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初中英语八大时态讲解及练习(全)

发布时间:2013-11-07 13:37:03  

一、一般现在时:

概念:经常、反复发生的动作或行为及现在的某种状况。

时间状语:always, usually, often, sometimes, every week (day, year, month…), once a week, on Sundays, etc.

基本结构:①be动词;

②行为动词

否定形式:①am/is/are+not;

②此时态的谓语动词若为行为动词,则在其前加don't,如主语为第三人称单数,则用doesn't,同时还原行为动词。

一般疑问句:

①把be动词放于句首;

②用助动词do提问,如主语为第三人称单数,则用does,同时,还原行为动词。 在一般现在时中,当主语是第三人称单数时,谓语动词要用第三人称单数形式,即常在动词原形后加-s或-es。

一、人称代词he, she, it是第三人称单数。如:

He likes watching TV. 他喜欢看电视。

She has lunch at twelve. 她十二点吃午餐。

It looks like a cat. 它看起来像只猫。(口诀:I用am,you用are,is用于她他它,单数名词用is,复数名词都用are)

二、单个人名、地名或称呼作主语;是第三人称单数。如:

①Han Mei looks like her mother. 韩梅看起来像她的母亲。

②Beijing is in China. 北京在中国。

③Uncle Wang often makes cakes. 王叔叔经常做蛋糕。

三、单数可数名词或"this / that / the+单数可数名词"作主语时,是第三人称单数。如: ①A horse is a useful animal. 马是有用的动物。

②This book is yours. 这本书是你的。

四、不定代词someone, somebody, nobody, everything, something等及指示代词this, that作主语时,是第三人称单数。如:

①Everyone is here. 大家到齐了。

②There is something wrong with the watch. 这块手表有毛病。

五、不可数名词作主语时为第三人称单数。如:

①The milk is in the glass. 牛奶在玻璃杯里。

②The bread is very small. 那面包很小。

六、当数字或字母作主语时,看作第三人称单数。如:

①"6" is a lucky number. "6"是个吉利数字。

【练习】

一、 单选

1 Jenny ____ in an office. Her parents ____in a hospital.

A work works B works work C work are working D is working work

2 One of the boys_____ a black hat.

A have B there is C there are D has

3 We will go shopping if it____ tomorrow.

A don't rain B didn't rain C doesn't rain D isn't rain

4 He said the sun ____in the east and ____in the west.

A rose; set B rises; sets C rises, set D rise; sets

5 Wang Mei ____ music and often ____ to music.

A like; listen B likes; listens C like; are listening D liking ;listen 6 Jenny____ English every evening.

A has study B studies C study D studied

二、填空

1 I can take Li Ming there when he _____ ( come) to visit.

2 _____your sister_____(know)English?

3Her home____ _____ ______(远离 )her school.

4The pot_____(not look) like yours very much.

5 Where _____you____(have)lunch every day?

6 Who_____(想要 )to go swimming?

7 ______she_____(do) the housework every day?

8 Jenny and Danny usually______(play) games in the afternoon .

二、一般过去时:

概念:过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为。

时间状语:ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week(year, night, month…), in 1989, just now, at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, once upon a time, etc.

一般过去时的结构(可分三类不同的结构)

1.Be动词的一般过去时 在没有实义动词的句子中使用be动词, am is 的过去式为was; are的过去式为were

肯定句式:主语 + be(was , were) + 其它.

否定句式:主语 + be(was , were) + not + 其它.

一般疑问句:Be(was , were) + 主语 + 其它?

注:在这种构成中,be动词有人称和数的变化,即要根据主语选用was / were。Be动词分为单数和复数,was是表示单数,were是表示复数。

2.实义动词的一般过去时态 肯定句要使用动词的过去式,否定句和疑问句要使用助动词do和 does 的过去式 did.

肯定句式:主语 + 动词(过去式)+ 其它

否定句式:主语 + didn‘t + 动词(原形)+ 其它 【did not = didn‘t】

一般疑问句:Did + 主语+ 动词(原形)+ 其它【do , does的过去时均为did】? 注:1. did和didn‘t是构成一般过去时的助动词,其特点是要在其后跟动词的原形。

2. 实意动词do的一般过去时

I do my homework every day.(用yesterday改写句子)

I did my homework yesterday.

I didn‘t do my homework yesterday.(否定句)

Did you do your homework yesterday?Yes ,I did. /No, I didn‘t.(一般疑问句)

3. 情态动词的一般过去时态 含有情态动词的一般过去时与含有Be动词的一般过去时,是十分相似,请注意观察。

肯定句式:主语 + 情态动词 + 其它

否定句式:主语 + 情态动词 + not + 其它.

一般疑问句:情态动词 + 主语 + 其它?

注:情态动词的过去式:can→could , may→might , must→must ,will-would,should-should。

4.特殊疑问句式: 特殊疑问词+be过去式+主语+其他?

特殊疑问词+情态助动词过去式+主语+动词原形+其他?

特殊疑问词+do/does过去式+主语+动词原形+其他?

What was your former name? 你以前叫什么名字?

Why was he late for school last Monday? 上星期一他为什么迟到?

What could she do twenty years ago? 20年前她能做什么?

规则动词的过去式

1.一般情况下,在动词原形后面加-ed。 look→looked play→played start→started visit→visited pull-pulled, cook-cooked

2.以不发音e结尾的动词,在词尾直接加-d。 live→lived use→used taste-tasted

3.以―辅音字母+ y‖结尾的动词,先将 y 改为i ,再加 –ed。 study→studied try→tried fly→flied

4.以重读闭音节(即辅音+元音+辅音)或r音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母的动词,要先双写这个辅音字母后,再加 –ed。 stop→stopped plan→planned stop-stopped prefer→preferred

5.不规则动词的过去式需特殊记忆。 如:am(is)-was, are-were(是), become _became (成为) go-went(走)

基本用法

① 表示过去某个特定时间发生的动作或存在的状态。

He suddenly fell ill last night. 他昨晚突然病倒了。

②表示过去的习惯性或经常发生的动作

She went to the cinema once a month when she was at alked by the riverside. 我在乡下时经常在河边散步。

③叙述过去连续发生的一件件事

She got up early, fetched water, cleaned the room and then went out for a walk. 她早早起床,提水,打扫房间然后出去散步。

【练习】

一、请用正确动词形式填空

(eat) a bird last night.

