) 4.We play happily. (修饰动词)

⑤通常在形容词后加-ly变成副词。 slowly real → ______ really slow → ______ usual →______ usually careful→______ carefully easy → easily ______

happily happy→ ______

heavily angrily heavy →______ angry→ ______

◇Look at the pictures and understand 看图并理解

big

bigger

◇Look at the pictures and understand 看图并理解

big

biggest

bigger

◇Look at the pictures and understand 看图并理解

fast

◇Look at the pictures and understand 看图并理解

fast

faster

◇Look at the pictures and understand
看图并理解

fast

fastest

faster

三、形容词和副词的级
形容词和副词有三个等级: 原级、比较级、最高级 1.原级:即形容词和副词的原形。 small, good, pretty, big, many hard, happily, slowly, quickly ① 程度副词very, too, so, quite (相当)等修饰 形容词和副词的原级。 如:very tall、 too hot、 so cold quite interesting run quickly

② as…as (与…一样); not as/so …as (不及;不如那样);too … to (太…而不 能…); so …that (如此…以至于)中间用原级。 The story is as interesting as that one. The question is not as / so difficult as that one.
约翰不像迈克那么笨。 John is not so stupid as Mike. 他太小而不能上学。 He is too young to go to school.

2.比较级:两个人或物之间的比较。表示 “较……”或“更……一些”。标志词: than (比) 单音节词通常是-er结尾;多音节或部 分双音节词通常在之前加more. 如:smaller, better, taller, older, more, harder more interesting , more quickly

3.最高级:三个或三个以上的人或物之间 的比较。 标志词:in+大范围, of all 表示“最……”的意思。(两者以上用最 高级)
单音节词通常是-est 结尾;多音节或部分 双音节词通常在之前加most.

在形容词的最 高级前必须加the;副词之前可以不加。如 : smallest, tallest, newest, best most interesting, most difficultly

单音节和少数多音节的形容词和副词的比较级和最 高级的构成分规则和不规则。规则变化如下:

单 音 节 词 和 少 数 多 音 节 词

原 级 比较级 最高级 colder coldest 一般在词尾加-er/?/ cold 或-est/ist/ fast faster fastest nicer nicest 以字母e结尾的形容 nice 词,加-r或-st large larger largest big bigger biggest 重读闭音节词只有 一个辅音字母结尾 时,应先双写该辅 hot hotter hottest 音字母;再加-er或est

构成方法

构成方法

原 级

比较级

最高级

单音节词 和少数多 以“辅音字母 +y”结尾的双 音节词 音节词,先改 “+y”结尾的 双音节词,先 改“y”为“i”, 再加-er或-est

但“形 + ly ”构成的副 少数以-er, 词除外 cleverest ow 结尾的双 cleaver cleverer 如:quickly—more 音节词末尾加 narrow narrower narrowest -er, 或-estquickly—most quickly
easy easier easiest

early

earlier

earliest

构成方法 多音节 词和部 分双音 节词 在词前 加more 或most

原 级 tired

比较级

最高级

more tired most tired

easily

more easily

most easily

不规则变化
原级 比较级 good (好的) better well (健康的) bad (坏的) worse ill (有病的) old (年老的; older (指年龄、 旧的) 新旧、血缘) elder (指血缘) many much more (多的) 最高级 best worst oldest (指年龄、新 旧、血缘) eldest (指血缘) most

原级 little (少的) far (远的)

比较级
less farther (指距离) further (指距离 和抽象意义)

最高级
least farthest (指距离) furthest (指距离和 抽象意义)

注:1. older 年龄较老的; elder指兄弟姐妹中排行在前的(一般修饰名词作定语) My father is older than my mother. My elder brother is a driver. 2. farther指距离较远的; further指距离和抽象事物的 “更进一步”. He went abroad for further study. Lily jumped farther than me.

给出下列词的比较级和最高级
important ______________ _________________ most important more important easier easy___________________ ___________________ easiest wettest wet___________________ ____________________ wetter happy________________ ____________________ happier happiest more careful most careful careful ________________ __________________ thinner thinnest thin _________________ __________________ better best good________________ ____________________ hotter hottest hot __________________ ____________________ more easily most easily easily ________________ ____________________ most more many________________ ____________________ nicer nicest nice ________________ ____________________ bigger big _________________ ____________________ biggest heaviest heavy______________ ____________________ heavier most delicious delicious____________ ____________________ more delicious most

more much_______________ _____________________

More examples:
1.Mary is cleverer than her little sister.

