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初中英语任务型阅读..

发布时间:2013-11-07 12:36:14  

初中英语任务型阅读教学 的问题与思考

示例1
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1.导入(教师介绍课文大意) 2.放录音 3.教师就课文内容提问,学生回答 4.教师归纳各段大意 5.讲解分析课文,学习语言点 6.熟读并准备复述课文

示例2
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1.与课文内容有关的讨论,预测课文要谈的话题 2.学生快读课文,为课文选择一个合适的标题 3.学生较细致地阅读课文,填写图表 4.学生再次阅读并与同桌讨论,确定各段大意 5.师生讨论进一步疏通课文内容和语言点,学生 作出笔记 6.学生听课文录音,准备相互提问

示例3
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1. Look at the topic and try to predict the content of the text and lead-in pair work discussion. 使所设计的问题尽量贴近学生 的实际。由于学生很可能已经预习了课文,predicting可能 会变得乏味,所以教师可以让学生预测一下计算机的未来 是什么样的,或者计算机在你的生活中的位置。(在这种 活动中,我们可以看出:讨论是一种形式,而进行预测这 一阅读的技巧训练才是活动的实质。) 2. Discuss in pairs or groups about functions that a computer has and make a list of it. Compare your list with your friends' and the function mentioned in the text. Try to find three differences between your list and the text. (这种活动,实际上也是一种 阅读技巧的训练。学生练习的是通过略读和搜索阅读来查 找有关信息以及学生的归纳能力。)

示例3
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3. Contextualized reading comprehension.主要练习学 生凭借语境/对上下文的理解而猜词判义的能力。 (同时也是为了消除学生对生词的焦虑感和恐惧 感。) 4. Read and fill in a chart/table. 再次阅读文章,并填 写后面表格空白处。(这里训练的是对阅读所获 信息进行归纳分类的能力。) 5. A problem-solving activity.根据三个顾客的不同 要求分别为他们选择一台电脑并解释理由。(这 一步是总结性的归纳,也是活动的高潮,它是前 四个活动中所练习的能力的综合体现。)

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外语阅读教学理论
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阅读过程是读者和读物之间的相互作用过程。意义不 附于语言形式表层,也不是被动地等待读者去获取。 读者必须利用多方面的知识通过预测、推理等积极思 维才能获取意义,理解读物。 在阅读过程中读者掌握的相关知识(背景知识,跨文 化知识,读物的结构知识等)和语言知识同等重要。 足够的语言知识,迅速识别词义的语言运用技巧,一 定的背景知识和运用相关知识进行预测、推理的阅读 技巧是读者进行有效阅读的四大必要条件。

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Theory of Language Learning 建构主义理论
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学习者: 不是被动的旁观者,而是主动的参与 者. 教学者:不是水桶,而是

一个支架. 知识:不是客观的东西,而是人在实践活动中 创造的暂定性的解释和假设. 学习: 不是简单复制和吸入信息,而是主动解 释信息和建构知识. 教学: 不是传递,而是创造理想的环境促使学 生自主建构知识.

主要讨论的问题:
I. Pre-task phase: 1. 没有抓住文章主旨,导入不得要领,或过于花哨,喧宾夺主 ; 2. 缺乏必要铺垫(生词,难句,文化背景); 3. 没有为阅读前的预测创设一定的条件。 II. While-task phase: 1. 匆匆而过,处理粗糙, 几乎没有阅读过程, 侧重于语言产出, 但产出语言与输入语言关系不大; 2. 片面强调了信息输入,忽视语言输入,忽视了原 文的精确理解; 3. 把“问答”等练习作为任务的唯一形式,教师不再有讲授的过 程,只是发指令、作评价。阅读课成了“阅读理解检测课” ; 4. 缺乏阅读深层理解的训练。

什么是任务?
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狭义的任务“是指与现实生活中的事情 相近似的语言学习活动,是为了某种交际 目的而使用目的语并获得某种结果的一种 活动。” (Willis,1996)
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我们英语课堂中的任务是广义上的任务, 既包括交际任务。又包括非交际任务(或 叫语言任务或教学性任务)。

