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Lesson 2--形容词、副词

发布时间:2013-11-07 13:37:02  

形容词和副词

一、形容词

用来修饰名词,表示人或事物的性质、状态和特征的词,叫形容词。 形容词的作用,见下表:

注意:有些形容词只能作表语,如:alone, afraid, asleep 等。例如: Don't wake the sleeping baby up. He is asleep.

The old man is alone.

形容词用来修饰something, anything, nothing, everything等不定代词,要放在这些词的后面。例如:

You'd better tell us something interesting.

The police found nothing strange in the room.

多个形容词做定语时排列的先后顺序是:1)冠词或人称代词 2)数词 3)性质 4)大小 5)形状

6)表示老少,新旧 7)颜色 8)事务、质地、人的国籍、用途。例如: His grandpa still lives in this small short house.

他爷爷还住在这个矮小的房子里。

The woman bought two beautiful Chinese plates.

那个妇女买了两个漂亮的中国盘子。

形容词名词化:有些形容词前加定冠词后变成名词,表示一类人,谓语常用复数。这类词有:rich / poor;

good / bad ; young / old ; healthy / ill ; living / dead ; black / white (表示人种等)。例如:

The young should take good care of the old.

年轻人应该好好照顾老人。

The rich never help the poor in this country.

在这个国家,富人从来不帮助穷人。

表示数量的词组。如:

One day, a young man, twenty-five years old, came to visit the professor. 有一天,一位25岁的年轻人来拜访这位教授。

I live in a building about fifty meters high.

我住在一做大约50米高的大楼里。

形容词短语做定语时要后置。如:

They are the students easy to teach.

他们是很容易较的学生。

We live in a house much larger than yours.

我们住的房子比你们的大得多。

else要放在疑问代词或复合不定词之后。如:

Did you see anybody else?

你看到别的人了吗?

二、副词

英语中副词的位置和汉语不尽相同,它的位置比较灵活。通常用作状语修饰动词、形容词、副词等。下面来介绍一下副词的分类方法:

多数副词都可以放在它所修饰的动词后面。如:

We are living happily.

我们幸福的生活着。

He runs slowly.

他跑的很慢。

时间副词、地点副词和方式副词一般放在句末。如:

They went to the park yesterday morning.

昨天上午他们去公园了。

I heard him sing English songs over there.

我听见他在那边唱英语歌曲。

He drove the jeep carefully.

他小心地开着吉普。

注意: 有时表示时间的副词也可放在句首,起强调作用。如: Yesterday I got up late.

昨天我起床很晚。

频度副词一般放在be动词、情态动词及第一个助动词之后,实义动词之前 如:He is seldom ill.

他很少生病。

You must always remember this.

你一定要记住这一点。

I often write to my parents.

我经常写信给父母。

Do you usually go to school on foot.

你经常走路去上学?

He has never been to Beijing.

他从来没有去过北京。

注意: 有时为了加强语气,频度副词也可放在句首。如:

Sometimes she goes to school by bus and sometimes she goes to school by bike. 有时她乘公共汽车上学,有时骑自行车去。

程度副词修饰动词时,与频度副词相同,修饰形容词和副词时,放在它所修 饰的词前面。如:

That's quite early.

那很早。

I nearly missed the bus.

我几乎错过了公交车。

She did rather badly.

她干得相当糟。

否定副词一般放在动词之前、系动词be或助动词之后。如:

She seldom goes out at night.

她晚上很少出门。

I am never late for school.

我上学从不迟到。

We had hardly got to the station when the train left.

火车离开时,我们差不多/几乎到了车站。

疑问副词放在特殊疑问句的句首。如:

When can you come?

你什么时候来?

How many days are there in a month?

一个月有多少天?

What are you going to do when you grow up?

张大以后,你打算干什么?

Where were you born?

你是在那里出生的?

Why didn't he come?

他为什么没有来?

关系副词when, where, why 引导定语从句时,位于从句之前、所修饰的词之后。如: Tell me the reason why you did it.

把你这样做的理由告诉我。

It's the sort of day when you'd like to stay in bed.

这是个令人恋床不起的日子。

I don't know the place where we will go.

我不知道我们将要去的地方。

同时存在时间状语和地点状语时,时间状语一般放在后面。如:

The meeting will be held in the classroom tomorrow.

明天会议将在教室里举行。

He watched TV in his room last night.

他作晚在房间里看电视。

They arrived in Beijing at 8 o'clock last evening.

他们昨天晚上8:00到达北京。

注:有些词既可用做形容词也可副词。如:

late, wide, well, fast, easy, early 等

The road is so wide that 8 buses can go throw it at a time. Open your mouth wide.

三、形容词和副词的比较级和最高级

形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的变化方法如下: 1) 符合规则的:

2)几个不规则的形容词和副词的比较级和最高级如下表:

形容词和副词比较级的用法

注意:有些形容词,如 dead, empty, round, sure, woolen 等受本身含义的限制,没有比较级。

例题解析:举一反三,学的更轻松! He is ________ friends than I.

A. much more B. many more C. very more D. too more

解析: 后面有可数名词复数时, many的比较级形式为many more 修饰。 应选B.

2. Which is the _________ country, Japan or Australia?

A. more developed B. more developing C. most developed D. most developing

解析: 两者比较用比较级, 表示"发达"用 developed, 而developing 是 "发展中的" 意思

3. There were _______ shops in the city in 1982 than in 1990.

A. little B. few C. fewer D. less

解析:little 不能修饰可数名词,两者比较需用比较级, 所以应选C.

4. If you are not free today, come another day __________.

A. too B. so C. instead D. yet

解析:instead 作副词用时意为"代替,顶替", 表示前面的事情没做, 而是做了后面的事。Instead一般位于句首。应选C.

5.He can't tell us ________, I think.

A. important anything B. anything important

C. important something D. something important.

解析:不定代词与形容词联用需后置,否定句中应该用anything而不是something. 因此应选B

6. The Huang River is the second __________ river in our country.

A. long B. longer C. longest D. the longest

解析:"定冠词the+ 序数词 + 形容词最高级 " 表示"第几大……" 应选C.

7. The light in the office wasn't ________for him to read.

A. enough bright B. bright enough C. brightly D. enough brightly 解析:enough修饰名词时可前可后, 修饰形容词或副词时, 要后置。应选B.

8. There was an accident at the corner. ________, the girl wasn't _________hurt.

A. luckily, badly B. luck, hardly C. Lucky, heavily D. Lucky, strongly 解析:第一空修饰全句需用副词,第二空修饰形容词hurt也要用副词, 因此选A.

9. You must keep your eyes _________ when you do eye exercises.

A. close B. open C. closed D., opened

解析: 此处需用形容词做宾语补足语。 应选C.

10. Five days has passed , but I haven't finished half of the work. ________,

A. already B. still C. too D. yet

解析:already 与 yet 都可用于现在完成时态。Already常用于肯定句, 而yet 常用与否定句。应选D.

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