2.The new building is higher than the old one.
3.His shirt is more expensive than mine. 4.Kate is more beautiful than Lily is. 5.She is five years older than I am.

比较级的用法: …than… 1.汤姆比杰克高. Tom is taller than Jack. 2.这只箱子要比那只箱子大. This box is bigger than that one. 3.那些苹果比这些大. Those apples are bigger than these ones. 4.第一个问题很容易,但第二个更容易. The first question is very easy, but the second one is easier.

(2) 数量的比较
1.我的笔比你的多. I have more pens than you (do). 2.我喝的茶比他多. I drink more tea than he (does). 3.他吃的饭比我少. He has less rice than I (do).

4.一班的学生比二班多. There are more students in Class 1 than in Class 2.

1.The new building is higher than the old one. Those apples are bigger than these ones. 比较级必须在同类中进行,即人与人比, 物与物比,而且比较结构前后的词语要对称, 特别注意在than或 as 之后不要漏掉可能出现 的替代词 that ,those, one ,ones. 2.His shirt is more expensive than mine. 如果主语是物主代词+名词,那么后面要用 名词性物主代词。

3.Kate is more beautiful than Lily is. She is five years older than I am. I drink more tea than he (does). than前后句子的时态相同。通常用be动词 情态动词can, may, must, could, should和 助动词do, does ,did, will,have等来简答。

4.Who is older, Jim or Tom ? Who is the tallest, Jim , Mike or Tom? Which/Who…+ 比较级,A or B? Which/Who…+ 最高级,A ,B or C?

1、表示在两者之间相差的程度用“具体 数字+比较级+ than+ 比较对象”。 eg: The road is two meters longer than that one . 这条公路比那条公路长两米。 这只铅笔比那只铅笔短四英寸。 This pencil is four inches shorter than that one . 2、有些双音节和单音节形容词,既可以加er 或est构成比较级和最高级,也可以加more 和 most构成比较级和最高级。
friendly huge calm free true clever

3、形容词原级的比较。 形容词的原级与as……as连用表示肯定 意思,是“和……一样”的意思;与not as/ so ……as连用表示否定意义,是“不如” 或“不一样”的含义。 She is as pretty as her mother. 这个故事和那个故事一样有趣。 The story is as interesting as that one. The question is not as / so difficult as that one. 我的自行车不如你的自行车好。 My bike is not as / so good as yours.

4、形容词比较级的修饰。比较级前面可加 even (更),much ( ……得多),far(……得 多),a little(……一点),a bit(一点),a lot (……得多),still (更…… )等修饰词。 eg: This pen is much better than that one. Tom is a little shorter than his friend Jim. 我们的房间比他们的大多了。 Our room is

much bigger than theirs.

5. 形容词的比较级 + and + 形容词的比较 级 (前后形容词是同一个)
越来越…… She is becoming thinner and thinner. There are more and more students in our school. 我们的国家变得越来越富有。 Our country is becoming richer and richer.

6、the + 形容词的比较级 ……, the +形容 词的比较级 表示“ 越……,就越……” The more you eat, the fatter you will be. The harder you study, the more you will get. 房子越小,它花的钱越少。 The smaller the house is, the less it will cost.

7、the + 形容词比较级 + of the two 中比较……的一个 She is the prettier of the two girls. The bike is the older of the two. He is the taller of the two.

两者

他是两个学生中较聪明的。 He is the smarter of the two students.

一、句型转换
1. Pedro is thinner than Sam. (同义句转换) Sam is fatter than Pedro. 2. My sister is better at study than I. She is clever. (同义句转换)

My sister is more intellectual than me at study.

3. I study science very well.(同义句转换)

I am very good at science.
4. Miss Li is popular in our class. Mr. Wang is more popular.(同义句转换)

Mr.Wang is more popular than Miss Li.