什么是交际性任务?
请比较下面二项任务: 1. 请用英语短文比较电子词典和纸质词典的 优劣,谈谈你的选择。
2. 请给在外出差的父亲写封信,让他买个电 子词典回来,讲讲你的理由。

任务与练习的区别:
任务
侧重点 意义

练习
形式

交际目的
生活情景 评价标准


有 完成情况


无 形式正确与否

语言控制
纠错与否 信息流向

自由
观察—分析—纠正 双向、多向

严格
立即纠正 单向

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非交际学习:完全关注语言形式,例如无语境的纯 语法练习,替换练习,语音练习等。 前交际学习练习:主要是语言练习,但同时给予意 义一些关注,例如问答练习。 交际语言练习:是在语境中使用先前学过的语言交 流新信息,例如信息差活动、问卷调查等。 结构化交际:主要关注意义,教师精心构建情景, 以使学生运用最近在交际语言练习中用过的语言 进行交际,包括比较复杂的信息交流活动,如脚 色扮演、简单的问题解决等。 真实交际:完全关注意义交流,如创造性的脚色扮 演、复杂问题解决和讨论等。

任务型教学途径
任务型教学途径包涵学习语言的练习和真实交 际的活动一个连续体的两个维度。 三种教学活动: ? 非交际性语言练习 (句型转换、替换句型、多项 选择、问答、翻译、填空等)
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交际性语言活动(具有信息差的角色扮演、猜谜 、调查、采访、讨论、写信/日记、辩论等) 任务型活动 (具有真

实意义的、交际性、互动性 、合作性、创造性的活动

Pre-task phase
Three purposes: ---to serve to introduce new language that learners can use while performing the task; ---to mobilize existing linguistic resources; ---to ease processing load, and to push learners to interpret tasks in more demanding ways
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Daily Routines
I. Lead-in questions

1.What is a part of everyday’s daily routine? 2. Who do students usually socialize with? 3. Where do students usually do private study?

A routine is something we do regularly. Our daily routine, therefore, is the things that we usually do every day. For most of us, these include eating, sleeping, making ourselves and our clothes clean, working and having some kind of recreation and social life. It is in our work, social life and recreation that our routines are most different from other people. For some people, keeping to their daily routine is very important. They are not happy if they have to make changes to it. For other people, doing the same things at the same times everyday is boring and they try not to be a slave to their routines. The following is a possible daily routine for a university student…

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1. What is a part of everyday’s daily routine? 2. Who do students usually socialize with? 3. Where do students usually do private study? 1. What are the things you do every day as a student? (引入 daily routine, recreation, social life) 2. Do you think your daily life is interesting or boring? 3. What do you like to do besides studying? 4. What do you think life is like for a university student?

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Bringing the community into school
1. As a student, what do you think of your own school? 2. Is your school an important part of the community? 3. The following passages will tell you something about how to bring the community into school in most western countries.

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Bringing the community into school IN most Western countries schools are a really important part of the community. For example, in Britain, schools are governed by boards of governors①. Such boards will include the school head teacher, teachers, parents of students and other people from the community.

There are parents' evenings. At a parents' evening, parents go along to discuss their child's work with the teachers. In one-to-one talks teachers tell the parents how the kids are doing and ask for the parents' own input②. If kids are not working hard, they may find themselves told off③ after a parents' evening! If a kid is trying hard, but has a problem, the parents and the teachers try to work out a way to help.
There are other ways in which parents get involved④. Schools put on plays, at Christmas and on other festivals. Moms and dads come along to watch their kids' first steps in acting.

Schools also hold Sports Days. These are like miniature Olympic Games. Parents go along to watch their kids competing in a number of games - some quite a lot m

ore fun than those in the Olympics. I remember taking part in a three-legged race when I was a kid!

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1. As a student, what do you think of your own school? 2. Is your school an important part of the community? 3. The following passages will tell you something about how to bring the community into school in most western countries.

