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发布时间:2013-11-09 10:40:06  



1、 介词的种类和介词短语的用法

(1) 介词的种类:介词由词形上可分为简单介词和短语介词。


短语介词是由两个以上单词集合而成,如:out of,in front of,because of,instead of等。

(2) 介词短语的用法

① 作定语——介词短语作定语时,一律后置。

The book on the desk is mine.桌子上的书是我的。 He bought a house of five rooms.他买了一所有五个房间的房子。

A gentleman in white came into the hall.一个身穿白衣的绅士走进了大厅。

② 作状语——介词短语作状语时,修饰动词、形容词、副词或者整个句子。

Classes begin at eight.(修饰动词)八点钟开始上课。

Jane looks young for her age.(修饰形容词)珍妮看起来比她的实际年龄年轻。

The school is not far from my house.(修饰形容词)学校离我家不远。

To my surprise, Li Ming passed the exam at all.(修饰全句)使我吃惊的是,李明居然考试及格了。

③ 作表语

He is in danger.他处于危险之中。 We are against/for you.我们反对/支持你。

It was because of the heavy rain, we couldn’t go out.因为这场大雨,我们出不去了。

④ 作宾语补足语

Make yourself at home.放松一些,就和在你自己家一样。 We made him out of danger.我们使他脱离了危险。

2、 表示时间的介词

(1)表示“时间”的介词如下:表示年、月、日、时刻等用at,in,on;表示时间的前后用before,after;表示期限等用by,until,till;表示期间等用for,during,through;表示时间的起点等用from,since;表示时间的经过等用in,within。 at,on,in

at:用于表示时刻、时间的某一点,表示具体的时间点。常用于表示钟点、夜里、中午、拂晓及某些词组中。节假日前也常用at。 at lunch在午饭时 at breakfast早餐时 at noon正午时 at that time那时 at night在夜间 at the moment此刻,目前 at present目前 at nine(o’clock)在九点钟 at first开始的时候,起初 at/on the weekend在周末 at last最后 at the same time同时 at times偶尔,有时 at the end of 1999在1999年末 at this time of(the)year在一年中的这个时候

We usually have lunch at noon/ at twelve.我们通常中午吃午饭(十二点吃午饭)

注意:表示时间的名词前有this,last,next,every等修饰时,其前面不加介词。This morning今天早上;last Monday上周一;every week每周


on Monday在周一 on Tuesday morning在周二早上 on June 6在6月6日 on May 4,1996在1996年5月4日 on a cold night在一个寒冷的夜晚 on that day在那天 on Christmas Day在圣诞节那天 on time准时 on Monday evening在周一晚上 on the night of July(the)first在七月一日的夜晚

we didn’t listen to the lecture on Wednesday afternoon.周三下午我们没去听演讲。

In:用于表示周、月、 季节、年和泛指的上午、下午、晚上(指在一段时间内)。也用于将来的一段时间。

in the week在这周 in the holiday在假期中 in May 在五月 in summer在夏季 in Spring在春季 in autumn 在秋季 in 1995在1995 in winter在冬季 in September,1995在1995年9月 in the morning在上午

in the afternoon在下午 in the evening在晚上 in the 21st century在二十一世纪 in time及时 in an hour一个小时后 in a minute一会儿,立刻

Jack was about to lock the door when just in time he remembered his key.


The plane took off on time.飞机准时起飞了。 People go skating in winter.人们冬天去滑冰。

Do they work in the day time or at night?他们是白天工作还是夜里工作?

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before在??之前,后面一般接时间点 Wash your hands before dinner.(before作介词)吃饭前请洗手。

He will call me before he leaves here/before ten o’clock.(前一个before作连词;后一个before作介词)



Let’s sing some songs after school.(after作介词)放学后咱们唱歌吧!

Please close the door after you leave the room.(after作连词)离开房间后请关门。


by 在??前(时间);截止(到)??

How many English books had you read by the end of last year? 到去年年底以前你看过多少本英文书?

