The Attributive Clause
引导定语从句的关系词有关系代词（在定语 从句中作主语，宾语，表语，定语）和关系 副词（在定语从句中作状语），常见的关系 代词包括that， which， who（宾格whom， 所有格whose）等，关系副词包括where， when， why等。关系代词和关系副词放在先 行词及定语从句之间起连接作用，同时又作 定语从句的重要成分。
词 关 系
代 词 关
先行词 人或物 物
人 人 人或物 时间
在句中作用 主,宾语 主,宾语
主,宾语 宾语 定语 状语
who whom Whose(=of whom/ of which) When(=介词+which)
根据定语从句与先行词的关系，定语从 句可分为限制性定语从句及非限制性定语从 句。限制性定语从句紧跟先行词，主句与从 句不用逗号分开，从句不可省去，非限制性 定语从句主句与从句之间有逗号分开，起补 充说明作用，如省去，意思仍完整。
四、关系代词的用法 ? 1. that 既可以用于指人，也 可以用于指物。在从句中作主语 或宾语，作主语时不可省略，作 宾语可省略。例如：
Mary likes music that is quiet and gentle. 玛丽喜欢轻柔的音乐。（that作主语） ? The coat （that） I put on the desk is blue.我放在桌子上的那件外套是蓝色的。 （that作宾语）
?. that 指人/物，作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略）
A plane is a machine. It can fly. A plane is a machine that can fly.
He is the man. I told you about him. He is the man (that) I told you about.
that 指人/物，作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略）
A plane is a machine that can fly. He is the man (that) I told you about.
? 注意：介词提前时只能用which 而不能用that 。 Is this the library from which you borrow books? from that
? that和which在指物的情况下一般都可以互换, 但在下列情况下, 一般用that而不用which。
(1) 先行词为all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little, much 等不定代词时。 I am sure she has something (that) you can borrow. (2)先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much等 修饰时。 I’ve read all the books that are not mine. (3)先行词被序数词或最高级修饰时。 This is the first book (that) he has read. (4)先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last修饰时。 This is the very book that belongs to him.
? that和which在指物的情况下一般都可以互换, 但在下列情况下, 一般用that而不用which。
(5) 先行词是who或who引导的主句。 Who is the girl that drove the car? Who that broke the window will be punished. (6) 主句以There be 引导时 There are 200 people that didn’t know the thing. (7) 当先行词在定语从句中作be表语時，关系 代词用that. She isn’t the girl that she was 10 years ago. (8)当先行词是which时，关系代词用that. Which is the book that you bought last week?
? that和which在指物的情况下一般都可以互换, 但在下列情况下, 一般用which而不用that。
a.先行词为that， those时，用which， 而不用that.例如： What’s that which is under the desk？ 在桌子底下的那 些东西是什么？ b.关系代词前有介词时，一般用which，而不用that.例如： This is the room in which he lives. 这是他居住的房间。
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c.引导非限制性定语从句，用which， 而不用that.例如： Tom came back， which made us happy. 汤姆回来了， 这使我们很高兴
2.which用于指物，在句中作主语 或宾语，作主语不可省略，作宾 语可省略。
例如： ? The building which stands near the train station is a supermarket.位于火车站附近的 那座大楼是一家超市。（作主语） ? The film （which） we saw last night was wonderful. 我们昨天晚上看的那部电影 很好看。（作宾语）
the red the green the small the big
The apple which is red
The apple which is green is yours.
The apple which is red
The apple which is green is big.
which 指物，作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略, 如介词提前则不能省)
These are the trees which were planted last year.
This recorder （which） he is using is made in Japan. Is this the library (which) you borrow books from? Is this the library from which you borrow books?
? Mrs. Clark is angry with the goat（山羊）. The goat is eating her flowers. Mrs. Clark is angry with the goat which is eating her flowers.
? Can you lend me the book? You talked about it last night. Can you lend me the book (which) you talked about last night. Can you lend me the book about which you talked last night?
Do you find the pen? I wrote with it just now. Do you find the pen (which) I wrote with just now? Do you find the pen with which I wrote just now?
3.who， whom用于指人，who 用作 主语或宾语（与that指人时可替换）， whom只用作宾语。在口语中，有时 可用who代替whom， 也可省略。
例如：The girl who often helps me with my English is from England.经常在英语方面帮 助我的那个女孩是英国人。（作主语，不可 省略） ? She know the nurse (who/whom/ that) we met yesterday.他认识我们昨天见到的那位护 士。（作宾语，可省略）
1. who指人,作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略）
The man who I talked with is our teacher. A person who steals things is called a thief. 2. whom指人,作宾语 (作宾语
可省略, 如介词提前则不能省) The man (whom/who) I nodded to is Mr. Li. The man to whom I nodded is Professor Li.
3.当先行词是those, she ,he ,they等代詞時,关系代词用who. Those who were late for class raise your hands.
the handsome the tall the strong the clever the naughty
The boy is Tom. The boy who is handsome is Tom. The boy who is tall The boy who is strong The boy who is clever The boy who is naughty is Tom. is Tom is Tom is Tom.
? The boy is Tom. The boy is smiling.
