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2013中考英语一轮语法复习:动词的概述

发布时间:2013-11-01 09:30:37  

2013中考英语一轮语法复习:

动词的概述

要点梳理
动词与动词短语是中考考查的重点之一。在语境中考查 考生对基础知识的掌握程度越来越受到重视。考查的范围有: 行为动词、系动词、助动词、情态动词或动词及动词短语间 的辨析。因此考生平时应注意词汇的积累,并注意区分部分 动词及动词短语间的差别。

Ⅰ.大多数动词都有五种基本形式:动词原形、第三人称单数、 现在分词、过去式和过去分词 1. 第三人称单数形式的构成 一般现在时中主语是第三人称单数时,谓语动词后要加s或es, 其变化规则与名词变复数的方法大体相同。
规则变化 一般动词在词尾加-s -s在清辅音后读/s/, -s在浊辅音后读/z/ 动词原形 work grow 第三人称单数形式 及读音 works/s/ grows/z/

以s, x, sh, ch或o结尾的动词 加-es -es读/iz/,o后的-es读/z/ 以字母e结尾的动词,直接 加-s -s读/z/或/s/ 以辅音字母加y结尾的动词, 改y为i,再加-es -ies读/iz/ 以元音字母加y结尾的动词, 直接加-s -s读/z/

guess mix finish catch go write like study carry play say

guesses/iz/ mixes/iz/ finishes/iz/ catches/iz/ goes/z/ writes/z/ likes/s/ studies/iz/ carries/iz/ plays/z/ says/z/

不规则变化的有have—has等。

2. 现在分词的构成
规则变化 一般在动词后加ing 以不发音的字母e结尾的动词,先去e 再加ing 动词原形 help work write move play study get begin lie die 现在分词 helping working writing moving playing studying getting beginning lying dying

以y结尾的动词,直接加ing
以重读闭音节结尾的动词,先双写末 尾的辅音字母,再加ing 以ie结尾的名词,一般将ie改为y,再 加ing

3. 过去式和过去分词的构成 (1)规则变化
规则变化 一般在动词词尾加ed (在清辅音后读/t/,在 浊辅音后读d,在t/d后 读id/) 动词原形 过去式,过去分词及其读音

ask answer want need

asked—asked/t/ answered—answered/d/ wanted—wanted/id/ need—need/id/

以不发音的e结尾的动 词,只加d (读/d/)

love dance

loved—loved/d/ danced—danced/d/

以辅音字母加y结尾的动 词,把y变为i,再加ed (读/d/) 以元音字母加y结尾的动 词,直接加ed (读/d/) 以重读闭音节结尾的动 词,先双写末尾的辅单 字母,再加ed(在清辅音 后读/t/,在浊辅音后读d, 在t/d后读id/)