(have) a party last Halloween.

(pick) up oranges on the farm last week.

5. I (make) a model ship with Mike yesterday.

6. They (play) chess in the classroom last PE lesson.

(cook) a nice food last Spring Festival.

8. The girls (dance) at the party last night.

9. (watch) a cartoon on Saturday last week.

10. ______ you _______ (visit) your relatives last Spring Festival?

11. ______ he _______ (fly) a kite on Sunday? Yes, he ______.

12. Gao Shan _______ (put) up the picture last night.

13. I ____________ (sweep) the floor yesterday.

14. What ______ she _______ (find) in the garden last morning?

15. Her father _______ (read) a newspaper last night.

16. Mike _________________(not go) to bed until 12 o‘clock last night.

17. I listened but ___________ (hear) nothing.

18. How many people ________ (be) there in your class last term?

二、按要求变换句型。

1. Frank read an interesting book about history. (一般疑问句)

_______ Frank _______ an interesting book about history?

2. He cleaned his roomjust now.. (划线提问) What________ he _______?

3. Thomas spent RMB 10 on this book. (否定句)

Thomas _______ _______ RMB 10 on this book.

4. My family went to the beach last week. (划线提问)

________ ________ ________ family _______ last week?

1. I _________ (have) an exciting party last weekend.

2. _________ she _________(practice) her guitar yesterday? No, she _________.

3. What ________ Tom ________ (do) on Saturday evening?

He ________(watch) TV and __________(read) an interesting book.

4. They all _________(go) to the mountains yesterday morning.

5. She _________(not visit) her aunt last weekend.

She ________ (stay) at home and _________(do) some cleaning.

6. When ________ you _________(write) this song? I __________(write) it last year.

7. My friend, Carol, ________(study) for the math test and ________(practice) English last night.

8. ________ Mr. Li __________(do) the project on Monday morning? Yes, he _________.

9. How _________(be) Jim's weekend? It _________(be not) bad.

10. ________ (be) your mother a sales assistant last year? No. she __________.

三、现在进行时:

概念:表示现阶段或说话时正在进行的动作及行为。

构成:be+现在分词。be应为助动词,应与主语的人称和数保持一致。

【注】动词现在分词的变化规则

1. 一般情况下,直接在动词后加-ing,如: work - working study - studying

2. 动词以不发音的-e结尾,要去-e加-ing,如: make - making dance - dancing

3. 重读闭音节的动词,要双写词尾字母,再加-ing,如: put - putting begin - beginning

4. 以-ie结尾的动词,把-ie变成y再加-ing,如: lie - lying tie - tying

写出下列动词的现在分词形式

dance______shop_______ play______________ speak_______have _______ work ________

write_______take________ study________ sit________sing________ swim________ lie________

变化:

肯定句式:主语+be( am, is, are)+现在分词+其它.

否定句式:主语+be(am, is, are) +not +现在分词+其它.

一般疑问句:Be(am, is, are) +主语+现在分词+其它?

特殊疑问句:疑问词+be(am, is, are)+主语+现在分词+其它?

对现在进行时的特殊疑问句的回答,它不可以用Yes或No直接作答,要根据实际情况回答。 用法(包括高级用法):

1,表示说话时正在进行或发生的动作。

Please don't make so much noise. I'm writing a composition. 不要吵闹。我正在写作文。 Let's set off. It isn‘t raining now. 咱们出发吧。现在不下雨了。

这类情况常与now现在,at the present现在,at the moment现在,today今天,this week这个星期,this year今年等时间状语连用。有时通过上下文可以判断出应采用何种时态,如: It's four o'clock in the afternoon. The children are playing football on the sports ground. 现在是下午四点。孩子们在操场上踢足球。

Hurry up! We are all waiting for you. 快点!我们大家都等着你。

Look! They are reading over there under the tree. 看!他们在那边的树底下看书。 Listen! She is singing in the room. 听!她在房间里唱歌。

Where is Kate? She is reading in the room. 凯特在哪里?她在房间里看书。

Why are you crying? Is something wrong?为什么哭呢?有什么不对?

2,表示现阶段正在进行而说话时不一定在进行的动作。

We are working in a factory these days. 这几天我们在一家工厂工作。

They are compiling a dictionary. 他们在编一本词典。

这类情况常与today今天,this week这个星期,this evening今天晚上,these days现在、目前等时间状语连用。3,在口语中表示主语计划将要作的动作。

They are leaving for New York tomorrow. 明天他们将要动身前往纽约。

Is your brother departing soon? 你的兄弟很快就要启程吗?

这类情况常与come来,go去, leave离开,depart离开,arrive到达,stay逗留,start开始等动词连用。所用的动词必须是动作而不是状态,主语必须是人。

4,现在进行时与always等副词连用时带有感情色彩。

He's always quarrelling with others. 他老喜欢跟别人吵架。

She is constantly worrying about her son's health. 她不停地为她儿子的健康担心着。 The boy is forever asking questions. 那个男孩老是问问题。

这类情况常与always总是,usually通常,continually不断的,constantly经常的,forever永远、老是等副词连用。

5,有的现在进行时句子和一般现在时同义。用现在进行时表示问者的关切心情。 How are you feeling today? (How do you feel today?)你今天感觉如何?

