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对初中英语非谓语动词的全面总结

发布时间:2013-09-17 18:35:44  

对非谓语动词的全面总结

(一)动词不定式在句中做前一个动词的宾语。

记住下列形式:(仅限于初中范畴)

1.want to do sth想要做 2.would like to do sth想要做 3.hope to do sth希望做 4.wish to do sth希望做

5.decide to do sth决定做 6.plan to do sth计划做 7.fail to do sth做某事失败 8.agree to do sth同意做

9.learn to do sth学会做 10happen to do sth偶然发生 11.need to do sth需要做 12.be sure to do sth确定做

13.seem to do sth似乎要发生 14.try\do one’s best to do sth尽力做 15 .can’twait to do sth迫不及待做

(二)动词不定式在句中作宾语补足语。

1.want sb to do sth想让某人做 2.would like sb to do sth想让某人做 3.wish sb to do sth希望某人做(不能用hope)

4.agree sb to do sth同意某人做 5.ask sb( not )to do sth让某人(不)做 6.tell sb to do sth告诉某人做

7.allow sb to do sth允许某人做 8.advise sb to do sth建议某人做 9.encourage sb to do sth鼓励某人做

12.invite sb to do sth邀请某人做 13.teach sb to do sth教会某人做

(三)接省to不定式做宾语补足语的动词有:(使役动词)

1.make sb do sth使某人做 2.let sb.do sth让某人做 3.have sb do sth使某人做 4.help sb do \to do sth帮助某人做

(四)、动词不定式在句中作主语

动词不定式作主语时,往往用it作形式主语,而真正的主语移到句末。

1.It’s+adj+for(of) +sb +to do sth

对某人来说做某事怎么样

?

? Adj修饰文中的事情既to do sth时,人前的介词用for ; 但是如果Adj修饰文中的人既sb时,人前面的介词用of

如:①It’s hard for me to learn english well.

hard 是修饰动词不定式to learn english well,意为学好英语难,所以用的介词是for sb

②It’s kind of you to help me

kind“善良的”修饰you(人) 意为你善良,所以介词用of sb

2.It take适当形式 sb some time to do sth

英语句子结构为花费 某人 时间 做某事

译为:做某事花了某人多少时间。

3.It’s time to do sth该做某事

(六)动词不定式在句中作定语时一般都要放在所修饰名词或代词的后面。

1、a chance 做某事的一个机会 2、the way 做某事的办法

3、the best time 做某事的最佳时间 4、something 一些吃的东西

5、something to drink 一些喝的东西 6、a lot of work 许多要做的工作

(七)疑问词+动词不定式,常用到的疑问词短语举例有:What to do 做什么,when to go 什么时候走, where to go 去哪里,how to do it 如何来做此事,

1、作主语 去哪里还是个问题。

2、作宾语 I don’t know how to use the computer.我不知道如何使用电脑。

3、作表语 The problem is what to do next.问题是下一步干什么。

4、作宾语补足语 Can you tell me when to start tomorrow?你能告诉我明天什么时候出发吗?

二、动词ing形式。动词ing 形式为动名词或现在分词时

1.enjoy doing喜欢做 2.practice doing练习做 3.finish doing做完某事 4.mind sb’s doing介意某人做

7.keep sb doing让某人一直做 8.miss doing错过做 10.spend…(in)doing 花费时间或金钱做某事

11.feel like doing想要做 12.give up doing放弃做 13.suggest doing建议做… 14.advise doing建议做

15.介词后如接动词一律为ing 形式,为介词宾语,简称介宾。

be/get used to doing习惯于做 look forword to doing 期盼做某事 : feel like doing sth.喜欢做某事; be good at doing sth.; thank you for doing sth.; give up doing sth.;

stop sb. from doing sth.; do well in doing sth.; be afraid of doing sth.;

1

be interested in doing sth.; be proud of doing sth.;

(二)动名词在句中作宾语补足语

1、keep sb doing sth 让某人一直做某事

2、hear/ see/ watch/ notice/ find sb doing sth 按顺序的翻译为:听见、看见、注视、注意到、发现某人正在做某事(此处的ing形式为现在分词作宾补)