try study

tried—tried/d/ studied—studied/d/

play stay

played—played/d/ stayed—stayed/d/

stop plan

stopped—stopped/t/ planned—planned/d/

(2)不规则变化需单独记忆
不规则动词表

现在分词
am, is are

过去式
was were

过去分词
been been

babysit
become bend begin bite blow break

babysat
became bent began bit blew broke

babysat
become bent begun bitten blown broken

bring build burn buy can catch choose come cost cut

brought built burnt, burned bought c

ould caught chose came cost cut

brought built burnt, burned bought - caught chosen come cost cut

dig
do, does draw

dug
did drew

dug
done drawn

drink
drive eat fall feed feel fight

drank
drove eat fell fed felt fought

drunk
driven eaten fallen fed felt fought

find
fly forget

found
flew forgot

found
flown forgotten, forgot

freeze
forgive get give go grow has, have

froze
forgave got gave went grew had

frozen
forgiven got, gotten given gone grown had

hear
hide hit

heard
hid hit

heard
hidden hit

hold
hurt keep

held
hurt kept

held
hurt kept

know lay

knew laid

known laid

learn
leave lend let lie light lose

learnt, learned
left lent let lay lit, lighted lost

learnt, learned
left lent let lain lit, lighted lost

make
may mean

made
might meant

made
- meant

meet

met

met

pay put

paid put

paid put

read
retell ride ring rise run say

read
retold rode rang rose ran said

read
retold ridden rung risen run said

see
seek sell send

saw
sought sold sent

seen
sought sold sent

set shake shall shine shoot show

set shook should shone shot showed

set shaken - shone shot shown, showed

sing
sit sleep

sang
sat slept

sung
sat slept

smell
speak spell spend

smelt
spoke spelt spent

smelt
spoken spelt spent

spread
stand steal

spread
stood stole

spread
stood stolen

stick
swim swing take teach tear tell

stuck
swam swung took taught tore told

stuck
swum swung taken taught torn told

think
throw understand

thought
threw understood

thought
thrown understood

upset

upset

upset

wake
wear will win write

woke, waked
wore would won wrote

woken, waked
worn - won written

Ⅱ. 动词的种类 1.行为动词又名实义动词,能独立作谓语。 根据后面是否带

宾语,可分为及物动词和不及物动词。
(1)及物动词 及物动词后面要跟宾语才使能句子语意完整。如love, need,

want等。它主要用于三种句型中:
①动词+宾语 I bought some books yesterday。我昨天买了一些书。(bought

后有宾语books,为及物动词)
②动词+宾语+宾补 ③动词+间接宾语+直接宾语

(2)不及物动词 ①不及物动词本身有完整的意思,后不须接宾语。

He always studies hard. 他一直学习努力。(study后无宾语,为
不及物动词) ②若不及物动词需要带宾语,其后需加适当的介词,才可以跟

宾语。
③有的动词既可作及物动词,也可用作不及物动词。如: She sings very well. 她唱得很好。(sing是不及物动词)

She sang an English song just now. 她刚才唱了一首英文歌。
(sing是及物动词)

2.系动词本身有词义,但不能独立作谓语,须与表语一起 构成谓语。用来表示主语状态的系动词只有be(am, is, are, was, were);用来表示主语继续或保持一种状态或态度的系动词有 keep, stay, remain, stand等;表象系动词有look, seem, appear 等;表示人的感觉的系动词有feel, smell, sound, taste;表变化 系

动词有become, get, grow, turn等。 3.助动词本身无意义或意义不完整,不能独立用作谓语。 它须与别的动词连用,帮助构成各种时态、语态、否定句和疑 问句等。常用助动词有be, have, has, do, does, did, will和shall等。

4.情态动词有一定的词义,但不能独立作谓语,须与动词原 形一起构成谓语,表示说话人的情绪、态度和语气。情态动词没

有人称和数的变化。
(1)can(could) 表能力,could表过去的能力。can与be able to 的基本意义相 同。但can只有一般现在时和一般过去时,而be able to能用于各 种时态。 表可能性。 表许可。口语中可代替may。 can’t 表有把握的否定判断,意为“不可能”。 could在口语中,常代替can来向对方比较委婉客气地提出请求 或表示看法。此时could不表示过去时。

(2)may(might) 用来征求对方意见,意为“可以”。口语性较强。might可以 指过去时间;也可指现在时间,语气更委婉。 表猜测和对可能性的判断。意为“可能;也许”。might可以 指过去时间;也可指现在时间,语气更加不肯定。 (3)must 表说话人的主观意志,意为“必须,应该”。无时态变化。其 否定答语常用needn’t或don’t have to, 意为“不必”。

注:have to意为“不得不;必须”,主要强调受到外界客观

因素的迫使。它可用于多种时态,且有人称和数的变化。
must 本身的否定形式mustn’t意为“不许;一定不要”,表示 禁止和告诫。

表示对事物的推测,意为“想必;一定”,只用于肯定句。
且比may的语气要肯定的多。

(4)shall ①表征询意见,用于第一人称疑问句。如: Shall I get you some tea? 我给你点茶好吗? What shall we do this evening? 我们今晚做什么? ②表说话人的意愿,有“命令、允诺、警告、决心”等意思, 用于第二人称陈述句。如: You shall do as I say. 按我说的做。(命令) You shall have my answer tomorrow. 你明天可以得到我的答复。(允诺) Nothing shall stop us from carrying out the plan. 什么也不能阻止我们执行这项计划。(决心)

(5)will ①表意愿,用于各种人称陈述句。如:

I will do anything for you.
我愿为你做任何事。 If you read the book, I’ll lend it to you. 如果你愿意读这本书,我会把它借给你。 ②表请求,用于疑问句。如: Will you close the window? It’s a bit cold. 请你把窗户关上好吗?有点冷。 Won’t you drink some more coffee? 再来一点咖啡好吗?