I am looking (look)forward to your next visit. 我盼望你下次再来。

Why are you looking(do you look)so sad? 为什么你看起来这么愁眉苦脸的样子呢? 6,有的动词用于现在进行时表示―逐渐‖的含义。此种用法除了偶尔和now连用外,一般不和其他时间副词连用的。

Our study is becoming more interesting. 我们的学习变得越来越有趣了。

The leaves are turning red. 树叶渐渐地变红了。

The war is ending. 战争接近尾声了。

Wait a moment; I am finishing my supper. 等一会儿,我的晚饭就要吃完了。

适合于此种用法的动词有:bet/grow/become/turn/run/go变成,begin开始,forget忘记,remember记得,die死,finish完成,find发现,rise增强等.7,―be‖动词的现在进行时。―be‖动词用于现在进行时表示说话者认为是短暂的、和平常不一样的、甚至是伪装的。 He is being foolish. 他在装傻。

He is being honest. 他表现得特别老实。

She is being rude. 她故意表现粗鲁。

I can't understand why he is being so selfish.我不明白此时他为何如此自私。

适合于此种用法的有:foolish愚蠢的,nice好的,kind好心的,careful细心的,patient耐心的,lazy懒惰的,silly傻的,rude粗鲁的,polite礼貌的,impolite无礼的等表示人的特性、性格的形容词。(―be‖动词用于现在进行时表示人的行为,纯粹表示心理或生理的状态而不带有行动时或主语不是人时,―be‖动词不能用于现在进行时)如:

I am happy.(表语是纯粹的心理状态,不可用am being) 我很快乐。

He's tired.(表语是纯粹的生理状态,不可用is being) 他很疲倦。

It's hot today.(主语不是人,不可用is being) 今天很热。

【练习】

一.填空题

1.Mr Zheng _______________ (read) a book now.

2. The rabbits _________________ (jump) now.

3.. Look ! Tom and John ________________ (swim).

4. My brother _________________ (make) a kite in his room now.

5. Look! The bus _______________ (stop).

6. We _______________ (have) an English class now.

7. Listen! Someone is__________________(come).

8. They ___________________(catch) butterflies now.

9. He ______________________ (do) an experiment now.

10. They _____________________(collect) stamps now.

11. Look! He _________ (dive) now.

12. Tom __________________ ( watch ) TV in the dining room.

13. The doctors _____________________ (get ) off the bus.

14. Come on. They _________________ ( leave ) now.

15. It _______________________ (eat) fish now.

16. My father __________________(work) in the office now.

17. Where is your mother? She ________________________ (answer) the phone.

18. The teachers ________________ (run) now.

二、按要求改写句子

1. The boy is playing basketball.

否定句:____________________________

一般疑问句:_________________________

肯定回答:__________________________

否定回答:__________________________

对The boy提问:__________________________

2. 造句:

1).she,the window,open,now.(用现在进行时连词成句.)_________________

2).is,who,the window,cleaning?(连词成句)______________________

3).She is closing the door now.(改成否定句)______________________

4.)You are doing your homework.(用"I"作主语改写句子)_______________

5).they,the tree,sing,now,under.(用现在进行时连词成句.)______________

6).The Young Pioneers are helping the old woman.(改成一般疑问句)__________

四、过去进行时:

(一)概念:表示过去某段时间或某一时刻正在发生或进行的行为或动作。

(二)结构 :were /were+ V-ing.

(三) 标志词:

1.at this/that time,

2.at this/that time yesterday (last night/Sunday/week … ),

3.at+ 点钟 +yesterday (last night / Sunday … ) ,

4. when sb/sth. did sth. last evening

5. the whole morning, all day , from nine to ten, while等。

例如:I was making fruit salad at this time.

They were studying from 8:00 to 11:00 yesterday.

(四)一般过去时的肯定句、否定句、疑问句及简略回答。

1. 肯定句: 主语+was/were+V-ing+其它 . I was watching TV at that time last night.

2. 否定句: 主语+was/were+not+V-ing+其它 .→I was not watching TV at that time last night.

3.一般疑问句:was/were+主语+V-ing+其它?→Were you watching TV at that time last night?

肯定回答:Yes, I was. 否定回答:No, I wasn‘t.

4. 特殊问句: 疑问词+was/were+主语+V-ing+其它? →What were you doing at at that time last night?

(五) 基本用法:

1. 过去进行时表示在过去某个时间点发生的动作或事情。 (用介词短语和从句来表示时间点)

I was sleeping at this time last Sunday.(过去某一时刻)

My mother was cooking dinner at 9:00 yesterday. (过去某一时刻)

We were having supper when Tom came in.我们正在吃晚饭时电话响了?(从句表示时间点)

2. 过去进行时表示在过去某段时间内持续发生动作或事情。

(the whole morning, all day , from nine to ten, while, when等。) Lucy was working all day. (过去某一段时间)

We were watching TV from seven o‘clock to nine o‘clock last night.

3.在复合从句中,从句和主句的动作都是延续性或同时发生,那么主从句都要过去进行时。 While he was waiting for the bus , he was resding newspaper. 他边等车边看报。(两个动作都是延续的)

He was cleaning his car while I was cooking. 他洗车时我在做饭。(两个动作同时进行)

(六)when 和while的用法区别

①when既指时间点,也可指一段时间。因此when在状语从句中的动词可以终止性动词,也可以是延续性动词

while只指一段时间。while从句中的动词必须是延续性动词。

②when说明从句的动作和主句的动作可以是同时,也可以是先后生; while 则强调主句的动作在从句动作的发生的过程中或主从句两个动作同时发生。

③when引导的时间状语从句。后用一般过去时。 While后面一般用过去进行时。 如果从句和主句的动作同时发生,两句都用过去进行时的时候,多用while引导,

a.When the teacher came in, we were talking. =While we were talking, the teacher came in.

b.They were singing while we were dancing.

【练习 】

1.I _______at 8:00 yesterday.

A. was sleeping late B. slept late C. sleep late

2.They ______at this time.

A. talking on the phone B.were talking on the phone B. was talking on the phone

3.Lily was standing in front of the library ________.

A. two hours ago B. tomorrow C. at that time yesterday

4.I ______ when the UFO arrived?

A. was cutting hair B.was cutting hair C. cutting hair

5.My father was reading newspaper ____my mother was cooking dinner.

A. when B.while C. what

6. My brother ___ while he ___ his bicycle and hurt himself.

A. fell, was riding B. fell, were riding C.fell, rode

7. I first met Lisa three years ago. She ___ at a radio shop at the time.

A.worked B. was working . C is working

8.---what were you doing at seven o‘clock last Sunday? ---I _____ the shower.

