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Lesson 4--动词的时态

发布时间:2013-11-07 13:37:01  

动词的时态

动词的时态有很多。初中阶段主要掌握八种:一般现在时、一般过去时、现在进行时、过去进行时、一般将来时、过去将来时、现在完成时、过去完成时。

1.一般现在时

1)一般现在时态的构成:主语是I, we, you, they和名词复数时作谓语的行为动词用原形。主语是he, she , it和名词单数时,作谓语的行为动词的词尾变化如下:

2)一般现在时态的肯定句、否定句和疑问句形式(以be和like为例):

3)一般现在时态的用法:

现阶段经常性,习惯性的动作 。例如: I get up at six every morning.

He plays tennis once a week.

现在的状态 例如:

My mother is a teacher. She teaches English in a school.

客观真理 例如:

The earth goes around the sun.

4)常用于一般现在时态的时间状语:

often usually sometimes always every day never in the morning 等。

例题解析:举一反三,学的更轻松!

1. --- May I help you, sir?

--- Yes, I bought the TV the day before yesterday, but it ______.

A. didn't work B. doesn't work C. won't work D. can't work

解析:电视虽然是前天买的, 但坏了是现在的状态, 应该用一般现在时态。选B.

2.______ the bus until it ______.

A. Get off, stops B. Get off, will stop C. Don't get off, stops D. Don't get off, will stop 解析:这是一个以until引导的时间状语从句,主句是祈使句,因此从句要用一般现在时表示将要发生的动作。根据句意此题应用not …until(直到……才)句型。应选C。

3.The 70-year-old man ______ exercises in the morning.

A. takes B. are taking C. took D. will take

解析:"这个70岁的老人早晨锻炼。"这里锻炼是一个经常性、习惯性的动作。因此,应选A.

现在进行时

1)现在进行时的构成:Am/is/ are+ v-ing是现在进行时的构成形式

v-ing现在分词的构成:

2) 现在进行时的肯定句、否定句、疑问句形式:

3)现在进行时的用法:

1. 说话时正在进行或发生的动作(动作是在说话时正在进行)。例如: She is having a bath now.

2. 现阶段正在进行或发生的动作(但是动作并不是必须在说话时正在进行)。例如: You are working hard today.

Kate wants to work in Italy, so she is learning Italian. The population of the world is growing very fast.

频度副词always, forever等词连用时, 表示某种强烈的感情。如: He is always trying out new ideas. (表示欣赏,表扬)

表示按计划即将发生的动作(仅限于go, come, arrive, leave, start, fly, begin, stay 等动词)。如:

The party is beginning at 8:00 o'clock.

6) 常用于现在进行时态的时间状语: now 等。

例题解析:举一反三,学的更轻松!

1.I don't think that it's true. She's always ______ lies.

A. tell B. tells C. telling D. told

解析:always在这里应现在进行时连用, 带有感情色彩, 表示讨厌。选C.

2. How ______ you ______ with the new job?

A. do, do B. do, get along C. are, doing D. are, getting on

解析:表示现阶段正在发生的动作,用现在进行时。选D.

3.--- Are these socks yours?

--- No. Mine ______ outside on the clothes line.

A. are hanging B. have hung C. hang D. hung

解析:hang意为悬挂, hung意为上吊、绞死,先排除答案B、D。根据前后句意可判断出现在的状态,应用现在进行时。应选 A.

一般将来时

1)一般将来时的构成:

1. 助动词will(shall)+动词原形

2. am / is / are +going to +动词原形

2)一般将来时的用法:

1.将要发生的动作。例如:

I will leave for Beijing tomorrow.

2.将要存在的状态。例如:

This time next year I will be in Japan. Where will you be?

3.打算要做的事。 例如:

Are you going to watch the film on television tonight?

3) 常用于一般将来时的时间状语:

tomorrow next week in 2008 等。

例题解析:举一反三,学的更轻松!

1. I______ for Hong Kong on Saturday. Will you go to see me off at the airport?

A. am leaving B. am left C. am going to leaving D. left

解析:趋向动词leave 可用现在进行时表将来。选A。

2.I______ to see grandma and help her with some housework every week.

A. came B. am going come C. come D. will come

解析:此题虽然有every week, 但句意中表达的事将要去做的经常性动作。应该用一般将来时。因此选D。

3. We Chinese ______ the Olympic Games in 2008.

A. held B. shall holding C. are holding D. are going to hold

解析:本题的时间状语是将来的时间, 所以选用一般将来时,A、C都删去。shall后面应跟动词原型,

故应选D.

4.一般过去时

1)一般过去时的构成:

用动词的过去式。作谓语的行为动词的词尾变化如下:

2

)一般过去时态的肯定句、否定句和疑问句形式(以be和like为例):

3)一般过去时的用法: 1. 过去发生的动作。例如:

The police stopped me on my way home last night. 2. 过去存在的状态。例如:

They weren't able to come because they were so busy. 3. 常用于一般过去时的时间状语:

yesterday,three months ago,last year,in 1979,often,always等。 例题解析:举一反三,学的更轻松!