1. Do your parents often visit your school and talk to your teachers? 2. Does your school hold parents’ meetings every term? 3. Do you think your school is closely linked with the society as a part of the community?

Fast Food Franchises I. Lead-in questions 1. What is a Franchise? 2. Franchising is not big business in most western nations, is it? 3. What’s the main advantage of having a Franchise?

Many people think that fast foods are an American invention. In fact, in most countries there have been and still are street hawkers selling quick meals for as long as people have been living in towns. The American invention has been the fast food franchise. These have spread all over the world in the past twenty years or so. The best-known are Macdonald’s, KFC and Pizza Hut. KFC used to be called Kentucky Fried Chicken but the company shortened its name to KFC because many people believe that fried foods are not healthy. A franchise is a license to sell something. Most of the fast food restaurants are not owned by the company whose names they use. They are owned by individual shopkeepers who pay the companies fees to use their name and make and sell the products that the companies have created---hamburgers, a kind of sandwich, for example. Franchising is big business in most western nations, not only for fast foods but for all kinds of businesses--- real estate agencies, pharmacies, clothing stores, book stores, etc. There are hardly any kinds of business for which there are not franchises available. The main advantage of having a franchise instead of starting a new business is that with a franchise the shop-keeper is selling something that is already well-known. This is because the owners of the companies that have created the franchised products spend a great deal of money advertising them, far more than individual franchises could ever spend. (252 words)

1. What is a Franchise? 2. Franchising is not big business in most western nations, is it? 3. What’s the main advantage of having a Franchise?

1.Do you think all the KFCs in our city are owned by the same company? ? 2. Have you ever heard of the word “franchise”? ? 3. Do you think Macdonald’s, KFC and Pizza Hut are examples of successful business? Why? You should list the reasons which you can compare with what are mentioned in the text .
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总结:导入过程应完成下列三项任务:

1. 从学习者已有的认知出发引入新话题 (由近至远,由己及人,由浅入深,由具体到抽象), 激活图式,激发兴趣;
2. 为自主阅读,提供语言方面的支撑,扫除文化背景的 障碍

; 3. 为阅读前的预测设置情景,让学生带着问题阅读。

能回答问题就一定理解吗?
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John was late that morning. Obviously he hadn?t expected the road would be so pancky. Why was John late that morning? What should it be to keep the reader interested? It should be full of action. What should we give to the characters? We should give the characters strong personality. What does “messy” mean? It means “untidy”. Why did he throw away the cup? Because he was a thinker and philosopher.

理解了信息等于理解了语言吗?
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While –task phase 没有完成 contextual comprehension. 忽视语言输入,忽视了原文的精确理解, 忽视了阅读课的首要任务。

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Creating a comic strip --think of a plot -- strong personality --be dramatic with an exciting finish --full of action --keep the reader interested --You can tell what …

(请观察“空中英语教室 ”如何做到contextual comprehension)

什么是阅读的深层理解?
你能读懂下面的句子吗? A woman without a man is like a fish without a bicycle. ? 下面的句子在交际中还有可能表达怎样的意思? I?m tired. It?s cold here. ? 鲁梅哈特(Rumelhart)曾经指出,一个读者不 能正确理解一篇文章的原因可能有三种情况:一是 读者不具备与文章内容相关的图式;二是读者虽然 具有与文章内容相关的图式,但作者提供的线索不 足以激活读者的图式;三是读者自以为读懂了文章 ,却误解了作者的意思。
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Stages of Reading Comprehension

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2. 3. 4.

了解词句意义; 预测内容发展; 概括全文大意; 掌握内容细节;

5.

6.
7. 8. 9.