Let me try
写出下列形容词或副词的比较级、最高级。

hotter hottest easier easiest 1. hot _______ _______ 2. easy_______ ________
3. happily more happily____________ ____________ most happily

more most later latest 4. late _______ _______ 5. many______ _______
6. dangerous more dangerous most dangerous ________________ _______________

older/ elder oldest/eldest 7. old _____________ ____________ more clever most clever 8. clever ___________ ____________

cleverer---cleverest



1.Which do you like better ______(well),apples or oranges? older 2.Who is ______(old),Jim or Tom ? faster 3.Jack is running faster and ______(fast) . _____ more 4.Our country is becoming ______and more beautiful ______________ (beautiful). the taller 5.He is ________(tall) of the the two boys.

4.Find out the mistakes in the sentences below. 1. All of us felt happily at her birthday happy party. 2. I am more older than Harry. much

3. Her coat is newer than you. yours.
that 4. The weather in Beijing is colder than in ∧ Xiamen. tallest 5. Sue is one of the tall girls in her class.
 ̄ ̄

考点1: 1.He does his homeworkas……as 和….my as________ as A 一样, sister. 中间用原级

聚焦考点:

A.carefully B. more carefully C. most carefully D. careful 2. Lucy is _____ than most of the students in C 比较级标志 class and her best friend 词 than Julia always keeps silent, too. A. funnier B. taller C. quieter D. smarter

C 3._______ sports you do,_______ you will The+比级…,the+比 become. 较级… “越…越…” A. The less; the stronger B. The more; the fatter C. The more; the stronger D. More; stronger one of the + 最 4.Yangpu Bridge is one of 高级 + in the _____ 名词复 C 数 + in/of

… world A. bigger bridge B. the biggest bridge C. the biggest bridges D. bigger bridges

( D )1.Which language is ____ , English, French or Chinese? A. difficult B. the difficult C. more difficult D. the most difficult ( C )2.Yangpu Bridge is one of ___ in the world A. bigger bridge B. the biggest bridge C. the biggest bridges D. bigger bridges

( B )3.Tom is taller than Mike. But he is not ____ Mike. A. strong as B. so strong as C. so strong D. as strong

( C )4.Most of the people in Guangdong are getting ______. A. more and rich B. more rich and more rich C. richer and richer D. rich and rich ( B )5.This text is ____ easier and ____ interesting than that one. A. more ; much B. much ; more C. more ; more D. much ; much ( D )6.Which do you like ____, beef, pork or chicken? A. good B. well C. better D. best

( C )7.Put on more clothes. It is snowing ___ outside. A. strongly B. heavy C. heavily

( A )8.John drives as ___ as Tom. A. carefully B. good C. nice D. fine

( A )9.My ___ brother is ___ than I. A. elder, three years older B. older ; older C. older; three years elder D. elder ; elder ( B )10.Li Mei is more beautiful than ___ in her class. A. any girl B. any other girl C. all the girls D. any girls

1. 辨析 spend, pay, cost与take 这四个词都有“花费”之意,但用法有所不同: ①spend的主语是人,常用于“sb. spend time/ money (in) doing/ on sth.”结构。 ②pay的主语是人,一般用于“sb. pay money for sth.”结构。 ③cost的主语一般是物,常用于“ sth. cost sb. money”结构。 ④take常和形式主语it连用,构成“ It takes/took sb. + time + to do sth.”结构。

D ①—How much did you ________ the dictionary? —12 yuan. A. buy B. spend C. cost D. pay for
解析:spend常用于结构 “sb. spend time/money (in) doing sth./on sth.”;cost的主语 为物;pay常用于结构“sb. pay money for sth.”; buy通常不与how much搭配。故选D。

②—Your watch is so beautiful. It must be expensive. B —Not at all. I only ________ ¥20 on it. A. cost B. spent C. paid D. took

解析:句子主语为 I,且符合 spend 的常 用结构“sb. spend time/money on sth.”,故选 B。

D ③It ________ him half an hour to get to school by bus. B. spends A. has D. takes C. pay
解析:It takes sb. time to do sth.花费某人时 间做某事。 ④He has spent two hours ________ his model C plane. A. in make B. to make C. making D. made

解析:spend ...... (in) doing sth.花费时间/金钱 做某事。

2. have fun意为“玩得高兴”。 相当于enjoy oneself, have a good time.