1. Mr. Mott is out. But he ______ here a few minutes ago. A. was B. is C. will be D. would be

解析:时分钟前发生的动作, 应该用一般过去时。 应选 A, 2.---Hi, Tom.

---Hello, Fancy. I ______ you were here.

A. don't know B. won't think C. think D. didn't know

解析:虽然句中没有明确的时间状语, 但是可以通过上下文语境判断出, 这句话指的是我这段时间并不知道, 你前一阵子在这儿。 所以应选A。

现在完成时

1) 现在完成时的构成:have / has + v-ing

2)现在完成时态的肯定句、否定句和疑问句形式(以be和see为例):

现在完成时

1) 现在完成时的构成:have / has + 过去分词

2)现在完成时态的肯定句、否定句和疑问句形式(以be和see为例): 在完成时的用法:

1、表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响或结果.常与already, just, ever, never, before等词连用. 如:

She has never read this novel.他从未读过这本小说.(他对小说的内容不了解)

2、表示 "过去的动作"一直延续到现在并有可能继续延续下去. 常与for (后跟段时间)或since (后跟点时间)等连用.如:

I have been a member of the Party for 10 years.

I have been a member of the Party since 10 years ago.

注:在有for 和since 引导时间状语的句子中不能用短暂性动词,应用与之相应的表示状态的词。如:

He has died for 3 years.(F)

He has been dead for 3 years.(T)

注意:①现在完成时不能和表示明确的过去时间连用。如:in 1998, last morning等 ②have/has been to 表示"去过"(去了又回来了)

have/has gone to 表示"去过"(去了没回来了)

如:Where has she gone?(句中所指的人不在)

Where has she been?(句中作指的人在)

例题解析:举一反三,学的更轻松!

--How long ______ he ______ a fever?

--- Ever since last night.

A. have, got B. have , had C. have, caught D. did, have

解析:此句表示从昨晚起持续到现在的状态,应用现在完成时,去掉答案D。因为是段时间, 所以不能用短暂行动词,get和catch 都是短暂行动词。 因此选B.

My bowl is empty. Who ______ all my soup?

A. drinks B. had drunk C. has drunk D. drank

解析:碗是空的了,这里强调的是所发生的动作造成的结果。 "谁把我的汤都喝了。应选C.

3. I ______ you for a long time. Where ______ you ______?

A. Didn't seen; did, go B. didn't see; have, gone C. haven't seen; have, been D. haven't seen; have gone

解析:for+段时间一般预先在完成时连用。"你去哪儿了? "(在这段时间你不在)应选C。

过去进行时

1)过去进行时的构成: was / were +v-ing

2) 过去进行时的用法:

过去某一阶段或某一时刻正在进行的动作。 例如:

This time last year I was living in Brazil.

What were you doing at 10 o'clock last night?

3)常用于过去进行时的时间状语:

at four yesterday afternoon,then,at that time/moment 等。

例题解析:举一反三,学的更轻松!

Daddy promised me he ______ me a computer

A. was bought B. had bought C bought D. would buy

解析:"爸爸答应我给我买一台电脑"。宾语从句中的动作是以过去为起点将要发生的动作,应用过去将来时。

选D。

They said they ______ do some sports if it was fine.

A. were going to B. went C. would going D. were going

解析:"他们说如果天气好的话他们打算去运动。"去做运动发生在说话之后,所以应选用过去将来时,答案B不合适,"打算作某事"为"be going to do ".would 后面应跟动词原形,应选A.

初中英语语法梳理和提高14过去完成时态讲解 试题

过去完成时态

1)过去完成时态的构成:

肯定式:had + 动词的过去分词

否定式:hadn't + 动词的过去分词

疑问式:Had … + 动词的过去分词

简略回答: Yes, 主 + have/has had.

No, 主 + had现在完成时的用法

过去完成时的用法:

1、表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成的动作。 他表示的时间是"过去 的过去 "常与by last year, by the time of yesterday,等连用。如:

She said she had seen the film 4 times.

When Mr. Li got into the classroom, all the students had begun reading.

By the time they arrived, the bus had left.

2、表示 从过去某一时间开始一直延续到过去另一时间的动作或状态。常与for (后跟段时间)或since (后跟点时间)等连用.如:

She had worked in this school since it opened 25 years ago.

例题解析:举一反三,学的更轻松!

1. He ______ in Shanghai University for four years before he ______ Beijing.

A. studied, had gone B. had studied, went

C. has studied, goes D. had studied, had gone

解析:"他去北京之前在上大学学习了4年 "。在上海学习的动作发生在去北京之前,因此第一个空应用过去完成时。此题选B。

2. Mary said it was at least five years since he ______ a good drink.

A. enjoyed B. was enjoying C. had enjoyed D. would enjoy

解析:It was + 时间段+since 引导的从句中用过去完成时。应选C。

3. Xiao Pei said she ______ Hainan for 3 months.

A. has been in B. had been in C. had been to D. had gone to

解析:"小培说她去了海南三个月 "。have been to 和have gone to 都是短暂性的动词短语。所以适应表示状态的have been in. 应选B.

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