过去完成时(past perfect)表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作或状态。 它表示句子中描述的动作发生在“过去的过去”。
那时以前 那时 现在
构成：过去完成时由“助动词 had + 过去分词”构成，其中 had 通用于各种人称。
They had already had breakfast before they arrived at the hotel.
She had finished writing the composition by 10 ：00 this morning.
否定回答：No,主语+had not .
例如： By nine o’clock last night, we had got 200 pictures from the spaceship. 到昨晚9点钟，我们已经收到200 张飞船发来的图片。
例如： I had been at the bus stop for 20 minutes when a bus finally came. 当车来的时候，我在车站已等了20分钟。
He said he had worked in that factory since 1949.
例如： Mr. Smith died yesterday. He had been a good friend of mine.
I didn’t know a thing about the verbs, for I had not studied my lesson.
例如： I returned the book that I had borrowed. 我已归还了我借的书。
She found the key that she had lost. 她丢失的钥匙找到了。
例如： He said that he had known her well. 他说他很熟悉她。
I thought I had sent the letter a week before. 我认为我一星期前就把信寄出去了。 1
如when,before,after,as soon as,till/until引导的
例如： When I woke up, it had already stopped raining. 我醒来时雨已停了。
She didn’t go to bed until she had finished her work. 她直到把工作做完之后才睡觉。
注意：如果两个动作紧接着发生，则常常不用过去完成时，特别是在包含before和after的复合句中，因为 这 时从句的动作和主句的动作发生的先后顺序已经非常明确，这时可以用一般过去时代替过去完成时。
例如： After he arrived in England, Marx worked hard to improve his English. 马克思到达英格兰之后，努力提高他的英语水平。
（7）动词think, want, hope, mean, plan, intend等用过去完成时来表示过去未曾实现的想法，希望，打算或意图等。
例如： They had wanted to help but could not get there in time.
We had hoped to be able to come and see you . 我们本来希望能来看看你。
（8）过去完成时还可用在hardly…when…, no sooner…than…, It was the first (second, etc) time (that)…等固定句型中。
例如：Hardly had he begun to speak when the audience interrupted him.
No sooner had he arrived than he went away again. 他刚到就又走了。
It was the third time that he had been out of work that year.
before,when,after,by+,until, once,had no sooner……than，yet，already等。
（ 1 ） by + 过去的时间点。如：
I had finished reading the novel by nine o'clock last night.
（ 2 ） by the end of + 过去的时间点。如：
We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term. （ 3 ） before + 过去的时间点。如：
They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday.
（ 1 ）宾语从句中
当宾语从句的主句为一般过去时，且从句的动作先于主句的动作时，从句要用过去完成时。在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。如：
She said that she had seen the film before.
（ 2 ）状语从句中
After he had finished his homework, he went to bed.
注意： before, after 引导的时间状语从句中，由于 before 和 after 本身已表达了动作的先后关系，若主、从句表示的动作紧密相连，则主、从句都用一般过去时。如：
After he closed the door, he left the classroom.
（3）表示意向的动词，如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等，用过去完成时表示"原本…，未能…"
We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.
I met Wang Tao in the street yesterday. We hadn't seen each other since he went to Beijing.
现在完成时表示的动作发生在过去，以现在的时间为基点，但侧重对现在产生的结果或造成的影响，与现在有关，其结构为“助动词 have (has) + 过去分词”；过去完成时则是一个相对的时态，以过去时间为基点，它所表示的动作不仅发生在过去，更强调“过去的过去”，只有和过去某时或某动作相比较时，才用到它。
比较：I have learned 1000 English words so far.到目前为止我已经学会了 1000 个英语单词。
I had learned 1000 English words till then.到那时为止我已经学会了 1000 个英语单词。 — I'm sorry to keep you waiting. 对不起，让你久等了。
— Oh, not at all. I have been here only a few minutes.没什么，我只等了几分钟。（“等”的动作从过去某一时间点持续到现在）
比较：They had arrived at the station by ten yesterday.
They arrived at the station at ten yesterday.
She was very happy. Her whole family were pleased with her, too. She had just won the first in the composition competition.
3. 当两个或两个以上接连发生的动作用 and 或 but 连接时，按时间顺序，只需用一般过去时来代替过去完成时；另外，在 before ， after ， as soon as 引导的从句中，由于这些连词本身已经表示出时间的先后，因此也可以用过去时来代替过去完成时。
He entered the room, turned on the light and read an evening paper.
1. We _____________ (paint) the house before we ______________ (move) in.
2. That rich old man _____________ (make) a will before he _____________ (die).
3. They _____________ (study) the map of the country before they ________ (leave).
4. The robbers _____________ (run away ) before the policemen_______ (arrive).
5. I __________ (turn off) all the lights before I ____________ (go) to bed.
6. Paul __________ (go) out with Jane after he __________ (make) a phone call.
7. Tom __________ (say) he ___________ (read) the book twice.
8. Our plan ____________ (fail ) because we _____________ (make) a bad mistake.
9. When the chairman ______________ (finish) speaking, he _____________ (leave)the hall.
11.When I ______________(arrive) at the station, he ____________________(leave).
12.We _______________(learn) about 4000 English words by the end of last term.
13. I waited until he _______________(finish) his homework.
14. We were surprised at what she ________already ______(do)
15.She ____________(not go) to Qingdao because she ________________ (be) there before.
16. He ______________(not tell) you the news yet.
17. He said he _____________already_________(give) the book to the teacher.
18. I ______________(be) to Shanghai before.
19. She told me she _________________(be) to Sanya three times.
20.She _____________(play) the guitar while her sister_______________(sing).
1.We cooked the dumplings. We ate them up. （用过去完成时连接两句）
2.Jim’s father mended the car. It was broken. （用过去完成时连接两句）
3.We had our tests. Then we had a long holiday.( 用过去完成时连接两句)
After we ________________________, we _____________________________
4.He showed us the picture. Then he showed us around the house. 用过去完成时连接两句) Before he _______________________, he______________________________.
1. had painted... moved 2. had made ... died 3. had studied…left
4. had run away..arrived 5. had turned off …went 6. went …had made
7. said …had read 8 failed …had made 9. (had) finished …left
10. were having/had had …got 11. arrived ..had left 12.. had learned
13. (had) finished 14. had ..done 15 didn't go …had been
16. hasn't told 17 had …given 18. have been
19. had been 20. was playing …was singing
1.After we had cooked the dumplings, we ate them up.
2.Jim’s father mended the car because it had been broken.
3.After we had had our tests, we had a long holiday.
4. Before he showed us around the house, he had showed us the picture.