A. was getting out of B. got out of C.was get out of

9. I ___ my breakfast when the bell rang.

A. had B. was having C.am having

10 The reporter said that the UFO ___ east to west when he saw it.

A. was traveling B. traveled C. traveling

11. --- What ' s the matter, Ali? You look sad.‖

---Oh, nothing much. in fact, I ___ of my friends back home.

A. just thought B. have just been thinking C. was just thinking

12.What_____from three to four yesterday afternoon?

A.have you done B.did you do C.were you doing

13.---I called you yesterday evening.but there was no answer.

---Oh, I ?m sorry I _____dinner at my friend‘s home.

A.had B. was having C.have

14.My mother _____while my father_____TV.

A. cooked, was watching B. was cooking, was watching C. cooked, watched

15.when I got home, my son_____the music.

A. am listening B. listened to C.was listening

二、动词填空。

1.John_______(work)all day yesterday.

2.He _______(walk)home when the rain_______(begin).

3.---What______you _______(do)

(study) in class.

4. While Harry _______(have)breakfast, Lily telephoned him.

5. I ______ (write) a letter at t en last night.

6. It was six. The Greens ______ (have) supper.

7. When you ____(knock) at the door yesterday,I ____(do) some washing.

8. While my mother ______ (watch) TV, I ______(make) a kite.

9. _____you _____(feed) the animals at 5:00 yesterday afternoon?

10. Mrs Green_______(not wash) clothes at this time last Saturday.

三、按要求改写句子。

1.I was getting out of bed when the UFO landed. (对划线部分提问)

_______ ______ you ______ when the UFO landed?

2. They played tennis yesterday afternoon.(用at 5:00 yesterday afternoon改写句子) They _____ _____ tennis at 5:00 yesterday afternoon. at ten o'clock yesterday﹖ ---I_______

3. While it was raining ,the plane took off.

句) It was raining _____ the plane _____ off.

4. 昨晚八点钟我爸爸在看报纸。 (改为同义

My father _____ ______ a newspaper at 8:00 yesterday evening.

5. 电话响时,我妈妈在做晚饭。

My mother ______ _____ _____ when the phone______.

6. 当外星人买纪念品时,我报了警。

_____ the alien was buying a suvenir ,I _____ the police.

7.I was washing my shoes at that time.(改为一般问句) ____ _____ ______ your shoes at that time?

五、现在完成时:

概念:过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。

(一)构成:主语+have/has+V过去分词。―have /has‖如何使用需记清。当主语是I,you和复数名词或代词时要用have;单数主语后跟has。也就是说have/has需同主语的人称或数保持一致。

(二)用法

接触一:肯定句式

现在完成时的肯定句式是―have(has)+过去分词‖。如:

① We have just finished our homework. ② She has gone home.

注意:1)该句式中的have或has是助动词,has用于第三人称单数,其它人称一律用have。

2)该句式中have(has)和过去分词之间可用just插入。

3)把该句式译成汉语时,往往用―已经‖、―刚刚‖、―过‖或―了‖等。

接触二:疑问句式

现在完成时的一般疑问句式是把助动词have或has提到主语之前。如:

③ Have you read this story book yet?

特殊疑问句及反意疑问句结构如下:

④ What have you done with my bike?

⑤ You've read this story book, haven't you?

注意:1)现在完成时的一般疑问句往往在句末加yet。

2)把现在完成时的一般疑问句译成汉语时,往往译成―……过吗?‖、―已经……了吗?‖等。

3)其肯定回答用―Yes,...have(has).‖,否定回答用―No,...haven't(hasn't).‖,有时用―No,not yet.‖或―No,never.‖。

接触三:否定句式:现在完成时的否定句式是―haven't(hasn't)+过去分词‖。如: ⑥ We haven't studied Unit 2 yet. ⑦ The train hasn't stopped yet.

注意:1)现在完成时的否定句句末往往加yet。

2)否定句常译为―还没有……‖等。

接触四:用法之一:现在完成时表示过去发生或完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果。如:

Have you read that story?你读过那个故事吗?

(―读‖这一动作发生在过去,对现在造成的影响是:是否知道故事的内容。)

I have bought two apples. 我买了两个苹果。

(―买‖这一动作发生在过去,对现在造成的结果是:拥有两个苹果。)

在学习这一概念的同时,还应注意常与现在完成时连用的几个副词:already,just,ever,yet,never等。already,just多用于肯定句中,ever,yet,never多用于疑问句和否定句中。如:

I have already finished my homework.我已经做完家庭作业了。

He has just had his meal.他刚吃过饭。

Have you ever sung this English song?你曾唱过这首英文歌吗?

They haven't started yet.他们还没有动身。

We have never heard of it.我们从来没有听说过这件事。

接触五:用法之二 :表示过去已经开始,一直持续到现在的动作或状态。

注:这一用法即现在完成进行时的用法

因为表示的是持续的动作或状态,所以使用的动词通常是延续性动词:be, stay, study, wait, keep, have… 等;

使用的时间状语通常由for或since 引导,但二者后接的词有所不同:

for后常跟一个时间段,指某个动作到现在为止已持续了多长时间,如for three years, for half an hour等。

since 作介词,后面可以接一个时间点,如since 1980,也可以接―一段时间+ago‖, 如: since three years ago, since two months ago等。

since 还可用作连词,引导一个过去时态的时间状语从句。

如:We have known each other since we went to college.