She had left by the time I arrived.我到时(之前)她已经走了。

例:by the end of在??底(之前) by then 到那时 by the time+从句 在??之前


We didn’t begin to watch TV until/till nine o’clock.一直到九点,我们才开始看电视。(begin是点动词,所以用否定式) I will wait for him until he comes here.我将在这儿一直等到他来。


for 达??之久(表示经过了多少时间)。可以和一般现在时、过去时、将来时连用,但经常和完成时连用。

He has lived here for 20 years.他在这儿已经住了二十年了。

We will stay in the city for two days.我们要在这座城市呆两天。

during在??期间 They are going to have a good rest during the summer holidays.暑假中他们打算好好休息一下。 Through 一直??(从开始到结束)

They played the cards through the night.他们打了一整夜的牌。

He stayed in London through the winter.他整个冬天都待在伦敦。



from从??起(时间)。表示“从??开始”时,一般都是用词组from?to?,而单纯表示确切的“从几点开始”时用at。 The meeting will be held from eight to ten.这个会议将从8点开到10点。

The meeting will be held at eight.会议将从八点钟开始。


I have been sick since yesterday.我从昨天起就病了。(强调一直病到现在)

The doctor has saved a lot of lives since he became a doctor.(since作连词,引导时间状语从句)这个医生自从当医生以来已经拯救了许多人的生命。



in an hour一小时之后 in a week or so大约一星期之后 He will be back in five hours.他五小时之后回来。 They said they would arrive here in a week.他们说他们一周后到达。

注意:如果用于过去时,用after+时间。She went to Nanjing last May,and she came back after a month.去年五月她去了南京,一个月之后她又回来了。

within不超过??的范围 within 3 hours 3小时之内;within a week一周之内

I must finish painting the cat within five minutes.我必须在五分钟之内画好这只猫。

比较:within和in within强调“在??时间之内”,没有时态的限制。in是以现在为基础,in an hour是指从现在起一小时之后,所以in一般只用于将来时。

(2)表示场所、方向的介词——表示场所的介词:at,in,on,under,by,near,between,around,opposite;表示方向的介词:into,out of,along,across,through,up,past


at在某地(表示比较狭窄的场所或小地方) I’ll meet him at the Beijing railway station.我将去北京站接他。 at school上学;at 2 Baker Street在贝克街2号;at home在家;stand at the door站在门边;at a factory在一家工厂;at the bottom of在??下面;at the party在聚会上;at the back of在??后边;at the end of在??末尾;at the head

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of在??排头;at the table在桌旁;at Mike’s house在迈克家;at table进餐;at the crossroads在十字路口;at work在上班;at the bus stop在公共汽车站;at the station在火车站;sit at my desk坐在我书桌旁


in Beijing在北京;in the world在世界上;in China在中国;in the street在街上;in bed躺在床上;in the yard在院子里;in a book/newspaper在书上/报纸上;in the photo/picture在照片里/图画里;in the middle在中部;in a queue/line/row排队(在对、行、排里);in a country在国家(里);in the house在房子里

His brother is in prison. He was arrested 2 years ago.他哥哥两年前被捕的,现在他再监狱中服刑。

Mike works in the prison.迈克在这个监狱工作。 She was born in China.她是在中国出生的。


on在??上面,有接触面。 on the desk在桌子上面;on the map在地图上。

There are two maps on the wall.墙上有两张地图。

On在??靠近??的地方,表示A和B相邻。 on the right在右边;on the screen在屏幕上;on the river在河边;on the farm在农场;on the floor在地板上;on the island/beach在岛上/海滨;on the pavement在人行道上

above在??上方(不一定垂直),below是其反义词。 Our plane flew above the clouds.我们的飞机在云端上飞行。 over在??正上方,是under的反义词

There is a light over Li Ming.李明的正上方有一盏灯。 A few birds were flying over the sea.有几只鸟在海上飞。 under在??下面;在??之内 under the table桌子下面;under the jacket在夹克内

below在??下方(不一定是正下方) 正下方是under,below是above的反义词。

There are a lot of fishes below the surface of the water.水面下有许多各式各样的鱼。


near近的,不远的 near=not far,是far的反义词。Near还可以指时间,如:in the near future在不久的将来 Is there a bus stop near here?这儿附近有公共汽车站吗?

