How do you study for a test?
I study by listening to cassettes. I learn by studying with a group. It improves my speaking skills.
I’ve learned a lot that way.
-Do you learn English by reading aloud? -Yes, I do.
Speaking and writing
1. Conversations 和你的朋友谈一谈学习中遇到的困难， 你们是怎样解决这些问题的？ 你能给朋友提供更好的学习方法吗？ 然后，把对话写下来。
你的朋友由于某种原因，学习上遇到了 一些困难。请你在小组里向同学们谈谈 你朋友的困难，然后向老师汇报你们 给这位朋友提出了哪些建议。并将讨论 的过程写下来。 （要求：用第三人称写出你朋友学习上 遇到的困难，再写出每个同学 给他提出的建议。）
下周班里准备开一次“英语学习经验 交流会“。请你在班会上谈谈你的学习 方法。并把你的讲话写下来。
I find learning …difficult(easy) because_________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ When I started _________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. I I I I I I
can’t read fluently. can’t spell some English words. can’t understand spoken English. can’t pronounce some of the words. make mistakes in Grammar. can’t understand the words in newspapers and magazines. 7. I don’t get much writing practice.
1.Maybe you should find a pen pal. 2.You can always write the new words in your notebook and learn them at home. 3.Why don’t you join an English language club? 4. You can write English diary every day. 5. Listening can help.
6. They learnt by using English. 7. The best way to learn English words is by reading English magazines. 8. He thinks studying grammar is a great way to learn a language. 9. Watching English movies isn’t a bad way . 10.Joining the English club is the best way to improve your English.
1. … always keep an English notebook. 2. …often listen to English Cassettes. 3. …sometimes write vocabulary lists. 4. …never study grammar. 5. …often ask the teacher questions. 6. …watch English-language TV. 7. …read English story-books. 8. …read English magazines and papers. 9. …listen to some English songs. 10. …seldom ask an English tutor. 11. …always learn by doing sth.
III. How do you study English?
always often usually sometimes seldom never
IV. How does he(she) study? (Talk about your friend.) 1. … always keeps an English notebook. 2. …often listens to English Cassettes. 3. …writes vocabulary lists. 4. …studies grammar. 5. …asks the teacher questions. 6. …watches English-language TV.
7. …reads English story-books. 8. …reads English magazines and papers. 9. …listens to some English songs. 10. …asks an English
tutor. 11. …learns by doing sth.
tall strong medium height thin heavy blonde curly
shy serious honest outgoing
friendly funny quiet easygoing
used to do
used to have
straight hair short hair curly hair blond hair medium build
used to be
be be be be thin medium height a little bit quiet good-looking
What did you use to look like? What did he use to look like? What did you use to be like? Did you use to play soccer? Did you use to have short hair? He used to study by writing.
Writing 1. 你们班里来了一位新的英语 老师，请你向老师介绍你的同桌 同学，说说他（她）进入中学以来 有哪些变化。帮助老师尽快地了解 每一个同学情况。 并把你的介绍写下来。
2. 写一写. 进入中学以来, 你个人的学习和生活等， 发生了哪些变化？ (外表、性格、习惯)
Maybe useful expressions
What do you look like? I’m short. I’m thin.
What do they look like? They’re medium height.
What does he look like? He’s medium height. What does she look like? She is tall. She is thin.
She has short, straight hair.
She is very popular. He has medium build. My friend is thin and medium height.
She has short, blond, curly hair.
She is good looking but she ‘s a little bit quiet. She loves to tell jokes.
She’s short and a little bit heavy.
She never stops talking. He likes reading and playing chess.
For breakfast she likes… eggs, milk, bread, oranges
For lunch he like… hamburgers, carrots,and ice cream French fries, salad
For dinner he has… chicken, broccoli, dessert, tomatoes
He likes playing… (basketball, football, soccer ball, guitar, trumpet, drum, piano, violin)
She likes dancing. (singing, …)
Teenagers should be allowed to choose their own clothes. A: I think students should be allowed to do homework with friends. B: I disagree. They talk instead of doing homework.
A: Sixteen-year-olds should not be allowed to drive. B: I agree. They aren’t serious enough at that age. A: Do you think sixteen-year-olds should be allowed to work at night? B: No, I don’t.
Writing 1. 每个学校都有校规校纪，阅读以下条款， 哪些是你们学校的校规校纪，请选出来。 A) Students should not be allowed to be late for school. B) Sixteen-year-olds should not be allowed to drive. C) Students should be allowed to watch TV after dinner. D) Students should not be allowed to smoke.
E) Students should not be allowed to sleep in class. F) Students should not be allowed to listen to music in class. G) Students should be allowed to join all kinds of clubs. H) Students should not be allowed to eat in class. I) Students should be allowed to help do some housework. J) Students should not be allowed to run in the corridor .
2. 初三(1)班全体同学要为本班制定班规, 请你为他们提几条班规. Examples: 1) Students should be allowed to have lunch in the school dinning-room. 2) Students should not be allowed to wear slippe
rs at school. 3) ……
3.不同的家庭有不同的家规, 和同学们 谈谈自己家里的家规。 1）写出你们的对话。
A: What would you do if you won a million dollars? B: If I won a million dollars, I would register my own company. If I were you, I’d wear a shirt and tie. If I were you, I’d take an umbrella.