非延续性动词不能直接和for 或since 连用,但我们可以找一个相应的延续性动词或动词短语来替换这些非延续性动词,如: come→be, come to→be in / at, go out→ be out, leave→be away, begin / start→be on, stop→ be over,buy→ have, borrow→ keep, open→be open, close→be closed, join→be a member of, die→be dead, catch a cold→have a cold, get to know→know, become a teacher →be a teacher, fall asleep→be asleep, fall ill→ be ill等。

句型It is the first (second, third...) time that...的that从句中, 谓语动词须用现在完成时,表示到说话时为止动作发生过几次。如:It is the first time that I have been here. 接触六:现在完成时与一般过去时的用法比较

现在完成时表示过去的动作对现在造成的影响;一般过去时表示动作发生的时间在过去。试比较:

The plane has arrived . 飞机已经来了。(说明现在的情况:飞机在这儿。)

The plane arrived a quarter of an hour ago. 飞机是一刻钟以前抵达的。(强调动作发生的时间在过去。)

接触七:have been in, have been to 与have gone to 的用法

1. have(has) been in 意为―已经在某地呆了多长时间‖,常与表示一段时间的状语连用。如:

Mr. Brown has been in Shanghai for three days. 布朗先生来上海已经有三天了。 They have been in Canada for five years. 他们到加拿大有五年了。

2. have(has) been to意为―曾经去过某地‖,表示现在已经不在那里了。

可与just, ever, never等连用。如:

I've just been to the post office. 我刚才去邮局了。

Have you ever been to Hangzhou? 你曾经去过杭州吗?

Mary has never been to the Great Wall. 玛丽从未去过长城。

3. have(has) been to 后面可接次数,表示去过某地几次。如:

I've been to Beijing three times. 我去过北京三次。

They have been to that village several times. 他们去过那个村庄好几次了。

4. have(has) gone to 意为―到某地去了‖,表示到了某地或正在去某地的途中。 总之,说话时该人不在现场,一般不用第一、第二人称代词作句子的主语。如:

—Where is Tom? 汤姆在哪里? —He has gone to the bookshop.他到书店去了。 接触八:常用于现在完成时的时间状语

除了我们讲过的already, yet, still,just, ever, never, since短语和 for短语外,还有许多时间

状语常用于现在完成时,我们要留心将它们和一般过去时的时间状语区分开来:

1. lately, recently是完成时的时间状语;just now 有a moment ago 之意,是过去时的时间状语。如:

Have you heard from your family lately/recently? Did you see Joan just now?

2. in the past few years 意思是―过去几年来‖,常用于完成时中;

in the past意思是―在过去‖,常用于过去时中。 如:

Great changes have taken place in my hometown in the past few years.

Where did you work in the past?

3. ever since then与from then on / after that 都有―打那以后‖之意,

但前者常用于完成时,而后两者常用于过去时。如:

She\'s lived here ever since then. I didn\'t hear of Jim from then on/after that.

4. before 通常用于完成时;...ago通常用于过去时。如:

I have never been to Japan before. She went to Japan two years ago.

5. so far―到目前为止‖, these days―这些天来‖也是现在完成时常见的时间状语。如: So far, no man has travelled farther than the moon. What have you done these days? 接触八:过去分词有规则与不规则两种。

规则的变化形式与动词的过去式一样。不规则就需要记忆了

不规则动词过去式和过去分词

A. 原型:过去式和过去分词完全不同

drink---drank----drunk ring----rang-----rung swim----swam----swum sing----sang----sung sink----sank----sunk

see----saw----seen

B. 过去式与过去分词完全相同 give----gave----given hide----hid----hidden do----did----done

bright----brought----brought think----thought----thought fight----fought----fought

buy----bought----bought catch----caught----caught sell----sold----sold

C.原型与过去分词相同

come----came----come run----ran----run become----became----become

D.原形与过去式和过去分词完全相同

cast----cast----cast cut----cut----cut put----put----put

let----let----let set----set----set hit----hit----hit

【练习】

一、用所给动词的适当形式填空。

1. I______never______(speak)to a foreigner.

2. —______Tom______(return)the library book? —Yes,he has.

3.—When________he________(return)it? —Half an hour ago.

二、按要求转换下列各句,每空一词。

1、He has already finished his homework.(改为否定句)

He _______ finished his homework ________.

2.They have found the lost books already.(改为一般疑问句,并作否定回答) ______ they _______ the lost books _______?No,they________.

3.Julia has not got home from school yet.(改为肯定句)

Julia ______ _______ ________ home from school .

4.You have never been to Shanghai before,_________ _________ ?(改为反意疑问句)

5. He‘s gone to Beijing, ______ ______?(改为反意疑问句)

6.Mr Wang began to teach English in this school in 1999.(改为同义句)

Mr Wang _________ _________ English in this school since 1999.

7. He hasn‘t left home for 3 days.(同义句)

He _____ ______ ______ home for 3 days.

三、选择正确答案。

( )1.—Who is Mary ?

—____?I saw you talking with her at the meeting .

A.Don't you meet her yet B.Didn't you met her yet C.Haven't you met her yet D.Hadn't

you met her yet

( )2.—How do you like Beijing ,Mr Black?

—Oh ,I ____ such a beautiful city .

A.don't visit B.didn't visit C.haven't visited D.hadn't visited

( )3.The old people ____ lonely at all since we began to visit them once a week.

A.don't feel B.hasn't felt C.haven't felt D.didn‘t feel

( ) 4.We have lived here ____ five years ago.

A.when B.since C.before D.after

六、过去完成时:

概念:以过去某个时间为标准,在此以前发生的动作或行为,或在过去某动作之前完成的行为,即―过去的过去‖。----|--------------------------|-------------------------------|---------------------------->

那时以前 那时 现在

时间状语:before, by the end of last year(term, month…),etc.

基本结构:主语+had+过去分词vpp.(done)

①肯定句:主语+had+过去分词.

②否定句:主语+had+not+过去分词.

③一般疑问句:Had+主语+过去分词? 肯定回答:Yes,主语+had. 否定回答:No,主语+had not .