推测隐含意义; 理解篇章结构; 识别文体风格; 揣摩作者意图; 评判鉴赏文章。

Three Levels of Comprehension:
Recognition
Reading Lines

Inference
Reading between Lines

Interpretation & application
Reading behind The Lines

1、了解词句意义; 2、预测内容发展; 3、概括全文大意; 4、掌握内容细节;

5、推测隐含意义; 6、理解篇章结构; 7、识别文体风格;

8、揣摩作者意图; 9、评判鉴赏文章。

Critical thinking— 22 comprehension strategies
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Drawing conclusions Understanding cause and effect Making connections Comparing view points Evaluating ideas Reading between the lines Making judgments

22 comprehension strategies
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Making comparisons Interpreting meaning Making inferences Comparing characters Reading a map Interpreting graphs and charts Making calculations Examining reasons

22 comprehension strategies
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Separating facts from opinion Identifying the main idea Organizing information Sequencing Summarizing Recalling details Synthesizing

Making judgments
Highlight the three pieces of information in the text that you think everyone should

know.
Most important_________________ Second most important___________ Least important__________________

Developing alternative solutions
With a group, brainstorm three different solutions to ..?s problem. A __________________ B __________________ C ___________________
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When you brainstorm, everyone contribute ideas. Write down every idea. ….

Examining reasons
Why do you think it?s necessary in this experiment to collect…? ____________________________ ? How do you think the author says to use…? _____________________________ ? Why do you think…?
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Making comparisons
Similarities ____________________________ ____________________________
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Differences ____________________________
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Forming opinions
How do you think the author of this article feel about…? ___________________________ ? Do you think these.. are fair or unfair? In your notebook, write a paragraph explaining your opinion about what happens to… _____________________________ _____________________________
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Organizing information
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In the text, the author talks about three kinds of problems: environmental, animal and human. For each statement below, label the kind of problem being described ___________________________ __________________________ __________________________

Contrasting and comparing selections
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When you contrast selections you think about how they are different. When you compare selections you think about how they are the same.

summarizing
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To summarize is to make a brief statement giving the main points of a text.

Check off the three sentences below that you think best summarize “…”.

Types of Possible Tasks
1. Extracting main ideas 1) Decide whether each paragraph refers to the ?Dream Hotel? or his ?Nightmare?.

2) Read through the passage quickly and decide which of the sentences below best summarizes its main ideas.
a) The passage describes how well organized muggings in London have become. b) The passage questions whether the police give us sufficient protection in our everyday lives in the city.

c) The writer describes the outrage and terror he experienced when he was mugged.
d) The writer describes his experience of being mugged and reveals a certain sympathy for his attackers.

Types of Possible Tasks
2、Dealing with unfamiliar words 1) Choose the best answer. a) “classy”: Is a classy hotel likely to be : (i) a very good one? (ii )a very bad one ?

b) ?elite?: Is an elite corps of servants likely to be:
(i) very ordinary? (ii ) very special?

Types of Possible Tasks
3、Understand complex sentences Certain sentences are made more complex because a participle replaced a complete relative clause. In such cases, it is difficult to decide (i) what the subject of the participle is, (ii) what the tenses of the relative clause might be. e.g. Between November1983 and March1984, the Royal Academy of Arts will be mounting the greatest exhibition of Italian Old Master paintings seen in

this country since the Italian exhibition of 1030, also at the Royal academy. i) What is the subject of ‘seen’? ii) The tense in the relative clause would be : / Which has seen. / Which was seen. /Which has been seen. /Which will be seen.

Types of Possible Tasks
4、Reading for specific information (1)Fill in the chart below with information from the passage. Not all the boxes can be filled in. Dream hotel Hotel service Food Lifts Restaurant service Nightmare hotel

Types of Possible Tasks
5、Checking comprehension Decide whether the following statements are true or false.

Types of Possible Tasks
6、Predicting
a) Look at the title. Discuss with your partner what you might expect to find in the passage.
b)

Now think of ten or so words that you might expect to find in this passage and write them down. Then read the passage and check whether the words you predicted appear or not.

Rumelhart(鲁梅哈特):在阅读理解中,人们的阅读过程是一种 主动地“猜测——证实”的过程。

Types of Possible Tasks
7、Inferring
Decide what evidence there is in the passage for the following statements. If there is no evidence, explain what the passage actually says. a) The writer is a theatre critic. b) He was going out with an old girl friends because his wife was away. c) The reaction of the second man took him by surprise.

d) The police were not particularly helpful.
d) The writer had mixed feelings about giving money to the first old man.