③表示某种倾向或习惯性动作。如:

Fish will die out of water. 鱼离开水就不能活。
The boy will sit there hour after hour looking at the traffic go by. 那男孩常常坐在那里好几个钟点,看着车辆行人通过。

(6)would 作情态动词时,无人称限制,表意愿,常与like, love

连用。

(7)should
①表义务。意为“应该”(某件事宜于做),用于各种人称。如: You should be polite to your teachers.

你对老师应该有礼貌。
You shouldn’t waste any time. 你不应该浪费时间。

②表推测,意为“想必一定、照说应该、估计”等。如:
They should be home by now. 照说到现在为止他们应当已经在家了。

5. 动词短语 动词短语指动词跟一个或两个介词或副词构成的固定词组。 其意义上与原来动词不同。 动词短语的分类 (1)动词+介词 arrive in(at), ask for, begin with, be from, come from, get to, laugh at, look for, send for, wait for (2)及物动词+副词 find out, give up, look up(查找), put on, pick up, ring up, take off(脱下), take away, turn on, turn off, think over。

(3)不及物动词+副词

get up, go on, grow up, set off, stand up, take off(起飞)
(4)动词+副词+介词 get on(along) with, catch up with, come up with, go on with,

look forward to
(5)动词+名词+介词 take part in, make friends with, take care of

Ⅲ. 易混淆的常用动词

1.say, speak, talk, tell
2.look, see, watch, read 3.borrow, lend, keep

4.bring, take, carry, get
5.wear, put on, dress 6.take, spend, pay, cost

7.reach, get, arrive

Ⅳ. 常用动词归纳 初中英语学习中,动词短语相当丰富,现将最常用动词短语 归纳如下: 1. look短语 look for寻找;look after照顾;look over查看;look forward

to渴望,向往;look at看着。
look up抬头看,在……查找;look into调查;look out当心; look out of从……往外看。

look like看起来像;look the same看起来一样;look through
透过……看;浏览。

2. put短语

put off推迟;put on穿上,上演;put away把……暂时收起来。
put out扑灭;put down写下; put back 放回;put up举起,建 造,张贴。

3. turn短语
turn on打开;turn off关掉;turn up把音量开大一点;turn down把音量开小一点。 turn to朝向;turn into变成;turn over翻开,翻转;turn... into...把……变成……。

4. get短语 get on/along(well) with与某人相处(融洽);get up起床;get on 上车(船、飞机、马); get off下车(船、飞机、马); get back回去; get back to回到;get away离开,逃脱。 get down下来;get home到家;get into进入,陷入;get out(of)

(从……)出去;get to到达;get together聚会。
5. take短语 take off(飞机)起飞,脱掉(衣服);take in吸收,上当;take

away拿走;take out取出。
take on雇佣,呈现;take down取下;take up占据时间、空间, 开始从事,拿起。

6. agree短语 agree with同意某人的(意见、想法、分析、解释);agree to同

意(计划、办法)。
agree to do sth.同意做某事。 7. go短语 go over温习,复习;go swimming/skating/shopping/dancing /fishing/hunting/camping去游泳/溜冰/购物/跳舞/钓鱼/打猎/野

营。 go into走进;go out出去,熄灭;go away走开;go back回去, 回顾;go up上升,攀登。 go by时间流逝,从旁经过;go down下降,下沉;go for 为……而去; go on继续; go through经历;go to school去上学; go home 回家;go to the doctor去看医生。

8. come短语 come along一道来;come in进来;come into进入;come out 出来,出版;come down下来;come from来自;come back回 来;come across偶然遇到;come over过来;come home回家; come into use开始使用; come on 快!得啦;跟着来;加油。 9. give短语 give up放弃;give off放出、发出(气体、气味、烟雾、光、 水、热等);give out精疲力竭、累倒,耗尽、用完;give away 泄露,赠送;give in屈服,让步,投降。