④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词或词组+一般疑问句(Had+主语+过去分词)? 基本用法

(1)表示在过去某一时刻或动作以前完成了的动作,也可以说过去的时间关于过去的动作。即―过去的过去‖。可以用by, before等介词短语或一个时间状语从句来表示,也可以用一个表示过去的动作来表示,还可能通过上下文来表示。

By nine o‘clock last night, we had got 200 pictures from the spaceship. 到昨晚9点钟,我们已经收到200 张飞船发来的图片。

(2)表示由过去的某一时刻开始,一直延续到过去另一时间的动作或状态,常和for, since构成的时间状语连用。

I had been at the bus stop for 20 minutes when a bus finally came. 当车来的时候,我在车

站已等了20分钟。

He said he had worked in that factory since 1949. 他说自从1949年以来他就在那家工厂工作。

(3)叙述过去发生的事情,在已叙述了过去发生的事情后,反过来追述或补述以前发生的动作时,常使用过去完成时。

Mr. Smith died yesterday. He had been a good friend of mine. 史密斯先生昨天去世了。他以前是我的好友。

I didn‘t know a thing about the verbs, for I had not studied my lesson. 我对动词一无所知,因为我没有好好学习功课。

(4)在含有定语从句的主从复合句中,如果叙述的是过去的事,先发生的动作常用过去完成时。

I returned the book that I had borrowed. 我已归还了我借的书。

She found the key that she had lost. 她丢失的钥匙找到了。

(5)过去完成时常常用在told,said,knew,heard,thought等动词后的宾语从句(或间接引语)中,这时从句中的动作发生在主句表示的过去的动作之前。

He said that he had known her well. 他说他很熟悉她。

I thought I had sent the letter a week before. 我认为我一星期前就把信寄出去了。

(6) 状语从句:在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在前,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。 如when,before,after,as soon as,till/until引导的

When I woke up, it had already stopped raining. 我醒来时雨已停了。

She didn‘t go to bed until she had finished her work. 她直到把工作做完之后才睡觉。 注意:如果两个动作紧接着发生,则常常不用过去完成时,特别是在包含before和after的复合句中,因为 这 时从句的动作和主句的动作发生的先后顺序已经非常明确,这时可以用一般过去时代替过去完成时。

After he arrived in England, Marx worked hard to improve his English. 马克思到达英格兰之后,努力提高他的英语水平。

(7)动词think, want, hope, mean, plan, intend等用过去完成时来表示过去未曾实现的想法,打算或意图等。 They had wanted to help but could not get there in time. 他们本来打算去帮忙,但没有及时赶到那里。

We had hoped to be able to come and see you . 我们本来希望能来看看你。

(8)过去完成时还可用在hardly…when…, no sooner…than…, It was the first (second, etc) time (that)…等固定句型中。

Hardly had he begun to speak when the audience interrupted him. 他刚开始演讲,听众就打断了他。

No sooner had he arrived than he went away again. 他刚到就又走了。

It was the third time that he had been out of work that year. 这是他那一年第三次失业了。 语法判定

1. 由时间状语来判定 :一般说来,各种时态都有特定的时间状语。与过去完成时连用的时间状语有:

(1)by + 过去的时间点。如: I had finished reading the novel by nine o'clock last night.

(2)by the end of + 过去的时间点。如:We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term. (3)before + 过去的时间点。如: They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday.

2. 由―过去的过去‖来判定:过去完成时表示―过去的过去‖,是指过去某一动作之前已经发生或完成的动作,即动作有先后关系,动作在前的用过去完成时,在后的用一般过去时。这种用法常出现在:

( 1 )宾语从句中 :当宾语从句的主句为一般过去时,且从句的动作先于主句的动作时,从句要用过去完成时。在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。如: She said that she had seen the film before.

( 2 )状语从句中 :在时间、条件、原因、方式等状语从句中,主、从句的动作发生有先后关系,动作在前的,要用过去完成时,动作在后的要用一般过去时。如:

After he had finished his homework, he went to bed.

注意: before, after 引导的时间状语从句中,由于 before 和 after 本身已表达了动作的先后关系,若主、从句表示的动作紧密相连,则主、从句都用一般过去时。如: After he closed the door, he left the classroom.

(3)表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…" We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.

3. 根据上、下文来判定。

I met Wang Tao in the street yesterday. We hadn't seen each other since he went to Beijing.

【练习】

一.用动词的适当形式填空

1. We _____________ (paint) the house before we ______________ (move) in.

2. That rich old man _____________ (make) a will before he _____________ (die).

3. They _____________ (study) the map of the country before they ________ (leave).

4. The robbers _____________ (run away ) before the policemen_______ (arrive).

5. I __________ (turn off) all the lights before I ____________ (go) to bed.

6. Paul __________ (go) out with Jane after he __________ (make) a phone call.

7. Tom __________ (say) he ___________ (read) the book twice.

8. Our plan ____________ (fail ) because we _____________ (make) a bad mistake.

9. When the chairman ______________ (finish) speaking, he _____________ (leave)the hall.

10.The Reads __ ______ (have) lunch when I ________________(get) to their house.

11.When I ______________(arrive) at the station, he ____________________(leave).

12.We _______________(learn) about 4000 English words by the end of last term.

13. I waited until he _______________(finish) his homework.

14. We were surprised at what she ________already ______(do)

15.She ____________(not go) to Qingdao because she ________________ (be) there before.

16. He ______________(not tell) you the news yet.

17. He said he _____________already_________(give) the book to the teacher.

18. I ______________(be) to Shanghai before.

19. She told me she _________________(be) to Sanya three times.

20.She _____________(play) the guitar while her sister_______________(sing).

二.句型转换

1.I had sold the ticket when she came.(改否定句)

2.She had sung a song to us before she danced.(改否定句)

3.They began to climb the mountain after they had bought all the food and drinks.(否定)

4.By 10:00 a.m, I had been very hungry. (改一般疑问)

5.Lucy had already completed the project when I arrived.(改一般疑问)

6.By the time he got to the airport, the plane had taken off. (改一般疑问)

(对划线部分提问)

(对划线部分提问)

9..Jack didn‘t go to the cinema (对划线部分提问) (对划线部分提问) (对划线部分提问)

12.We cooked the dumplings. We ate them up. (用过去完成时连接两句)

13.Jim‘s father mended the car. It was broken. (用过去完成时连接两句)

14.We had our tests. Then we had a long holiday.( 用过去完成时连接两句)

After we ________________________, we _____________________________

15.He showed us the picture. Then he showed us around the house. 用过去完成时连接两句)

Before he _______________________, he______________________________. 参考答案:

一.1. had painted... moved 2. had made ... died 3. had studied…left4. had run away..arrived5. had turned off …went 6. went …had made 7. said …had read 8 failed …had made 9. (had) finished …left 10. were having/had had …got 11. arrived ..had

left 12.. had learned 13. (had) finished 14. had ..done 15 didn't go …had been 16. hasn't told 17 had …given 18. have been 19. had been 20. was playing …was singing

二.1.I hadn't sold the ticket when she came. 2. She hadn't sung a song to us before she danced. 3. They didn't begin to climb the mountain after they had bought all the food and drinks.4. Had you been very hungry by 10:00 a.m? 5. Had Lucy completed the project when I arrived yet? 6. Had the plane taken off by the time he got to the airport? 7. What had he done when you saw him? 8.What did he do when he had read the note? 9. Why didn't Jack go to the cinema? 10. How long had you/we had the toys before you/we gave them to the child? 11.What had she written by the end of 1960? 12.After we had cooked the dumplings, we ate them up. 13.Jim‘s father mended the car because it had been broken. 14.After we had had our tests, we had a long holiday. 15. Before he showed us around the house, he had showed us the picture.

