haihongyuan.com
海量文库 文档专家
全站搜索:
您现在的位置:首页 > 初中教育 > 初中英语初中英语

初中英语名词、疑问句

发布时间:2013-11-04 12:34:22  

名词

一,专有名词:Coca Cola New York France

普通名词个体名词:teacher student hospital guitar

集体名词:family government team police

物质名词:milk air water sand

抽象名词:health happiness faith beauty

二,名词的单复数变化

1, 通常情况下加S

map-maps, sea-seas, girl-girls, Americans, Germans, Australians, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans

2, 以s, x, ch, sh结尾的名词后加-es

class-classes, box-boxes, watch-watches, dish-dishes, match, bus, brush

3, 以辅音字母加y结尾的名词,变y为i加-es

party-parties, family-families, story-stories, city-cities

以元音字母加y结尾的名词,或专有名词以y结尾的,加-s

toy-toys, boy-boys, day-days, ray-rays, Henry-Henrys

4, 以-f或-fe结尾的词,变-f和-fe为v再加-es

leaf-leaves, thief-thieves, knife-knives, wife-wives, half-halves

也有的直接加s,如:chief-chiefs, proof-proofs, roof-roofs

5, 以o结尾的词

一般加es:Negro-Negroes, hero-heroes, potato-potatoes, tomato-tomatoes

少数既可加s也可加es:zero-zeros/zeroes, volcano-volcanoes/ volcanos

其余的全部加s(0前面是元音的):radio-radios, bamboo-bamboos, zoo-zoos

photo, piano,

6, 以-th结尾的名词加-s:truth-truths, mouth-mouths, month-months, path-paths,

7,不规则变化

(1)man-men,woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice, tooth-teeth, child-children

(2)单复数同形:Chinese, Japanese, Swiss, sheep, deer, fish, means, works,, yuan, jin,

(3)复合名词:

Englishmen, Frenchwomen, women singers, men servants,

sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy friends

三,名词的所有格

所有格分两种:一是名词词尾加’s构成,二是由介词of加名词构成。前者多表示有生命的东西,后者多表示无生命的东西。

(一)名词词尾加’s的情况

(1)表有生命的东西的名词,或者表时间、国家、城镇、机构的名词,一般加’s,若原词已有复数形式s结尾的则仅加’就可以了the boy’s father, Jack’s book

the teachers’ room, the twins’ mother,

the children’s toys, women’s rights,

(2)并列两个名词的所有格形式:Jane’s and Mary’s rooms;Jane and Mary’s room

(3)人名的后面’s表地点:the doctor’s, the barber’s, the tailor’s, my uncle’s (二)由介词of加名词构成的情况

(1)表示无生命的东西,或者不能加’s的名词(如有较长的定语时),都可以与of结成短语the legs of the chair, the cover of the book,the classrooms of the first-year students (2)of可用于同位语结构,而’s不能:the city of Nanjing (3)双重所有格:比较下面几组的区别

a friend of my father’s a photo of Mr.Green’s my father’s friends a photo of Mr.Green 疑问句

一般疑问句结构:be动词、助动词(do/dose/did)、情态动词(can/could/will/should/shall/must 等)+主语。。。。回答用yes/no

I am a boy. You are a student. He is my brother. Lili is my sister

He can play football. I like to play chess with you.

特殊疑问词

反意疑问句

基本结构:陈述部分肯定+疑问部分否定(be动词、助动词、情态动词+主语)

陈述部分否定+疑问部分肯定(be动词、助动词、情态动词+主语)

They work here, don’t they?He is a student, isn’t he?You can play football, can’t you?

1, 陈述部分主语是something, anything, everything, nothing等,疑问部分主语用it。

Everything is ready, isn’t it? Nothing is important, is it?

2, 主语是I时,疑问部分用aren’tI?

3,everyone,no one, nobody——————they

4,this,that————it those, these————they

5, 含有think, believe, suppose, imagine, expect等动词后接宾语从句构成的主从复合句在构成反

意疑问句时,视情况不同有两种不同的构成方式。

(1.)当主句的主语为第一人称时,其后的简短问句应与从句相一致。例如:

I don't believe that he can translate this book, can he?

(2).当主句的主语为第二、三人称时,其后的简短问句则应与主句相一致(此时,否定只看主句,与从

句无关...)。例如:

Your sister supposes she needs no help, doesn't she?

You thought they could have completed the project, didn't you?

6, 陈述部分有had better,或其中的have表示完成时态时,疑问句应用hadn’t等开头:You had better

go home early,hadn't you?

7,当陈述部分有never,seldom, hardly,few,little,barely, scarcely, nothing,nobody等否定

意义的词时,后面的反意疑问句则为肯定形式:

There are few apples in the basket, are there?

(当陈述部分含有否定意思的词是unhappy,dislike,unfriendly等含有否定词缀的派生词,也就是

有un-前缀、-less后缀等含有词缀而意思否定的词,当做肯定句处理,疑问部分要用否定形式。) 8,祈使句:Let's————shall we,其余均用will you(包括 Let us)不论肯定否定

9,must有两种情况:(1)表“必须”、“有必要”时疑问部分用mustn't/needn't

You must leave at once, mustn't/needn't you?

(mustn't————must ) You mustn't laugh, must you?

(2)若表推测,则应根据must后面的动词的结构采用相应的形式

He must be tired, isn't he?