By在??旁边,距离比near要近 by the window在窗户旁边;by me在我旁边

The boy is standing by the window.这个男孩正站在窗户旁边。


between在两者之间 What’s the difference between A and B?A和B之间有什么区别?

among在三者或更多的之中 There is a beautiful house among the trees.在树林之中有一间漂亮的房子。

around环绕,在??周围,在??四周 We sat around the table.我们在桌子四周坐下来。

The earth moves around the sun.地球围绕太阳转。

in front of,behind,opposite

in front of早??的前面;在??的前部(=before) There is a tree in front of the house.在房屋前面有一棵树。(指在范围之外的前面) There is a big desk for the teacher in the front of the classroom. 在教室的前部有一张大讲桌。(表示在某范围之内的前面)

behind在??后面 behind是in front of的反义词

There is a tree behind my house. There is a tree at the back of my house.我家房子后面有一棵树。

opposite在??对面 Our school is opposite a university,我们学校在一所大学的对面。

in,into,out of,up

in在??之内,用于表示静止的位置 The students are in the classroom.学生们在教室里。

Into表示“动作方向”,意为“到??内”用于表示有特定终点的运动的方向。通常用于表示动作的动词之后,如:go,come,walk,run等。 The students run into the classroom.学生们跑进教室。 He jumped into the water.他跳入水中。

out of和into一样,也表示有一定的运动方向(两者互为反义词) The students rushed out of the room.学生们冲出房间。 重要:out of的基本含义:从??到外面,离开;在??范围之外;从(某个数)之中

up移动 The children climbed up the tree.孩子们爬上了树。


along沿着 I was walking along the river when it began to rain.我正沿着河边散步,突然下起雨来了。

across横过 I often swim across the river.我常游泳横渡这条河。

past经过 Every day he runs past the city hall.他每天跑步经过市政府。

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through贯穿,通过。 The river was through the city.这条河穿过这个城市。


to到达??地点(目的地)或方向 He came to Japan in 1980.他1980年来到日本。

for表示目的地,“向??”;for表目的时,一般都是和固定动词搭配:leaver for动身去??;start for出发去?? I will leaver for America next week.下周我将动身去美国。

from从??地点起 It’s about ten minutes’walk from here to the cinema. 从这儿到电影院大约需步行十分钟。

(3)其他介词(介词除了可以表示“时间”、“场所”以外,有些也可以表示“手段”、“材料”、“方式”或“工具”等。) 表示手段和材料的介词with,in,by

with A.和??在一起 Will you please go with me? 你和我一起去好吗?

B.具有、带有 He was a handsome boy with large bright eyes.他是有着一双明亮大眼睛的英俊男孩。

C.用某种工具或办法 Li Li cut her hand with a knife.莉莉用刀把手指弄破了。


With one’s help在某人的帮助下 Eg. With the teacher’s help I have made progress.在老师的帮助下,我取得了进步。 in表示用什么材料(如用墨水,铅笔等),或用什么语言,或者表示衣着、声调特点时,不用with,而用in。

she wrote a letter in black ink.她用黑色的墨水写信。 Can you speak in English?你能用英语说吗?

Don’t write it in pencil but in ink.别用铅笔写,用钢笔(水)写。

比较:in和with——①用in,with表示工具或方法时,在译成中文时区别不大,但在英语上的用法却不大相同。②用“with”时,后面的名词要加上冠词或代词。With my ears.用我的耳朵。With a pencil.用一只铅笔。③用in时,后面加物质名词,不能加冠词。In ink用墨水(钢笔)in pencil用铅笔。

by通过??方法、手段 必背:“by+交通工具”的词组:by bicycle骑自行车;by train坐火车;by plane/by air坐飞机;by taxi坐出租车;by car坐小汽车;by ship坐船;by bus坐公共汽车


of(属于)??的;表示??的数量或种类 This is a map of china.这是一幅中国地图。

From来自(某地、某人);以??起始(时间或地点) I’m from Nanjing.我是南京人。

We work from Monday to Friday.我们从星期一到星期五上班。


without没有,是with的反义词。 Man can’t live without air and water.人类没有空气和水不能生存。

Please give me a cup of coffee with(without) milk.请给我一杯(不)加牛奶的咖啡。

like像??一样 Nancy is just like her mother.南希和她的妈妈一样。

注意:Nancy looks like her mother.(南希和她妈妈长得一样。)用look时,强调外表。

as作为;像??,如?? He is famous as a scientist here.他在此地作为一个科学家而闻名。

They treated me as a hero.他们像对待英雄那样对待我。 The room is dirty as usual.这房间像平时一样脏。


against反对;靠着 He is against the plan(Li Ming).他反对这个计划。(他反对李明)

