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直接引语和间接引语的讲解

发布时间:2013-11-02 12:42:29  

直接引语和间接引语的讲解

直接引语(Direct Speech):当我们引用别人的话语时,若引用的是原话,被引用的部分叫直接引语。间接引语(Indirect Speech):当我们引用别人的话语时,也可以用自己的话把意思转述出来,这种转述的别人说话的部分叫做间接引语。 例句:1. She said ,” I like English very much. “ 她说:“我非常喜欢英语”。(直接引语)

2. She said she liked English very much. 她说她非常喜欢英语。 (间接引语)

一、直接引语与间接引语的转化

A、人称

人称变化可以遵循如下顺口溜“一随主,二随宾,第三人称不更新”。

“一随主”是指在直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语是第一人称或被第一人称所修饰。从句中的人称要按照主句中主语的人称变化,如:

She said. “My brother wants to go with me.”

→She said her brother wanted to go with her.

“二随宾”是指直接引语变间接引语时,若从句中的主语及宾语是第二人称,或被第二人“你”所修饰,从句中的人称要跟引号外的主句的宾语一致。如果引号外的主句没有宾语,也可以用第一人称,如:

He said to Kate,"How is your sister now?"

→He asked Kate how her sister was then.

“第三人称不更新”是指直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语及宾语是第三人称或被第三人称所修饰从句中的人称一般不需要变化,如:

Mr. Smith said,“Jack is a good worker.”

→Mr. Smith said Jack was a good worker.

B、时态

直接引语在改为间接引语时,时态需要做相应的调整。其基本法则和我们刚刚学过的宾语从句的时态变化一致,也就是说从句时态要和主句时态一致。如果从句是过去时,主句要向后退一格时态,变成一种过去时。

1. She said. “I have lost a pen.” →She said she had lost a pen.

(现在完成→ 过去完成)

2. She said. “We hope so.” →She said they hoped so.

(一般现在 → 一般过去)

3. She said,“He will go to see his friend。”

→She said he would go to see his friend. (一般将来 → 过去将来)

但要注意在以下几种情况下。在直接引语变为间接引语时,时态一般不变化。 ①直接引语是客观真理。如:

“The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth”, the teacher told me.

→ The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth。

②直接引语是过去进行时,时态不变。如:

Jack said, “John, where were you going when I met you in the street?”

→Jack asked John where he was going when he met him in the street.

③直接引语中有具体的过去某年、某月、某日作状语,变为间接引语时,时态不变。如:

Xiao Wang said,“I was born on April 20, 1980.”

→Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980.

④直接引语如果是一般现在时。表示一种反复出现或习惯性的动作,变间接引语,时态不变。如:

He said, “I get up at six every morning.”

→He said he gets up at six every morning.

⑤如果直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式(例:ought to,had better,used to)和已经是

过去时的形式时,(例:could, should, would, might)不再变。如:

Peter said,“You had better come have today.”

→Peter said I had better go there that day.

C. 陈述句的间接引语

直接引语是陈述句,变为间接引语时,在多数情况下都构成一个that引导的宾语从句,引述动词通常是say, tell等。与此同时,间接引语中的人称、时态和其他方面也要相应有所变化,其中人称的变化与汉语的变化是一致的。

例1)John said, “I’ve been late again.”

→ John said that he had been late again.

例2)She said ,”We are very fond of sports.”

→ She said that they were very fond of sports.

D.疑问句的间接引语

1.一般疑问句

一般疑问句改为间接引语时,要用陈述语序,并要加连词if 或 whether,其主句动词常用ask, wonder, want to know, didn't know等。句末不用问号。

例1)My teacher asked me, “Do you like American country music ?”

→ My teacher asked me if/whether I liked American country music.

反意疑问句转述为间接引语时,要把它看成是一般疑问句,即句型为陈述句,在句子前面加if或whether,往往后面还要加上or not,常用whether……or not. 例1)She cried, ”You have made a big mistake, haven’t you ?”

→ She cried whether I had made a big mistake or not.

