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# U2 More Practice

Warming up

A Read the online article and then complete the flow chart about the development of counting methods.

First, people used(1)_____________________________________________. used their fingers, and even their toes. After that, they made(2)_________________________________________. small marks on sticks and bones. tokens made from clay or small stones. Then they used(3)________________________________________________. Finally, they began to develop(4)_______________________________. systems of written marks This led to (5)____________________________________________________. the Hindu-Arabic system(0-9)
B Are there any other ways of counting? Discuss this with your classmates.

Counting before numbers
Before the invention of written numbers, people used many different ways to count things. At first, people used their fingers, and even their toes. However, they could only count small numbers in this way. After that, they began to make small marks on sticks and bones. This helped them count bigger numbers. They used them to count things like the days of the month, the amount of food and the number of animals they had. Then people began to use tokens made from clay or small stones. This helped them count even bigger numbers. They often put the tokens on pieces

of string so that they could carry them around easily. This developed into tools like the abacus. Finally, people began to develop systems of written marks to show different numbers, and this led to the Hindu-Arabic system(0-9). We are still using this system today.

Language points
1. They used them to count things like the days of the month, the amount of food and the number of animals they had.(L7)

the amount of /the number of +名词，谓语用单数， 因为主语仍是“数量” an amount of +不可数名词，谓语用单数 a number of +可数名词复数，谓语用复数
1.降雨量决定着收成的好坏. The ____________ of ________ amount _____ rainfall determines the quality of the crop. 2.百万美元是一笔庞大的资金. an amount of A billion dollars is _____ __________ ______ money. 3.我访问了亚洲的许多科学协会. a ___________ _____ I visited _____number of scientific institutes in Asia. 4.这所学校的学生人数在减少. The number of ______ ___________ ______ students of this school has shrunk.

Important Phrases

the invention of

at first
after that

then