七、一般将来时:

概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。

标志词:

tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, soon, this afternoon/ evening/weekend, next year/month, tonight, in+一段时间(in 10 years)等。

结构及其肯定式、否定式、疑问式及简略回答:

1.will/shall+V原形+其它.(will 用于各种人称,shall用于第一人称:I /we)

(1)肯定句:主语+ will/shall+V原形+其它.

I will/shall be a teacher in 10 years.( will be a /an +

词) There will be a meeting tomorrow.

You will be taller soon.(will be + 形容词) People will have robots in the future.

(2)否定句:主语+ will/shall+not+V原形+其它.

They will study at home on computers. →They won‘t study at home on computers.

(3)一般问句:Will/Shall+主语+ V原形+其它?

Mary will be in college in 5 years. →Will Mary be in college in 5 years?

肯定回答:Yes, she will. 否定回答:No, she won‘t.

(4)特殊问句:对谓语动词进行提问的:疑问词+Will/Shall+主语+ V原形+其它? 职业名

I will live on a space station in the future. →Where will you live in the future?

用法

1)will可用于所有人称,但shall 仅表示单纯将来时,用于第一人称I和we,作为will的一种替代形式。以You and I为主语时通常避免用shall. 例如:

He will be back soon. 他很快就会回来。

I shall/will be free on Sunday. 星期天我有空。

You and I will work in the same factory. 你和我将在同一工厂工作。

2)will,shall可用来预言将来发生的事。如说出我们设想会发生的事,或者请对方预言将要发生什么事。例如:

It will rain tomorrow. 明天将要下雨。

3)will,shall除可表示单纯的将来时以外,还可以带有意愿的色彩,仍指的是将来。例如: I'll buy you a bicycle for your birthday. 你过生日时,我给你买一辆自行车。(表示允诺) Will you open the door for me please?请你帮我开门好吗?(表示请求)

Shall I get your coat for you? 我可以为你拿外套吗?(表示提议)

2.be going to +V原形+其它.(表示近期的打算或计划将要发生的事)

(1)肯定句:主语+ be going to +V原形+其它.

I am going to be a basketball player in the future. There is going to be a concert tonight.

(2)否定句:主语+ be +not +going to +V原形+其它.

I am going to get lots of exercise this afternoon. →I am not going to get lots of exercise this afternoon.

(3)一般问句:Be+主语+going to+V原形+其它?

She is going to take acting lessons next year. →Is she going to take acting lessons next year?

肯定回答:Yes, she is. 否定回答:No , she isn‘t.

(4)特殊问句: 疑问词+Be+主语+going to+V原形+其它?

She is going to get good grades next year. →What is she going to do next year? 用法:

1)表示说话人根据现在已有的迹象,判断将要或即将发生某种情况。这类句子的主语可以是人,也可是物。例如:

There is going to be a football match in our school tomorrow afternoon. 明天下午我们学校将有一场足球赛。

I feel terrible .I think I'm going to die. 我感到难受极了,我想我快不行了。

2)表示主语现在的意图或现已作出的决定,即打算在最近或将来进行某事。这种意图或决定往往是事先经过考虑的。例如:

He isn't going to see his elder brother tomorrow. 他明天不准备去看他哥哥。 Mary is going to be a teacher when she grows up. 玛丽决定长大了当一名教师。

3)只是单纯地预测未来的事,此时可与will互换。例如:

I think it is going to/will rain this evening. 我认为今晚要下雨。

注意:

be going to和will在含义和用法上略有不同。

be going to往往表示事先经过考虑的打算;will多表示意愿、决心。两者有时不能互换。例如:

He is studying hard and is going to try for the exams. 他正努力学习,准备参加考试。(不能用will替换)

3.be +V-ing+其它(主要用于go, come, leave, start等表示去向的短暂性动词)

(1)肯定句:主语+ be+V-ing+其它.

I am leaving for Beijing next month.

(2)否定句:主语+ be+not+V-ing+其它.

They are going to Tibet the day after tomorrow. →They aren‘t going to Tibet the day after tomorrow.

(3)一般问句:Be+主语+ V-ing+其它.?

I am going hiking in the mountain next Sunday. →Are you going hiking in the mountain next Sunday? 肯定回答:Yes, I am. 否定回答:No, I am not.

(4)特殊问句: 疑问词+Be+主语+ V-ing+其它.?

He is going with his parents. →Who is he going with?

一、单项选择。

1. There __________ a meeting tomorrow afternoon.

A. will have B. will C. is going to be

2. ______ people have a robot in the future?

A.Will B. Are C. Do

3. He ________ free next week.

A. will be; B. is C. will

two years.

A. on B. at C. in

5.---Will kids go to scholl in 100 years?--_________. A,yes, they are. B.yes, they will. C yes, they do

6.Mother ________ me a nice present on my next birthday.

A. will gives B. will give C. gives

7.He ________ in three days.

A. is coming back B. came back C. comes back

8.He ________ her a beautiful hat on her next birthday.

A. gives B. will giving C. is going to give

9.They ________ an English test tomorrow.

A. are have B. are going to have C. will having

10.I _____ taller soon.

A. will B. will be C. am

11.---what are you going for vacation?---I _______.