have fun doing sth. (fun为不可数名词,意为 “娱乐;乐趣”) have fun with … 表示“和…… 玩得高兴”
如:你在聚会上玩的开心吗? Did you have fun at the party? I have great fun talking with you. 跟你谈话我很快乐。

3. The shops were too crowded, so I didn’t really enjoy it. crowded 为形容词, 意为“拥挤的;挤满

人的”。 too为副词,表示“太”,常用来修饰形容词或副词。 如:你来得太晚了。 You came here too late. enjoy是动词,意为“喜欢”。 enjoy sth. 意为“喜欢某物”;enjoy doing sth.意为 “喜欢做某事”。如: 我喜欢听轻音乐。 I enjoy listening to light music.

4. We both like sports. 我们两个都喜欢运动。
both “两个、两者都……”, 在句中可作代词、 形容词、副词、连词。 作副词时常放在be动词之后, 实义动词之前。 他们两个都高。 They are both tall. both 表示两者都, both of 两者都 例如: They both are students. = Both of them are students.

The girls both like English.
=Both of the girls like English.

Both English and math are very important.

(both …and… 两个都
短语常连接两个并列的成分, 可连接名词、 动词、形容词和代词等) 注: both指两者都, all指三者或三者以上都。

5. although与though常可互换。 表“虽然、即使、尽管”, 都不能与but连用。 但though用得更普遍。此外though可作副词, 在句尾表“然而”, although不能。 虽然他生病了,但他仍努力工作。 Although he was ill, he still worked hard. I have lots of friends here, I feel lonely, though. 固定短语 even though 表示“即使、纵然”, 不能用even although. 如:

6. talented (adj.有才能的) more talented 比较级:_________________. 在…方面有专长 be talented in sth./doing sth 我在烧饭方面有天赋。 I am talented in cooking.

7. do the same things as me. (翻译) 做与我一样 的事情 ____________________; 与……相同的 the same …as… 表示:______________, 我的朋友喜欢与我做同样的事。 My friend likes to do the same things as me.

8. is good at sports. 擅长… be good at 意为________,其后可接名词、代 词或动名词。 do well in 同义词组:___________ do well in doing is good at He ____ _____ ____ English.(他擅长英语) good at playing I’m _____ ___ _______ basketball.(我擅长打篮球) 我不擅长画画。 I am not good at painting. “对……有益/好处” be good for be good with 善于与……相处 be bad for … 对……有害处

9. care about,意为______________; 关心,在意 喜欢,照顾 care for 意为____________; take care (当/小心) take care of (照顾)

我真的关心我的工作。
I really care about my work. 使我笑 10. makes me laugh. (翻译)_________; 让/使某人做某事 make sb. do sth.意为:_________________. makes him get His father always _____ _____ _____ up before five o’clock.(让他起床)

① make sb. do sth. 让(使)某人做某事(make后跟不带to的不定式) eg. The boss made the workers work 12 hours a day. 他妈妈让他一个人完成这项工作。 His mother made him finish the work alone. ② make sb./ sth.+adj. 使/让某人/某事怎么样; 例如:The news makes everyone happy. 树木让我们

的城市更美。 The trees make our city beautiful.

③ laugh 作动词, 意为“笑;感到好笑”。
laugh 常用于 laugh at 短语中,意为“取笑; 讥笑;嘲笑某人”。 你为什么笑呢? Why are you laughing? 不要嘲笑穷人。

Don’t laugh at the poor people.

11. same 前要加定冠词 the same 反义词 different 前不加定冠词 look the same 看起来一样 be the same as 与…… 相同的…… be different from 与…… 不一样 They look the same.

Liu Li is the same as Liu Ying. They look different.
Liu Li is different from Liu Ying.

1. 你们看起来一样。 You look the same. 2. 在中国和美国有些东西是不同的。 Some things in China are different from those in Americ

the same as

与……一样,与…..相同 用于“同种类事物”之间的比较

我的书和你的一样。 My book is the same as yours. 她的头发的颜色和他的一样。 The color of her hair is the same as the color of his 我的朋友喜欢做和我一样的事。 My friend likes doing the same things as me. doing the same things as Mary is as tall as Gina.(同义转换) Mary has the same height (高度 ) as Gina.