10. make短语 make a decision作出决定;make sb. do sth.让某人做某事;

make a mistake犯错误;make progress取得进步;make friends
with与……交朋友; make up编造,虚构,打扮,构成,组成; make a face做鬼脸。

11. be短语
be friendly/kind to对……友好; be different from与……不同; be afraid of害怕;be popular with受……欢迎; be interested in

对……感兴趣;be strict with对某人严格;be strict in 对某事严格;
be famous/known as作为……有名;be famous/known for因……著 名;be surprised at对……惊讶;be pleased with对……满意;

be proud of对……感到自豪; be polite/impolite to对某人有 礼貌/不礼貌;be thankful/grateful to对某人感激; be good for 对……有好处;be good at擅长于;be made up of由……构成; be angry with对某人生气;be busy with忙于; be full of/filled with装满了;be late for……迟到;be covered with覆盖着。 12. call短语 call at拜访,后接地点;call on拜访,后接被拜访的对象;号 召;call back回电话; call up打电话,使回忆起;call for叫某 人同往某处。

感悟中考
【2012福建福州】34. It was such a funny show that people couldn't help ____________again and again. A. laugh B. to laugh C. laughing 【答案】C 【解析】选C。考查固定搭配。can’t help doing sth. 意为“禁不住 做某事”,此处句意为:这是一场如此有趣的表演,以至于人 们忍不住笑了一次又一次。故选C。

【例2】

(2010湖州)

If you see any litter on the school playground, you’d better B ________ . A. give it away C. turn it off B. pick it up D. put in on

解析:本题考查动词短语辨析。 give away “捐赠”, pick up “捡起来”, turn off “关”, put on “穿上”。根据句意“如果你看见学校操场上的垃圾, 你最好捡起来”。故选B。

【例3】

(2011天津)

I ________ some of my free time playing basketball for my A school team. A. spend C. take B. cost D. pay

解析:本题考查动词词义辨析。 四者都表示“花费”。 spend

以人做主语,后与on或(in) doing搭配;cost以物做主 语;it takes sb. some time to do sth. 为固定句式;pay以人 做主语,常与for搭配。故选A。

【例4】

(2011宁波)

—May I take the magazine out of the reading room? A —No, you can’t. You ________ read it here. It’s the rule. A. must C. may B. would D. might

解析:本题考查情态动词词义辨析。 联系上下文可知:杂志不能带出阅览室,必须在阅览室里阅

读。这是规章制度。故选A。

【例5】

(2011丽水)

________, you guys! You don’t want to miss the train, do C you?
A. Look up B. Give up

C. Hurry up

D. Grow up

解析:本题考查动词短语词义辨析。 根据下文:你不想错过火车。

判断此空应填入hurry up快点。故选C。

【例6】

(2011嘉兴、舟山)

Smoking is not allowed in public places since May 1st. It may be a good chance for some people to ________ smoking. B A. put up C. pick up B. give up D. look up

解析:本题考查动词短语词义辨析。 根据上文:从5月1日开始,公共场合不允许吸烟。

可知此处与戒烟有关。give up smoking戒烟。故选B。

【例7】

(2011盐城)

—Where’s David? —He ________ be on the playground because he is fond of B playing basketball. A. will B. may

C. can’t

D. mustn’t

解析:本题考查表推测的情态动词。 根据下文:他喜欢打篮球。推测他可能在操场上。 will 表示将来发生的动作;may表示可能性推测;can’t表示 不可能;mustn’t表示不应该。故选B。

【例8】

(2011苏州)

I ________ keep dogs for protection, but now I keep them C as pets. A. would rather C. used to B. had better D. have to

解析:本题考查情态动词词义辨析。 根据下文:现在我把它们当宠物养。可知养狗看门是过去

的事情。would rather宁愿,had better最好,used to过去
常常,have to不得不。故选C。

领悟语法
Ⅰ. 词汇 A. 用方框中所给词的适当形式填空 say shouldn’t keep dress watch

1. We shouldn’t throw litter about in public.
2. The boy doesn’t know how to say this word in English. keep himself. my storybook. 3. On Midautumn Day we watch the moon and eat moon cakes. 4. Tina asked me how long she could 5. The boy is old enough to dress