The teacher is standing against the blackboard.老师正靠着黑板站着。

about A.关于;各处;身旁 Tell me something about your life.告诉我你的生活情况。

He looked about himself.他向四处张望。 I have no money about/with me.我身上没带钱。


What about your sister?你姐姐情况如何? How about going to the park?去公园怎么样?

Except 除??之外 I look everywhere except in the bedroom.除卧室之外我到处都找了

Off ①不在??之上,从??下来,离开。 The girl fell off the bike。

②离??一些距离。 The factory is 100 metres off the building。

On关于,论及 He gave a talk on computers。他作了一个关于计算机的报告。

Under处于??过程中。 The watch is under repair。手表正在维修中。


动词+介词(如:talk about,look at) Be动词+形容词+介词(如:be kind of) 介词+名词(如:at home,on foot,in time)


look up查看,查(字典); play with sth.玩某物(玩耍)Don’t play with fire.别玩火。think of想起,想到;hear from sb.

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收到某人的信;talk about sth.谈论某事;talk to/with sb.和某人谈论;look at注视;listen to倾听;call on sb.拜访某人;arrive at/in 到达;take care of照顾;wait for等待;look for寻找。add?to 加到??上 ;agree with 同意(某人) arrive at(in) 到达;ask for 询问;begin?with 从??开始;believe in 相信;break into 闯入 break off 打断

break out 爆发 bring down 降低 bring in 引进 bring up 教育,培养 build up 建起 burn down 烧光

call back 回电话 call for 要求约请 call in 召来 call on 拜访 访问 care for 喜欢 carry on 继续开展 carry out 实行开展 check out 查明 结帐 clear up 整理,收拾 come about 发生,产生 come across (偶然)遇见 come out 出来 come to 共计 达到 compare?with 与??比较

compare to 比作 cut off 切断 date from 始于 depend on 依靠

devote to 献于 die out 灭亡 divide up 分配 dream of 梦想

fall off 下降 fall over 跌倒 feed on 以??为食 get down to 专心于

get through 通过 give in 让步,屈服 give out 分发 give up 放弃

go abroad 出国 go against 反对 go on with 继续 go through 浏览

grow up 生长 hand down 传下来 hear about 听说 hold out 伸出

join up 连接起来 keep off 让开,不接近 keep on 继续 lead to 导致

live on 靠??为生 look down upon 看不起 look forward to 盼望 look into 调查

look out 当心 look(a) round 仔细查看 set off 动身 set up 建立

show off 炫耀 shut up 住口 speed up 加速 stand for 代表,象征

stick to 坚持 suffer from 遭受 talk of 谈论 think of 考虑,想起

try out 试验 turn down 调低 turn off 关掉 worry about 担心


be kind to对(某人)亲切;be good at在??做得好;擅长于?? be famous for 因?而出名

be late for迟到;be afraid of害怕;be sorry for sth.为??抱歉;

be absent from缺席;be proud of以??为自豪; be found of 喜欢 be full of 充满

be interested in 对?有兴趣 be keen on 热衷于 be confident in 对?有信心 be short of 缺乏

be sick of 厌恶 be proud of 对?感到骄傲 be loyal to 对?忠诚 be ashamed of 为?感到羞耻 be worried about 为?担心 be aware of 意识到 be busy with 忙于(某事) be different from 和?不同




at a stretch 一连,连续地 at a time 一次,每次 at ease 稍息,安心 at first sight 一见(钟情)