12. like (1) 动词,喜欢; like + n./ pron./ to do/ doing Tom likes fish very much. 汤姆非常喜欢鱼。 我喜欢在课上读书,学习更用功点。 I like reading books and studying harder in class. (2) 介词,像 ① be like 意为“像……;跟……一样”。 例如 A good friend is like a mirror. She is like her mother. 她像她的妈妈。(性格) ② look like (=look the same) 看起来像 她看起来像她的妈妈。(外貌) She looks like her mother.

(3). feel like 后接doing、代词或名词,意为“想要做 某事”。 例如:你想休息吗? Do you feel like having a rest? 常见句型: ① How do you like...?意为“你认为……怎么样?” - How do you like this book? - It's very interesting. -- 你感觉这本书怎么样? -- 非常有趣。 ② What is...like? ......怎么样? -- What is the weather like today? - It is sunny. -- 今天的天气怎么样? -- 晴天。 ③ Would you like +名词 / to do sth.? 意为"你想要……吗?

13. You don’t need to a lot of friends as long as they’re good. 朋友不在多而贵在好。 as long as 表示 “只要……”
It’s fine as long as you’re happy. 只要你高兴就好。 We can talk about this as long as you want. 只要你想谈,我们就可以谈谈这事。

14. It is+形容词 (easy, important, difficult, necessary, nice ...)+( for/of sb.)+to do 干某事是 ...... 样的 ①It is important for us to learn English. ②早上跑步是好的。 It’s good to run in the morning. ③我交朋友不容易。 It’s not easy for me to make friends. ④对你来说,练习讲英语是很重要的。 It’s important for you to practice speaking English.

15. win +比赛项目 win a match / game 赢得某个比赛项目 He won the

game. beat sb + (in +比赛项目) beat sb. / a team (在某个比赛项目中)打败某人 He always beats me in tennis. 他总在网球方面打败了我。 记忆:A beat B, so A win

16. My best friend helps to bring out the best in me.

我最好的朋友能帮我激发出自己的所能。 bring out 是个习语,“使显现;使表现出” bring out the best/ worst in someone “ 把某人最好的(或最坏的)一面表现或显露出 来”。 如: In the basketball game, it’s important for the players to play together and bring out the best in each other. 在篮球比赛中,队员们密切协作,是大伙都发挥到 极致是很重要的。

短语熟记 make friends 交朋友 be like 像……;跟……一样”。 as long as 只要;既然 be different from 与··不同;与··有差异 ·· ·· ·· ·· bring out 使显现;使表现出 get better grades 取的好成绩 the same as 和··相同;与··一致 ·· ·· ·· ·· touch your heart 触动你的心 in fact 事实上;实际上 talk about 交谈 care about 关心;在意 be similar to 与··相似 ·· ··

1. 与…一样
不如…

as +adj. /adv.原级 +as… not as/so+adj./adv.原级+as…

2. 与某人做相同的事 do the same things as sb
3. 使某人(不)做某事 make/let sb (not) do sth

4. 最好的朋友

the best friend 5. 大多数的孩子 most of the kids = most kids 6. 喜爱 (喜欢) 做某事 enjoy doing sth.

Exercise

一、词汇
shorter 1. I'm tall but my sister is ________(short). 2. My mother has long hair, and my sister has longer ________ (long) hair. more outgoing 3.This little baby is _________________ (outgoing) than that one.

4. In some ways we look the same, in some
different ways we look ____________(不同). quiet 5. Ann is a very ____________(安静的) girl, she hardly makes noise.

二、单项选择
1. The twins ______ lovely girls. B A. are all B. are both C. both are 2. I like drawing and I am good _____ it. C A. in B. on C. at 3. That boxer is _______ than others. A A. more athletic B. athleticer C. much athletic

4. She is three years _______ than I am. C A. old ____. A A. laugh B. laughing C. to laugh B. more old C. older 5. I think a good friend should make me

6. -- Which of the caps will you take --I’ll take _______.one for my father the B other for my brother. A.neither B.both C.all 7. Sam looks like his Dad. They are ______ tall. D A. either B. any C. all D. both

8. There are many tall buildings on ________ sides of the street. C A. either B. all C. both

C 9. ___Lily ___ Lucy may go with you because one of them must stay at home. A. Not, but B. Neither, nor C. Both, and D. Either, or


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