3.否定的一般疑问句和选择问句

如果直接引语为否定的一般问句或选择疑问句时,用whether……or not连接。 例1)She said, Don't you know my telephone number

→ She asked me whether I knew her telephone number or not.

例2)Do you like this one or that one Tom asked.

→ Tom asked me whether I liked this one or that one.

4.特殊疑问句

间接引语为特殊疑问句时,间接引语前仍然用特殊疑问词作为连词引导宾语从

句,注意从句必须用陈述语序,主句谓语动词常用ask。

例1)He asked, “How do you like it ?”

→ He asked me how I liked it.

例2)She asked me, “What's the matter with you?”

→ She asked me what was the matter with me.

例3)”How many books do you have?” she asked.

→ She asked me how many books I had.

E. 祈使句的间接引语

1.直接引语为祈使句时,间接引语往往用复合宾来表示,其结构为主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语(动词不定式)。引述动词可根据口气选用tell, ask, order, command, request等词,句中please去掉。

例1)She said to me, “Please have a rest. “

→ She asked me to have a rest.

例2)”Don't all answer at once”, she said to the pupils.

→ She told the pupils not to answer all at once.

2.带有let的祈使句(表示请求,建议或命令),可用suggest + -ing形式或suggest +that从句来表示其相应的意思。

例1)”Let's go for a walk”, said the girl.

→ The girl suggested going for a walk.

例2)The teacher said, “Let Lily tidy the classroom.”

→ The teacher suggested that Lily should tidy the classroom.

F. 感叹句的间接引语

1.直接引语是感叹句变为间接引语时,多采用宾语从句结构,既可用what或how引导,也可用that引导。

例1)”What a clever boy you are!” My teacher said to him.

→ My teacher told him what a clever boy he was.

→ My teacher told him that he was a very clever boy.

例2)She said,” How interesting the film is !”

→ She said that how interesting the film was.

2.有些感叹句可以根据原句的意思,采用适当的动词变为陈述句,不需用间接宾语来转述。

例1) “Help! “he cried.

→ He called for help.

例2)”Happy Christmas!” he said.

→ He wished me a happy Christmas.

G. “Would you please ……? “ 如何变为间接引语

“ Would you please ……? “虽然是个一般疑问句,但它表示的是”请求”,变为间接引语时,一般用动词不定式来表示。

句型:主语+ ask / invite +宾语+不定式

例1)”Would you please have lunch with me tomorrow ?” Mr Zhou asked me.

→ Mr Zhou asked / invited me to have lunch with him the next day.

二、间接引语中的词语变化

直接引语变为间接引语时,间接引语中的动词时态、人称代词、物主代词、指示代词、时间和地点状语以及主谓语词序往往要作相应的变化。

A. 时态的变化

直接引语转化为间接引语时,主句动词的时态若是过去时,间接引语的时态要

)

→ She said that she liked maths very much. (一般过去时)

2)He said, “ I’ve never seen this man .” (现在完成时)

→ He said that he had never seen that man. (过去完成时)

例3)Joe said ,” I’m listening to music in my room.” (现在进行时) → Joe said that he was listening to music in his room. (过去进行时) 重要提示1 :当引语表示一般真理或客观事实时,转化为间接引语时时态不变,并且要使用一般现在时。如:

例1)He asked, “ which star is the biggest ?”

→ He asked which star is the biggest .

例2) The teacher told us ,”The earth goes around the sun.”

→ The teacher told us the earth goes around the sun.

重要提示2:当直接引语有确定的过去时间时,时态不需变化。

例1)Chloe said,” The story took place in the 1930s.”

例1)My sister asked me ,”Could you bring the chairs upstairs ?”

→ My sister asked me if I could take the chairs upstairs.

练习

1. A: What did your teacher say just now ?

B: He asked me ________ this morning.

A. how did Tom come to school B. When Tom got to school

C. Why was Tom late for school

2. Tom said he ________ back in a week.

A. will come B. would come C. come

3. The policeman asked the child _________ so that he could take him home.

A. where did he live B. where he lived C. how he lived

4. John asked me _______ to visit his uncle’s farm with him.

A. how would I like B. if or not would I like

C. whether I would like D. which I would like

5. He asked ________ for the computer.

A. did I pay how much B. paid how much

C. how much did I pay D. how much I paid

6.---“Please close the window,” he said to me.