at first 最初,开始时 at heart 在内心 at home 在家,随便 at last 最后

at least 至少 at length 最后,详细地 at most 至多 at once 立即,同时

at peace(war) 处于和平(战争)状态 at play(work) 在玩耍(工作) at present 现在,目前 at random 随意地,胡乱地 at the risk of 冒?的风险 at the same time (与此)同时 at the start 一开头 at the time 此刻,这时 by:

by accident 偶然 by air 航空 by all means 想一切办法 by bus (plane, etc) 坐巴士(飞机等)

by chance 偶然 by cheque 用支票 by choice 出于自愿 by daylight 在大白天

by day(night) 白天(夜间) by force 靠武力 by mistake 错误地,误把? by turns 轮流

by surprise 突然,出其不意 by the way 顺便说一句


in a sense 从某种意义上说 in addition(to) 此外(除?之外) in advance 事前 in all 总共

in any case (event) 不管怎样,反正 in brief 简而言之 in case 要是,如果 in case of 在?情况下

in comparison 比较起来 in danger 处于危险中 in debt 负债 in demand 有需求

in detail 详细地 in fact 实际上 in general 一般说来 in one’s opinion 在(某人)看来

in order to (that) 以便,为了 in other words 换句话说 in part(s) 部分地 in person 亲自

in practice 实际上 in public(private) 公开(私下)地 in regard to 关于 in short 总之

in the end 最后 in the middle of 在?中间 in time 及时地,经过一段时间 in vain 白白地,没有结果

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on account of 由于 on behalf of 代表(某人) on board 在船(飞机)上 on condition 在?条件下 on duty 值班 on fire 着火 on foot 步行 on guard 有警惕,值班

on hand 在身边 on holiday 在休假 on purpose 故意地 on sale 在出售

on strike 罢工 on the contrary 相反 on the way 在路上 on time 准时

on the top of 在?上面 on the run 正在逃窜

out of:

out of action 失灵 out of breath 气喘吁吁 out of control 失去控制 out of danger 脱离危险 out of doors 在户外 out of fashion 不时新 out of hand 失去控制 out of order 坏了

out of reach 无法得到(拿到) out of sight 看不见 out of temper 发脾气 out of question 不可能 out of touch(with) 和?失去联系 out of tune 走调 out of use 不再使用 out of work 失业


day after day 日复一日地 year after year 年复一年 one after another 一个接一个地 one by one 一个接一个 little by little 一点一点地 side by side 并肩 step by step 一步步地 face to face 面对面 arm in arm 手挽手地 hand in hand 手牵手地 day to day 日常的 day by day 一天一天地 day before yesterday 前天 day after tomorrow 后天

heart to heart 互相交心的


from beginning to end 从头至尾 from bad to worse 越来越糟

from time to time 不时地 from head to foot 浑身

from morning to night 从早到晚 from start to finish 从头至尾

from door to door 挨门挨户地 from place to place 到各地

from generation to generation 一代一代地 from cover to cover (书面) 全部地,从头至尾



When Liu Kaiqu was young he was poor in Shanghai.One day he a picture of a tiger and tried to sell it on the street.It caught the of an American,who asked,“How much does it cost?”He said,“500 dollars.”The and asked again,“Can you make it cheaper?”He answered,“No,”Then he tore(撕)it to pieces.In great ,the foreigner said,“Young man,are you angry?”“No,sir.I’m not angry.I sold it 500 dollars because I thought it was worth the .But you wanted a lower price.It means didn’t think so and it is not good enough.I’ll go on working until my customers(顾客)are satisfied.”At that time, Liu Kaiqu was not famous at all,he never his dream.Now he is well-known all over the world as a great artist.

( )36. A.stole B.picked C.drew D.saw

( )37. A.attention B.instruction C.decision D.discussion

( )38. A.terrible B.big C.old D.dear

( )39. A.fear B.difficulty C.surprise D. excitement

( )40. A.over B.for C.about D.among

( )41. A.size B.price C.weight D.position

( )42. A.we B.he C.you D.it

( )43. A.faster and faster B.slower and slower

C.better and better D.harder and harder

( )44. A.though B.because C.whether D.until

( )45. A.broke off B.cut up C.gave up D.sent off

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