A. am going camping B.am going camp C.going camping.

12.---where _____you _____?---I will live in an apartment.

A.will, live B.do ,live C. are ,live

13.I _____think people _____live to be 200 years.

A./, won‘t B.don‘t , will C.don‘t, won‘t

14.Liming is 10 years old and he _____11years old.

A.is B. will be C. will to be

15.---_______ will she get to Shanghai?---In three hours.

A. how long B.how soon C. how often

二、用所给词的适当形式填空。

1.People _______(have) robots in their home in the future.

2.Kid ________( not will) go to school.

3.They _____(play) the guitar next Monday.

4.We will____(able) to speak English.

5.The students are going to _____(study) hard this term.

6.Jim ______(leave) for American tomorrow.

7.I ______(be) a college student in 5 years.

三、句型转换。

1. Mike played basketball 3 years ago.(用in 3 years替换3 years ago.)

Mike _____ _______basketball in 3 years.

2. Will there be less pollution?

肯定回答: ___________.否定回答: __________.

3. She will go shopping tomorrow.(改为一般疑问句) ______________________________

4.I will live on a space station.(对画线部分提问) _______ ______ you live?

5. Tom‘s sister will be a doctor in 7 years. (对画线部分提问) _______ ______ will Tom‘s sister be a doctor?

四、根据汉语提示完成下列的句子。

1.一百后会有更多的楼房。 There _____ _____ ______ buildings in 100years.

2.我相信你将会爱上古寨的。 I believe you ______ ______ _______ ______ with Guzhai.

3.下周他们将前往香港度假。 They _____ _____ HongKong for holiday next week.

4.十年后你的生活会怎么样? What ____ your life _______ _______ in 10years?

5. 今天下午我打算和我的好朋友们去踢足球。 I ______ _____ _____ play _______ with my good friends.

八、过去将来时:

概念:立足于过去某一时刻,从过去看将来,常用于宾语从句中。

时间状语:the next day(morning, year…),the following month(week…),etc.

一般疑问句:①was或were放于句首;②would/should 提到句首。

基本构成:

A ) would + 动词原形 否定:would/should + not + do.

如:He asked me if I would stay here. 他问我是否要待在这儿。

B ) was / were going to + 动词原形 否定:was/were/not + going to + do

如:No one knew when he was going to finish his homework.没有人知道他什么时候会完成作业。

C ) was/ were ( about ) to + 动词原形

如:He said that they were to leave at six. 他说他们将于6点动身。

She said that the meeting was about to begin. 她说会议就要开始了

D) come, go, arrive, leave, die 等瞬时动词,用在过去进行时态中表示过去将来。 如:She told us that she was leaving for Yunnan. 她告诉我们她将要去云南。

基本用法:

A ) 主句为过去时,宾语从句常表示将要发生的事情。

如:Nobody knew what would happen after a hundred years.没有人知道一百年之后将会发生什么事。

We wanted to know whether she was going to speak at the meeting.我们想知道她是否准备在会上发言。

B ) 在叙述过去的事情或事情发生的经过时,用过去将来时表示在当时看将来会发生的事。

如:

It was a Sunday afternoon. A young woman named Maria had just left school. He was

going to start to work the next week, so she decided to buy some new clothes and a new pair of shoes.一个星期天的下午,一位名叫玛丽亚的年轻人刚离开学校。因为她准备下周开始工作,所以,决定买些新衣服和一双新鞋子。

C ) 过去将来时还可以用来表示非真实的动作或状态。如:

If I had a chance to study abroad, I would study at Harvard University.如果我有机会出国学习的话,我就会去哈佛大学。

I wish he would go with me to the cinema tonight.今晚他能和我一起去看电影就好了。

【练习】

I. 选择填空

1. --- Where will we meet? ---- Sorry? --- I asked __________ meet.

A. where we would B. when we would C. where will we

2. ---Did you ask your pen pal _______?

---Yes, he will visit Taiyuan after the exam.

A. what he will do B. when he would come C. how he would get here.

3. --- When will she come back?

--- Pardon?

--- I asked when __________________.

A. when will she come back B. when she will come back

C. when would she come back D. when she would come back

4. --- What did he tell you just now?

--- He said that ____________ tomorrow morning.

A. he will buy some new clothes B. will he buy some new clothes

C. he would buy some new clothes D. would he buy some new clothes

5. Ken was so busy when we saw him, because he _______ a speech the next day.

A. will make B. would make C. has made D. was making

6. If I had enough money, I ________ a big house for my father.

A. will buy B. would buy C. have bought D. am buying

7. Tina ___________ leave when I met her.

A. was going to B. would C. was about to D. A, B and C

8. Li Ming said he _____happy if Brian_____to China next month.

A. as; come B. was; would come C. would be; came D. will be; come

9. Jenny said she _____her holiday in China.

A. spent B. would spent C. was going to spent D. would spend

10. —What did your son say in the letter?

—He told me that he ______ the Disney World the next day.

A. will visit B. has visited C. is going to visit D. would visit

11. I hoped Tina ______ to my birthday party on time the next Wednesday.

A. to come B. is coming C. will come D. was coming

12. Father said that he ______ me to Beijing the next year.

A. took B. would take C. takes D. will take

13. We were not sure whether they ______ more vegetables.

A. are going to grow B. were going to grow C. will grow D. have grown

14. She ______ to work when the telephone rang.

A. is going B. will go C. was about to go D. is to go

II. 用所给动词的适当形式填空

1. Miss Zhang said she ________(visit) the Great Wall next summer.

2. She told him that she ________(not stay) here for long.

3. I wasn‘t sure whether Lucy_______(come) the next year.

4. The scientists said the world‘s population _______ (slow) down in future.

5. She said the bus _______(leave) at five the next morning.

6. I wasn't sure whether he _______(lend) me his book the next morning.

7. He was fifty-six. In two years he _______(be) fifty-eight.

8. Whenever she has time, she ______(help) them in their work.

Key:

I. 参考答案:1-5 ABDCB 6-10BDCDD 11-14DBBC

II. 1. would visit 2. would not stay 3. would come 4. would slow 5. was leaving 6. would lend 7. would be 8. would help

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