John wants to stay up late to watch a movie tonight,but he knows he shouldn’t.If he stays up late to watch a movie, he won’t go to bed until midnight. If he doesn’t go to bed until midnight, he’ll probably be very tired in the morning. If he is very tired in the morning, he’ll oversleep. If he oversleeps, he’ll be late for work. If he is late for work, his boss will get angry and fire him. So, though John wants to stay up late to watch a movie, he isn’t going to.
I want to be a spaceman. If I were a spaceman, I would have a space shuttle. If I had a space shuttle, I would travel around the space.If I traveled around the space, I would be famous. If I were famous, the people would respect me and they would asked me to attend all kinds of parties. It could be excellent to be a spaceman!
Mr and Mrs Wilson live in New York City. They are very sad because their 18-year-old son, John, died in the war of Iraq. If John was alive, he would study in a university. If he studied ___________________ _________________________________________ ________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________
1. If your boss wanted you to fire one of your best workers, what would you do? ( You know that your boss wants to give the job to a relative.) ?2. If your friend asked you if he could get ? any help from you during the exam, what ? would you do?
3. If you found a wallet in the street with a lot of cash in it. ( There is no name or address inside.)
4. If your teacher criticized you, but in fact it wasn’t your fault.
Complete the sentences from your own experience:
If I were you, I would ask him at once.
1.A: I argued with my best friend. B: If I were you, I…
2.A: A friend said something bad about me. B: If I were you, I… B: If I were you, I… 4.A: I failed in the English test. B: If I were you, I… 5.A: I argued with my best friend. B:If I were you, I…
3.A: I’m afraid of speaking in public
1. I’d leave my home city if… 2. I might not speak to you again if…
3. I’d be very miserable if… 4. I’d be frightened if … 5. I’d be very extremely happy if ….
Exercises: complete the conditional sentences in the conversations
1.A: What are you doing this evening? B: I’m not sure. If there_________ (not be) anything good on TV, I think I _____ (read) a detective story. Or maybe I_____(go) to bed early. 2.A: What time will Kate be home? B: If I _____(know) I _____(tell) you.
But unfortunately, she didn’t say anything about it. A: Well, if she _____(get) home before 10:00, please have her call me.
3. A: I’m so stressed out. B: It’s none of my business, but if I_____(be) you, I _____(take) some time off. 4. A: I’m afraid your flight has been delayed due to bad weather. B: Oh no! When will it take off? We don’t have any idea yet. If it_____ (stop) snowing this evening, then your flight_____ (depart) some time tonight.It’s too early to tell. I ____(let) you know if I______(hear) any news.
It must be Ning’s. It has her name on it.
Unit 5 It must belong to you.
It could be Ali’s. She studies French. It might belong to Alice. She plays the guitar. It can’t be John’s. It’s much too small for him.
must 很可能, 一定, 肯定, might 也许；或许；可能 could 能， 可能 can't 不能, 不会
情态动词：本身有词义，表示 说话人的语气或情态，但词义 不完全，只能与不带to的动词 不定式连用，后面跟动词原形， 一起（ought等除外）构成谓语。
? 表示推测，多用于肯定句。 ? 在肯定句中must+动词原形表示对现在和 将来的判断、推测。 You must be very tired. ? Must+ have +p.p. 表示过去的判断、 推测。 ? She wasn’t home last night. She must have gone to her mother’s.
? 表示必须要做的事。(主观） ? 表示义务、命令或必要。必须, 应当 We must keep our word. 我们必须遵守诺言。 ? 表示不可避免性或肯定性。必然要, 必 定会 Man must die. 人必有一死。
? 表示与说话人愿望相反及不耐烦。偏要 Why must it rain on Sunday? 为什么偏要在星期天下雨？! ? Must的否定： needn’t 或 don’t have to ? Mustn’t 千万不能，一定不要，表示禁 止行为。 ? You mustn't tell anybody about this - it's a secret. ? 这件事你不能告诉任何人 - 这是一个秘密。
? 为 may 的过去式,在陈述句中表示一般 的可能性。有时用might代替may，使语 气婉转，表达可能性时也远不如may把握 性大。可以, 或许; 可能 I said that it might rain. 我说过可能会下雨。
? 表示现在或将来不太确实的可能性。也 许, 或许; 可能 I‘m afraid it might rain tonight. 我看今晚可能要下雨。 ? 表示对过去事实的推测might+have+p.p. He might have been Tibet before. 他以前可能去过西藏。 ? 用于疑问和建议时语气比 may 更加委婉, 谦虚。可以
? Might I ask a question?
我是不是可以提个问题? ? 表示愿望、祝愿、请求, 嘱咐。请, 愿, 还是...好 You might at least apologize. 你至少应该道个歉吧。 ? 用于虚构条件句中。会; 可能 I would go if I might. 如我能去我就去。
? 表示可能性。能， 可能， 可以 You could do better. ? 用于委婉语气。能， 可以 Could you do sth. for me? ? 用
于虚拟语气中， 表示相反的假设。能， 本 来可以 I could come tomorrow if you like. ? 在虚拟条件句中构成谓语。 I would help you if I could.