10,陈述部分主语为不定式、动名词或从句时,疑问部分用it

Reading in bed is bad for your eyes, isn't it?

11,当陈述部分为主从复合句是,疑问部分一般与主句保持一致

He knows where I live, doesn't he?

12,当陈述部分是感叹句时,疑问句部分用一般现在时构成。

What a nice boy, isn't it? How beautiful she sings, doesn't she?

13,当主语是neither...nor, either...or, both...and, not only...but also等,附加部分主语常用复数代替:Neither you nor I am wrong, are we?

介词

主谓一致

1, 以单数名词或代词、动词不定式短语、动名词短语或从句作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式;主语为复数时,谓语动词用复数形式。如:His father is working on the farm. / To study English well is not easy. / What he said is very important for us all. / The children were in the classroom two hours ago. / Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes.

注意:由what引导的主语从句,后面的谓语动词多数情况用单数形式,但若表语是复数或what从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结构时,主句的谓语动词用复数形式。如:What I bought were three English books. / What I say and do is (are) helpful to you.

2. 由连接词and或both …… and连接起来的合成主语后面,要用复数形式的谓语动词。如:Lucy and Lily are twins. / She and I are classmates. / The boy and the girl were surprised when they heard the news. / Both she and he are Young Pioneers. 注意:(1)若and所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物时,它后面的谓语动词就应用单数形式。如:The writer and artist has come. (2)由and连接的并列单数主语前如果分别有no, each, every more than a (an), many a (an)修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。如:Every student and every teacher was in the room. / No boy and no girl likes it.

3. 主语为单数名词或代词,尽管后面跟有with, together with, except, but, like, as well as, rather than, more than, no less than, besides, including等引起的短语,谓语动词仍用单数形式;若主语为复数,谓语用复数形式。如:Mr. Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China. / Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground. / She, like you and Tom, is very tall.

4. either, neither, each, every 或no +单数名词和由some, any, no, every构成的复合不定代词,都作单数看待。如:Each of us has a new book. / Everything around us is matter.

注意:(1)在口语中当either或neither后跟有“of+复数名词(或代词)”作主语时,其谓语动词也可用复数。如:Neither of the texts is (are) interesting. (2)若none of后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动词就要用单数;若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动词用单数或复数都可以。如:None of us has (have) been to America.

5. 在定语从句时,关系代词that, who, which等作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。如:He is one of my friends who are working hard. / He is the only one of my friends who is working hard.

6. 如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语动词用单数;如果它指集体的成员,其谓语

动词就用复数形式。这些词有family, class, crowd, committee, population, audience等。如:Class Four is on the third floor. / Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.

注意:people, police, cattle等名词一般都用作复数。如:The police are looking for the lost child.

7. 由“a lot of, lots of, plenty of, the rest of, the majority of + 名词”构成的短语以及由“分数或百分数+名词”构成的短语作主语,其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词的数而定。如:There are a lot of people in the classroom. / The rest of the lecture is wonderful. / 50% of the students in our class are girls.

注意:a number of“许多”,作定语修饰复数名词,谓语用复数;the number of“……的数量”,主语是number,谓语用单数。

8. 在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。如:There comes the bus. / On the wall are many pictures. / Such is the result. / Such are the facts.

二、逻辑意义一致原则

逻辑意义一致就是谓语动词的数必须和主语的意义一致(因有时主语形式为单数,但意义为复数;有时形式为复数,但意义为单数)。

1. what, who, which, any, more, all等代词可以是单数,也可是复数,主要靠意思来决定。如:Which is your bag? / Which are your bags? / All is going well. / All have gone to Beijing.

2. 表示“时间、重量、长度、价值”等的名词的复数作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数形式,这是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个整体,如:Thirty minutes is enough for the work.

3. 若英语是书名、片名、格言、剧名、报名、国名等的复数形式,其谓语动词通常用单数形式。如:“The Arabian Nights” is an interesting story-book.

4. 表数量的短语“one and a half”后接复数名词作主语时,其谓语动词可用单数形式(也可用复数。如:One and a half apples is (are) left on the table.

5. 算式中表示数目(字)的主语通常作单数看待,其谓语动词采用单数形式。如:Twelve plus eight is twenty. / Fifty-six divided by eight is seven.

6. 一些学科名词是以 –ics结尾,如:mathematics, politics, physics 以及news, works等,都属于形式上是复数的名词,实际意义为单数名词,它们作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。如:The paper works was built in 1990. / I think physics isn?t easy to study.

7. trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes,等词作主语时,谓语用复数,但如果这些名词前有a(the) pair of等量词修饰时,谓语动词用单数。如:My glasses are broken. / The pair of shoes under the bed is his.

8. “定冠词the + 形容词或分词”,表示某一类人时,动词用复数。

三、就近一致原则

在英语句子中,有时谓语动词的人称和数与最近的主语保持一致。

1. 当两个主语由either …… or, neither …… nor, whether …… or ……, not only …… but also连接时,谓语动词和邻近的主语一致。如:Either the teacher or the students are our friends. / Neither they nor he is wholly right. / Is neither he nor they wholly right?

2. there be句型be动词单复数取决于其后的主语。如果其后是由and连接的两个主语,则应与靠近的那个主语保持一致。如:There are two chairs and a desk in the room. 注意:Here引导的句子用法同上。

网站首页网站地图 站长统计
All rights reserved Powered by 海文库
copyright ©right 2010-2011。
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit326@126.com