B. 根据句意及首字母或中文提示,填写单词 1. The young man colored his hair blue because he wanted to be

d ifferent from others.
2. He s pent all his life writing novels for children. 3. Jim is a careless boy. He always makes mistakes in his test. It

makes his teacher angry.
4. Never give 5. My mother is (放弃) up, try again, I believe your dream will busy (忙于) with housework every day. She come true someday. hardly has time to have fun.

Ⅱ. 单项选择

( D )1. I ________ $300 for the bike. (2012宜宾) A. took B. spent
C. cost D. paid

解析:考查动词辨析。paid...for为固定用法。
根据句意:我花30

0美元买那辆自行车。故选D。

( A )2. When you don’t know a word, you can ________ in the dictionary. (2011宁波) A. look it up C. give it up B. set it up D. pick it up

解析:考查词组辨析。
look up查阅(书本);set up建立;give up放弃;pick up捡起。 它们都是动副词组,代词放在中间。

根据句意,当你不认识一个词的时候,你可以查阅字典。
故选A。

( B )3. —Bob, shall we go and meet our new classmate? —Sorry. I’m busy now. But you ________ ask David to go with you. He is free. (2012丽水) A. need C. would 解析:考查情态动词。 need意思是需要,may是可以,would指将要,must意思是必 B. may D. must

须,根据句意应该表示建议,应用may。

( B )4. —How long may I ________ your bike? —For a week. But you mustn’t ________ it to others. (2011金华) A. borrow; lend C. lend; borrow 解析:考查词语辨析。 borrow意为“借入”;lend意为“借出”, lend sth. to sb.意 为“把某物借给某人”;“借多长时间”用keep,为延续性动 词。 how long和延续性动词连用,故第一空为keep;由答语句意 “但是你不能把它借给别人”可知,第二空为lend。故选B。 B. keep; lend D. keep; borrow

( C )5. You should really ________ smoking. It’s bad for your health. (2012衢州) A. get up C. give up 解析:考查词语辨析。 get up起床,get back拿回,give up放弃,give back还。 句意:你真的应该戒烟了。它对你的身体有坏处。故选C。 B. get back D. give back

( A )6. —Mr. Wang, can I finish my homework tomorrow? —Sorry, you ________.(2011重庆) A. can’t C. needn’t 解析:考查情态动词。 问句为“Can...?”时,否定答语用“...can’t”。 句意为“王老师,我明天完成作业可以吗?对不起,不行”。 B. don’t D. won’t

故选A。

( A )7. Sandy feels unhappy because nobody seems to ________ her progress. (2011盐城) A. notice C. watch B. look D. read

解析:考查动词在特定语境中的用法。 句意:Sandy 感到不高兴,因为好像没人注意到她的进步。

( B )8. —Shall I take you home after school ? —No, thanks. Father will ________ on his way home. (2011黄石) A . wake me up C. let me down 解析:考查短语辨析。 wake up叫醒,pick...up 捡起,给……搭车, let sb. down 让 某人失望,help sb.out帮助某人走出困难。 句意:放学后我带你回家吗?不,谢谢。爸爸回家时会来接 我。故选B。 B. pick me up D. help me out

( B )9. Li Na, a worldfamous tennis player from Wuhan, never ________ her dream. She has just set a new record in the 2011 French Open.(2011黄石) A. gave away C. gave out 解析:考查词义辨析。 give away意为“捐赠”,give up意为“放弃”,give out意为 B. gave up D. gave in

“分发,发送”,give in意为“屈服”,根据句意可知此处
应为“放弃”

之意。故选B。

( B )10. —What are you doing, Uncle Wang? —I am sorting out old books and I’ll ________to kids in West China. (2011黄岗) A. give them up C. give them off 解析:考查词义辨析。 give away意为“捐赠”,give up意为“放弃”,give off意为 B. give them away D. give them in