---He ______ me _____ the window.

A. said to; to close B. told to; closing C. asked ; to close D. said to; please close

7.---“I am a teacher,” Jack said.

→ He said _________.

A. that I am a teacher B. I was a teacher C. that he is a teacher D. he was a teacher

8.---He said, “Mother, the boy is very naughty.”

→He _____very naughty.

A. said his mother that the boy was B. said to his mother that the boy is

C. told his mother that the boy was D. spoke to his mother that the boy was

9.---He asked , “ Are you a League member?”

→He asked me _________.

A. am I a League member B. was I a League member

C. if I was a League member D. whether a League member.

10.He asked, “How are you getting along?”

→He asked _______.

A. how am I getting along B. how are you getting along

C. how I was getting along D. how was I getting along

11.---He said, “Don’t do that again.”

→He _____ me _______ that again.

A. said to me; not to do B. said to me; don’t do

C. told me; don’t do D. told me; not to do

12. I wonder if he ________ tonight. If he ________, I’ll let you know.

A. will come; will come B. comes; comes C. will come; comes D. comes; will come

13. Nobody knows ________ he’ll come or not.

A. that B. if C. / D, whether

14. I can’t say _________ I want to see him again. We haven’t seen each other for nearly three years.

A. how long B. how much C. how soon D. how often

15. After the examination, my teacher told me that failure ______ the mother of success.

A. was B. is C. be D. Been

16. “You’ ve already got well, haven’ t you?” she asked.

→She asked ________.

A. if I have already got well, hadn’ t you B. whether I had already got well

C. have I already got well D. had I already got well.

17. Excuse me, but can you tell me ___________?

A. where can I get to the library B. where I can get to the library

C. how can I get to the library D. how I can get to the library

18. I’d like to know ________ Chinese.

A. when he began to learn B. when did he begin to learn

C. when did he begin learning D. for how long he began to learn

19. He asked me ________ with me.

A. what the matter is B. what the mater was

C. what’s the matter D. what was the matter

20. Can you make sure ___________?

A. that he will come here today B. when he will come here today

C. will he come here today D. whether will he come here today

II. 将下列直接引语转化为间接引语。

1. “My parents are very well. “ said Tom.

→ ______________________________________________

2. He asked, “ Tom, where did you read it ?”

→ ______________________________________________

3. The doctor said,” Stay in bed for a few days.”

→ ______________________________________________

4. Tom said,” I woke up feeling ill.”

→ ______________________________________________

5. He said,” I’ll tell Ann I saw you.”

→ ______________________________________________

6. “ Is he doing his homework ?” Jim asked.

→ ______________________________________________

7. Do you like to make friends with us ? He asked.

→ ______________________________________________

8. Tina said ,” I usually get up at six.”

→ ______________________________________________

9.Nell said,” I have worked out this problem.”

→ ______________________________________________

10. Joanna said,” Professor Black is going to give a lecture next week.”

→ ______________________________________________

11. The boy said,” This is the first time I have been here.”

→ ______________________________________________

12. He said: “I’ve left my book in my room.”

→ ______________________________________________

13. The teacher said to the students, “Don’t waste your time.”

→ ______________________________________________

14. He said to me, “I was born in 1978.”

→ ______________________________________________

15. The engineer said, “I was at college in 1967.”

→ ______________________________________________

16. “Where does your chemistry teacher live, Karen?”the young man asked. → ______________________________________________

17. “Light travels faster than sound.” the physics teacher said to the boys and girls. → ______________________________________________

18. “What did you do here yesterday? ”the old man asked my brother.

→ ______________________________________________

19. My father said, “Practice makes perfect.”

→ ______________________________________________

20. She said to Tom, “Can you help me?”

→ ______________________________________________

21. The teacher said, “The earth goes round the sun.”

→ ______________________________________________

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