(五)由动词ing形式构成的句型。

1.be busy doing忙着做某事 2.be worth doing值得做 3.can’t help doing忍不住做 4 have trouble doing sth伴随状语

6.有某人/某物正在做某事There be sb/sth doing sth 8.have fun doing做某事过得开心

10.what/how about doing sth?做某事怎么样? 11.No+动名词表示禁令 No smoking禁止吸烟 No parking禁止停车

12.go+动名词去进行某种活动或运动go shopping,去购物;go skating,去滑冰;go hiking去远足

13.do some/the+动名词,指进行某种活动 do some cleaning,搞卫生;do some washing 洗衣服;

三、有些动词既可以接动词不定式也可以接动名词,但意义不同,学生应该注意区分使用。

1.stop to do停下来去做...(做什么事) 2.stop doing停止做…(停止做)

3.forget to do忘记做…(还没做)4. forget doing忘记做过(做过了)

5.remember to do记住去做 6. remember doing记住做过了

7.try to do试图努力做 8.try doing实验做

9.go on doing继续做同一件事 10.go on to do继续做另一件事

11.like/hate to do喜欢/讨厌做 (表具体,一次性的动作)

12.like/hatedoing喜欢/讨厌做 (习惯经常性)

四.感官动词接非谓语动词形式

1.

2.

3. see sb doing 看见某人正在做 see sb do看见某人经常做 hear sb doing听见某人正在做 hear sb do经常听见某人做 find sb doing发现某人正在做 find sb do发现某人做了/正在做

六、过去分词,动名词做定语的情况。

A book written by Lu Xun 书和write的关系是 书被写,用过去分词修饰

a boy called/named Jim a place called Liaoning

A boy standing in the room 男孩和stand的关系是主动,用动名词修饰

句型

such+名词性词组+that?——如此??以致?? So+形容词/副词+that?——如此??以致??

例如:(1)She is such a good teacher that we all love her.她是一个好老师,我们都爱她。

(2)It was such a hot day that they didn’t go out for a walk as usual.这么热的天气,他们没有像往常一样去散步。 注意点:1.such+a+形容词+名词+that?,可以改写成:so+形容词+a+名词+that?,例句(1)可以改写成:She is so good a teacher that we all love her.

2.在such+形容词+名词复数或不可数名词+that?结构中,形容词如果是many/few或much/little时,用so不用such,即:so+many/few+可数名词复数+that?,so+much/little+不可数名词+that?

句型(二) There be?,either?or?,neither?nor?,not only?but also?当这几个句型连接主语时,谓语动词的人称和数要考虑“就近原则”,对比both?and? 来记忆,both?and?连接主语时视为复数。

句型(三) Enough+名词+to do?——有足够的??做某事

形容词/副词+enough+to do ?——足够??做某事

例如:(1)There is enough room to hold these people to have a meeting.有足够的地方容下这些人开会。

(2)The boy is strong enough to carry the heavy box.这个男孩力气够大,能搬动这只箱子。

注意点: enough做副词修饰形容词或副词时,放在所修饰词的后面,句子可以用so?that?句型改写。例句(2)可以改写为:The boy is so strong that he can carry the heavy box.这个男孩力气很大,能搬动这只箱子。

句型(四) too+形容词/副词+to do?——太??以致不能??

例如:(1)I was too excited to say a word.我激动得一个字也说不出来。

(2)Tom is too short to reach the apple. Tom太矮了,拿不到那个苹果。

2

注意点: 这是一个否定句型,不能在不定式前加 not,可以用so?that?结构改写,例如例句(1)可以改写成:I was so excited that I couldn’t say a word.

句型(七)(1)It’s time for sth.是干某事的时间了 It’s time (for sb) to do sth.该干某事了。

句型(八) 花费的句型 (1)It takes sb. Some time to do sth.干某事花某人一些时间

(2)sb. spend some time on sth./(in) doing sth.某人花时间在某事上/花时间干某事

(3))sb.spend some money on sth./(in) doing sth.花钱在某物上/花钱干某事

(4)sth. cost sb. Some money——某事花某人一些钱

(5))sb. pay some money for sth.为某事(物)付钱

注意点:cost主语一般为物;spend、pay主语一般为人。例(1)中it 用做形式主语,动词不定式为真正主语。 句型(九) (1)Why not do??为什么不干某事?