The boy who is smiling is Tom.
? The boy is Tom. The boy has a round face.
The boy who has a round face is Tom.
? The boy is Tom. He sits in front of me.
The man who sits in front of me is Tom.
? The man is kind. Everyone likes him.
The man (who) everyone likes is kind.
(宾语) ? The woman got the job.
We saw her on the street. The woman (whom) we saw on the street got the job.
? The teacher will give us a talk.
We met the teacher yesterday. The teacher (whom) we met yesterday will give us a talk.
? The boy is in the lab.
You want to talk to him.
The boy (whom) you want to talk to is in the lab（实验室）.
The boy to whom you want to talk is in the lab.
? This is the boy. I sit behind him.
This is the boy (whom) I sit behind. This is the boy behind whom I sit.
? The lady stepped on his foot.
He was dancing with the lady.
The lady (whom) he was dancing with stepped on his foot.
? Do you know the man?
You will visit him today. Do you know the man whom you will visit today?
(1) The scientist is very famous in the world. We met her yesterday.
The scientist ? we met yesterday is very famous who in the world. whom that (2) The dress is new. She is wearing it. The dress that she is wearing is new. which ?
(3) He is the kind person. I have ever worked with him. He is the kind person that I have ever worked with. who whom ?
(4) This is the best film. I have ever seen this film.
This is the best film that I have ever seen. ?
：（1）当定语从句中含有介词，介词放在句末时， who， that， which可省略，但介词在关系代词前 时，只能用“介词+which/whom”结构。例如： This is the house in which we lived last year. 这是我们去年居住的房子。 Please tell me from whom you borrowed the English novel.请告诉我你从谁那借的这本英文小说。
（2）含有介词的固定动词词组中，介词不可 前置，只能放在原来的位置上。例如： This is the person whom you are looking for. 这就是你要找的那个人。
3）that 作介词的宾语时，介词不能放它的前 面，只能放在从句中动词的后面。例如： ? The city that she lives in is very far away.她居住的城市非常远。
The man who came here yesterday has come again. My sister, who is twenty, works in a bank. 限制性定语从句是先行词在
如果去掉，主句的意思就不完整或失去意义。这种从 句和主句关系十分密切， 写时不用逗号分开。
行词作些附加说明， 如果去掉，主句的意思仍然清楚。 这种从句， 写时往往逗号分开。
whose 在定语从句中作定语，表示引导词 与 whose 后的名词为所属关系。 whose 多指人，也可指物，指物时可与 of which 互换使用。
This is the book whose cover is blue.
This is the book of which the cover is blu
Do you know the girl? Her hair is very short in our class.
Do you know the girl whose hair is very short in our class?
He is the student. I broke his pencil yesterday.
He is the student whose pencil I broke yesterday.
Mr King was quickly taken to hospital. Her legs were badly hurt.
Mr King, whose legs were badly hurt, was quickly taken to hospital.
We shall make a decision about Ms King. I have told you her story.
We shall make a decision about Ms King, whose story I have told you.
This teacher is liked by all the students. I work with her son.
This teacher, with whose son I work, is liked by all the students.
The chair is being repaired now. The legs of the chair are broken.
The chair whose legs are broken is being repaired now.
The chair, the legs of which are broken, is being repaired now.
The boss of the company told the story about… . His name was Mr Little.
The boss of the company, whose name was Mr Little, told the story about Ms Kin
The boss had heard about the accident. Mr King worked in his department.
The boss in whose department Mr King worked had heard about the accident.
when, where, why
I’ll never forget the day when I joined the league.
关系代词（which）”。 This is the house where I lived two years ago. in which
why在定语从句中作原因状语，其先 行词是原因，相当于“介词for+ 关 系代词（which）”。
Do you know the reason why she was late.
It rained heavily, for which he was late for the class.
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1. -Do you know the man ____B__is talking with your father？ -Yes， he’s our headmaster. A. he B. who C. which D. whom 2. Is this the river ___B__I can swim？ A. which B. in which C. that D. the one 3. This is the best hotel in the city __C___I know. A. where B. which C. that D. it 4. Can you lend me the dictionary ___A___the other day？ A. that you bought B. you bought it C. that you bought it D. which you bought it 5. Anyone __C____with what I said may put up you hands. A. which agrees B. who agree C. who agrees D. which agree
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6. My watch is not the only thing ___A___ is missing. A. that B. it C. which D.who 7. The man ____B__coat is black is waiting at the gate A. who’s B. whose C. that of which. 8. The girl _____C_ is reading under the tree _____my sister. A. which； is B. whom； was C. who； is D. who； was 9. I love places __C____the people are really friendly. A. that B. which C. where D. who 10. The world ___D___ is made up of matter. A. in that we live B. on which we live C. where we live in D. we live in
Ⅱ. 用适当的关系代词that， which， who， whom填空。
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1. The first thing that you must do is to have a meal. 2. April 1st is the day which/that is called April Fool’s Day in the west. 3. The family who/that had lost everything in a big fire got much help from their friends. 4. The house that/which we live in is very old. 5. Didn’t you see the man who/whom/that I talked with just now？