? can‘t =can not 不能, 不会 表示否定。 No, that’s can’t be ture.
? 属于；为…的财产 That book belongs to me. 那本书属于我。 ? 为…的一员 What club do you belong to? 你是哪个俱乐部的? ? 和…有关联
英语中有主动和被动两种语态。 前者以动作的执行者充当主语，后者以动 作的承受者 (即宾语) 充当主语。由于只 有及物动词才有宾语，因此只能是及物动 词才有被动语态形式。 被动语态以助动词be加上动词的过去 分词构成，如： We speak English. (主动语态) English is spoken. (被动语态)
有时为了表明动作的执行者，可在被动语态 句型中加上介词by引导的短语，如： The glass was broken by the cat yesterday. 由于动词be在不同时态中有不同形式， 因此被动语态在各种时态中也有不同的结构。 一般现在时由am/are/is加上过去分词构成， 如： Football is played all over the world. The rooms are cleaned every day.
一般过去时由was/were加上过去分词构成， 如： The telephone was invented by Thomas Edison. A lot of people were hurt in the traffic accident.
一般将来时由will be加上过去分词构成， 其中will也可用情态动词替换，如： The work will be finished tomorrow morning. This problem can be worked out in another way.
Something must be done to stop the wind from blowing the earth away.
现在完成时由have/has been加上过去分词 构成，如： A lot has been talked about the protection of our environment. Many ways have been tried to help the sick boy.
现在进行时由am/are/is being加上过去分词 构成，如： A new bridge is being built on the river. All the factories are being moved out of the city.
句子假设的情况如果是完全不存在的 （与现在或过去的事实相反），或者实现 的可能性很小（与将来的事实可能相反）， 这种句子叫做虚拟条件句，它的谓语动词 用虚拟语气。
1.表示与现在事实相反的情况时，条件 从句的动词用一般过去式（be的过去式用 were或was），主句的动词用would(should, could或might)加动词原形。例如：
The little girl said,”If I were a president, I would do a lot of things for the people.” 情况不可能发生。 比较： Bush said,” If I am the president, I will do a lot of things for the ‘ people.” 他自认为情况很有可能发生。
If I were invited, I’d go to the dinner party. (Fact: I’m not invited, so I won’t go.) If I had time, I would(should) go with you. (Fact: I am very busy, so I can’t go with you.)
If she knew about it now, she would come. (Fact: She doe
sn’t know about it.) If they did not water the flowers, the flowers would(could) not grow so well. (Fact: They water the flowers everyday, so the flowers grow well.)
从句的动词用had加过去分词，主句的动词 用would(should, could或might)加have和 过去分词。例如：
If he had come here yesterday, I should have told him. (Fact: He did not come and so I did not tell him.)
3. 表示与将来事实很可能相反的情况 时,条件从句的动词--(1)过去式(即与上述情况1 相同) (2)或用should +动词原形, (3)或用were to+动词原形; 主句的动词用would(should, could或 might)加动词原形。从句中这三种情况 都是表示不大可能实现的假想情况; 不可能实现的程度不完全一样.
第(1)种结构(过去式)所表示的情况,实现 的可能性较大; 第(2)种结构(should+ should +动词 原形)所表示的情况,实现的可能性较小; 第(3)种结构(were to+动词原形)所表示的 情况,实现的可能性最小. 例如： If he came tomorrow, he would find me in my office. (他来不来没有什么把握.)
If it should (happen to) rain this afternoon, the football match would be put off. (下雨的可能性不大)
If you were to fail to catch the train, you might take the bus. (事实上,赶不上火车的可能性很小)
Grammar Focus (Unit 1-5)
How do you study for a test? I study by listening to cassettes.
Unit 1 How do you study for a test.
How do you learn English? I learn by studying with a group.
Do you learn English by reading aloud? Yes, I do.
Unit 2 I used to be afraid of the dark.
I wasn’t very outgoing. You used to have long hair. Did you use to have straight hair? Yes, I did. Did you use to play the piano? No, I didn’t.
Teenagers should be allowed to choose their own clothes. -I think students should be allowed to do homework with friends. -I disagree. They talk instead of doing homework.
-Sixteen-year-olds should not be allowed to drive. -I agree. They aren’t serious enough at that age.
- Do you think sixteen-year-olds should be allowed to work at night. -No, I don’t.
Unit 4 What would you do?
-What would you do if you won a million dollars? -I’d give it to charities.
If I were you, I’d wear a shirt and tie. If I were you I’d take an umbrella.
Unit 5 I must belong to Carla.
-Whose notebook is this? -It must be Ning’s. It has her name on it. -Whose French book is this? -It could be Alis. She studies French.
-Whose guitar is this? -It might belong to Alice. She plays the guitar.
-Whose T-shirt is this? -It can’t be John’s. It’s much too small for him.