Types of Possible Tasks
8、Linking ideas and Understand text organization What do the words in italics refer to? a) To get there … b) … many of them caretakers, 4000 of them living…

c) That’s reasonable; it started earlier..

Types of Possible Tasks
9、Understanding writer’s style ‘Picnics were intended to be eaten under a blue sky, with wasps in attendance.’ suggests that: i) unfortunately you can’t get rid of wasps on picnics. ii) the perfect picnic ironically involves a little discomfort. ( The writer’s style is ironic and humorous.)

Types of Possible Tasks
10、Evaluating the text a) After reading the passage, would you describe it as : i) factual ii) critical iii) humorous iv) ironic b) What would you say was the main aim of the author in writing the passage? i) To give examples of how hard people work in the City. ii) To show how early work begins in the City. iii) To illustrate the variety of work in the City. iv) To draw attention to the small number of residents in the city.

Types of Possible Tasks
11、Reacting to the text Work in groups. Do you know any of the countries mentioned in the passage? Does it mention the customs in your country? If so, do you agree or disagree with the advice given? If not, tell the other students what you should do in social or business situations in your country.

教学是艺术,艺术需要创新; 教学是科学,科学需要严谨。 让我们以严谨的科学态度来创新教 学艺术。这才是教

学创新的真谛。

Examples of post-reading tasks (apply what has been learned into communication)

2、Read the passage again and note down any differences and similarities with life in your town. Think about: 1)length of working day 2)number of inhabitants 3)transport services 4)types of business activity 5)entertainment Discuss with your partner which aspects of life in your home town you prefer.

英语课堂教学中任务设计所存在的倾向性问题
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任务设计偏离教学目标, 脱离学生语言水平,兴趣 爱好。 Ellis 认为“任务”应该符合以下特征: A task is a workplan. A task involves a primary focus meaning. A task involves real-world processes of language use. A task can involve any of the four language skills. A task engages cognitive processes. A task has a clearly defined communicative outcome.

英语课堂教学中任务设计所存在的倾向性问题
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任务过多,彼此隔立。
很多教师在教学设计时为“任务”而“任务” ,片面追求课堂气氛的活跃,热闹。所以任务一 个接着一个任务,你唱罢来我登台。任务之间缺 乏过渡,彼此隔立,也没有一个中心。 表面上看学生的活动多,语言输出量大。但与输 入语言的关系不大,输出语言的质量不高。

英语课堂教学中任务设计所存在的倾向性问题
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任务前缺乏铺垫,没有体现从机械到活用 ,从单项到综合的梯度结构。

Skehan 认为: 任务前热身活动非常重要, 它能起到介绍新的语言知识、激活学生已 的相关的语言知识、减轻任务的信息处理负 担、引导学生按要求去完成任务。 ? Willis 认为: 在任务前教师要帮助学生回忆 并激活任务活动中所需要的单词和短语。
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英语课堂教学中任务设计所存在的倾向性问题
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分不清练习和任务的区别。

Littlewood 把交际活动分为: 预交际活动(precommunicative activities) 和交际活动 ( communicative activities).预交际活动包括机械性 结构活动(structural activities)和半交际活动( quasi-communicative activities). 预交际活动实际上不属于交际范畴,是练习。教 学活动不能停在这一步,而应该过渡到运用语言 形式去完成交际任务这一最终目的。

英语课堂教学中任务设计所存在的倾向性问题
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任务评价没有为语言习得创设一个安全的支持性激励环境

任务评价的方面单一,过分关注语言结构。应该考虑三个 方面:内容、语言、和表现。 但也要防止另外的极端,把完成任务作为唯一目标。语言 使用也是重要的方面。 评价主体多元化,除教师评价外,做好自我评价和同伴评 价。 评价形式单一。过分强调语言的正确性。 Hendrickson 关于全局性错误(global error)和局部性错误 (local error)的概

念。


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