“发出(光等);长出(枝、杈等)”,give in意为“屈服”,根
据句意可知此处应为“捐赠”之意。故选B。

( A )11. —Whose Tshirt is this? —It ________ be John’s. It’s ________ small for him. (2011黄岗) A. can’t; much too C. mustn’t; much too 解析:考查情态动词。 根据句意“它不可能是约翰的,对他来说太小了。”故排除 B. can’t; too much D. mustn’t; too much

C、D,“too much”为“太多”的意思,“much too”为
“太”。故选A。

( D )12. —May I go out now. Dad? —No. You ________ let your mother know first. (2011安徽) A. can B. may

C. need

D. must

解析:考查情态动词。 由答句中“不”,表示语气要求很坚决,应该是“必须”。

故选D。

) 【2012福建福州】42. — It's time for the weather report. Could I _____________ the TV, Dad? — Go ahead, please. I also want to know about the weather for tomorrow. A. turn on B. turn off C. turn down 【答案】A 【解析】选A。考查短语动词的辨析。turn on意为“打开”; turn off意为“关闭”;turn down意为“调小(音量等)”。 由答语可知爸爸也想看电视了解天气状况,因此此处需要用 表示“打开(电视)”的短语动词。故选A。 (

( B )14. I won’t go to the concert this evening, I ________ watch the NBA on TV. It’s more exciting. (2011扬州) A. had better C. ought to B. would rather D. have to

解析:考查词义辨析。
had better意思是“最好”;would rather意思是“更喜欢, 更愿意”;ought to意思是“应该”; have to意思是“必

须”;根据情境:我今晚更愿意看NBA,音乐会就不去了。
故选B。

( B )15. There’s a lot to do. We can’t ________ to waste any time.(2011无锡) A. wait C. want 解析:考查词义辨析。 can’t afford to do sth. “负担不起”是固定搭配,故选B。 句意:我们不能再浪费时间了。 B. afford D. have

( C )16. —Must I return the book tomorrow morning? —No, you ________.You can keep it longer. (2011乌鲁木齐) A. mustn’t B. can’t

C. needn’t
解析:考查情态动词。

D. couldn’t

回答以must引导的一般疑问句,肯定回答用Yes, sb. must.

“是的,……必须”;否定回答用No, sb. needn’t“不,……不
必”。故选C。

( B )17. —Would you come to my birthday party tomorrow evening? —I’m afraid I ________. I have to look after my sister.(2011济宁)

A. wouldn’t
C. won’t 解析:考查情态动词。

B. can’t
D. mustn’t

根据答语句意“I have to look after my sister.”可知是表示

拒绝对方的邀请。故选B。

( C )18. —Be quiet, Mr Smith is coming. —Don’t worry. It ________ be him. Mr Smith is much taller.(2011四川) A. mustn’t 解析:考查情态动词。 mustn’t指不允许,表示禁止;must 必须;应该,表猜测时, 用于肯定句,意为“一定”,可能性较大;can能,会,表 猜测时,常用于否定句和疑问句,意为“不可能”;依据句 意“安静,史密斯先生来了。”“不要担心,不可能是他, 史密斯先生高得多。”,这里表示否定的猜测,故选C。 B. must C. can’t

提高题 Ⅲ.用动词的适当形式填空

“Tom? Are you in bed yet?” called Mrs Green. Therewas
went (be) no answer. Mrs Green put down her book and (go) to her 14year- son’s room. Tom was sitting (sit) in front of a bright old

computer screen, playing computer games. “Oh, Tom. How long have you played (play) on that computer?
You must stop now; it’s half past eleven. If you don’t go to bed soon, you will be (be) very tired tomorrow,” said Mrs Green. “But I’ve nearly won the game,” said Tom to Mrs Green. She saw (see) the excitement on her son’s face.

“You

are always playing (play) on the computer. You have

spent more time on this machine than on your homework.”
Today many children use computers to play games, watch (watch) videos, instead of studying. The result is that they don’t want (not, want) to study. In some other countries, computers cause millions of people to lose their jobs or cause them a lot of trouble. Scientists say something

must be done (do) to solve the problem.


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