(2)Let’s do ?让我们干某事吧。

(3)Shall we do ??我们干某事好吗?

(4)Would you like something/to do sth.??你想要什么吗?你想要干?吗?

(5)Will you please do ??请你干某事好吗?

(6)What (How) about doing??干某事怎么样?

注意点:这些句型都是表示“建议”的句子,可视为同义句。

句型(十)(1)Let’s go out for a walk,shall we?让我们出去散步,好吗?

(2)Read the book carefully,will you?认真读书,好吗?

注意点:在这两个句型中,(2)所代表的祈使句,一般用will you构成反意疑问句。在(1)中Let’s表示包括“我”在内,用shall we,但若是let us,表示不包括“我”在内,则用will you。

例如:Let us go out for a walk,will you?你让我们出去散散步,好吗?

There is no time (for sb. ) to do sth. 对(某人来说)没时间做某事了

There is no need (for sb.) to do sth. 对某人来说没必要做某事

情景交际

打电话(Making phone calls)

Hello,is that...speaking?你是...吗? / Who is that speaking/calling?你是谁?/ Who is speaking/calling, please?你是谁? 应答时常说:Yes,(this is)...speaking.是的,我是...。/ Yes,it's...here. 我是...。

4、打电话请对方找人

Is...in/at home? 某某在家吗?/ Can/may/could I speak to...,please?请...接电话好吗?

应答时常说:Hold on/Wait a minute/One moment, please. 请等一等。/ I'm sorry...is not in./at home now.对不起,...现在不在。

、请求允许和应答(Asking for permission and responses)

1、Can I/Could I/May I...? 我可不可以...?这个是请求对方允许自己做某事的最普通的交际用语,其中could I...?语气最婉转;May I...? 常用在比较正式的场合;Can I...? 用得最广泛。

允许或同意时,可说:Yes./Sure./Certainly.当然可以。Of course, you may.当然可以。That's Ok./all right.好的。:yes ,you may(can).是的。

不允许或不同意时,可说:I'm sorry you can't.对不起,你不可以...I'm sorry, but...对不起,但是...。You'd better not...你最好别...。Sorry, I'm afraid not,对不起,恐怕不能。NO ,you may(can) not

、谈论天气情况

What's the weather like today ? 今天天气怎样? 应答时可说:It's fine /warm /cold /hot ... /

What's the weather going to be like.the day after tomorrow ?天气将怎样?It's going to be fine /warm/cold /hot ...

"What's the weather like ...?"也可以用"How is the weather...?"表达,其意思想同。

、问路及应答的交际用语

Excuse me. Can you tell me the way to ...? 劳驾,请告诉我去.....(地方)怎么走? / Excuse me. How can I get to...? 劳驾,问怎样去.....(地方)? / Excuse me, please, where is...? 劳驾,请问去...的路怎么去?

How far is it from here? 它离这里多远? / It's about...meters from here. 它离这里大约...米远。

3

Go down/along this street. 沿着这条街走下去。Go down/along this street till you get to ...沿着这条街走到...(地方)为止。/ Turn right/left at the first/second crossing.在第一/二个十字路口向右/左转。

赞美和恭维及应答别人赞美时的应答 thank you.哦,谢谢! I'm glad to hear that.听到这我真高兴。 / Thanks for saying so.谢谢你这样说。

How's everything with you?/ How is everything going? /近来怎么样?答语可用:“Pretty well."/ " Very well." "Everything is OK.(一切顺利)"Not too bad.“还好”。

、看病时病交际用语

1、医生询问病情时的常用语

What can I do for you" 你看什么病? / What's wrong/the matter/ the trouble with you? 你有什么不舒服。/ Is there anything wrong with you? 有什么看病吗?

4、医生看完病后对病人提出医嘱时的常用语

/ You'd better have a good rest. 你最好好好休息休息。Take this medicine three times a day. 这药每天吃三次。/ Drink plenty of water and have a good rest. 多喝水,好好休息。/ / You'll be well/ all right soon. 不久你会好的。

二十九、 表示判断和意见

What do you think of....?/ How do you like....?你认为......怎么样?

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