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人教版英语七年级上册教材详解

发布时间:2013-11-10 10:51:50  

人教版英语七年级上册教材详解

Unit 1

1、How are you? 你好吗? How is he ? 他好吗?

I’m fine. = I’m OK. = I’m very well. (fine, OK, well 都是形容词,表身体好的) 2、What’s this in English?――It’s a ruler. ( in English 用英语)

Spell it, please. = How do you spell it ?请拼写出来――R-U-L-E-R. 3、问颜色:It’s black and white. What color are they ? ---They are red. 4、问姓名:What’s your/ her/ his name ? 5

⑴人称代词:表“某人”,分主格、宾格(作主语为主格,常放句首;作宾语为宾格,常放动词或介词后作宾语)

如: ① I can help you ② Can you help me.

⑵物主代词:表“某人的”,可分为形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词。形容词性物主代词后必须接宾语,名词性物主代词后不接宾语。如This is my book.= This book is mine. 变化规则:一变(my—mine); 二留(his—his its—its)

三加s(your—yours ; our—ours ; her—hers ; their—theirs)

练习题:

am a 14-year-old girl, name is Jane. Look, this photo is father

is a teacher. works in a primary school. students all love . mother is a doctor. works in a hospital. both love jobs. I have a happy family. Do you have a family photo ? Please talk about Unit 2

1、指示代词:this , that , these , those. 其中this , that一般与可数名词的单数连用或代替单数名词,而不与不可数名词连用。these, those 接复数名词或代替复数名词(但that可单独指代不可数名词)。 练习题

⑴ This apple is mine, is yours.

⑵ These my apples and yours. ⑶ The weather here is hotter than in Hainan. ⑷ My books are different from on your desk. 2、一般疑问句,用yes或no 来回答的问句。 ⑴动词be 提前,some 改any

There are some students in the room.→ students in the room? ⑵情态动词(can, could, would, should, may, must等表语气)提前

He can speak English. → he speak English ?

⑶使用助动词(do/does/did)来帮助实义动词构成问句。后接动词原形,some 改any. He has some friends. → he friends.

【注意】一般情况下,some用于肯定句,any用于否定句、疑问句、条件状语从句(但表请求、建议,希望得到对方的肯定的回答的问句中可用some,此类句型常以could , would开头)

题:①Would you like tea ? ②Could you take tea to me .

3、特殊疑问句:以疑问词开始的问句。其结构特点有:

⑴ 疑问词+ be + 主语 ?

Who are you ?

⑵ 疑问词+ 助动词+ 主语 + 谓语动词 + (其他)? Why do you like art ?

4、助动词do/ does / did 的用法: 帮助对实义动词提问或否定, 后接动词原形。 ⑴ Do/Does/Did... like/have/go/want/think/play….? (喜欢吗?有吗?去吗?….)

⑵ don’t / doesn’t/ didn’t like/have/go/want/think/play…(不喜欢、没有、不去、不想…)

5、短语 : call sb. at + 电话号 : Please call me 5689000.

Unit 3

1、介绍他人, 人称关系词

This is my mother / father / brother/ friend /sister/uncle/ daughter/ son….

2、指示代词 this , that , these , those 的用法。

Those are my two brothers. And that’s my sister.

3、短语:Thanks for (doing) sth. = Thank you for (doing ) sth. 谢谢(做)某事。

①Thanks for .(listen)谢谢收听 ② Thanks for your letter. 谢谢你的来信。 Unit 4

1、 方位介词 on/ in / under 的用法:( on 在… 上;in在…里; under 在…下)

My book is on/in/under the desk.

2、take, bring, fetch 的用法:

take sth. to sb./some place. 把某物拿到某人/某地(take 拿走,从说话者处拿到远处) bring sth. to sb. /some place. 把某物带到某人/某地(bring 带来,从远处带到说话者处) fetch sth for sb. =fetch sb. sth. 为某人去取某物 (先去再回,强调双向)

练习题:①I’m thirsty. Can you something to drink me?

②The teacher said “Don’t forget to your homework school.”

③The teacher asked me to his books his office.

3、need 的用法:need to do sth. (用于肯定句,后接动词不定式,当做实义动词);

needn’t do sth.(用于否定句后常接动词原形,当做情态动词。)

题:①She need you. (tell ) ② She needn’t you. (tell)

Unit 5

1、have 表“①有 ②吃喝”时是实义动词(有意义的动词),在一般现在时态中,当主语为单数第三人称时,用has, 其他人称用have.

题:She a brother. They bread and milk for breakfast every day. (have)

2、 many 和 much 都表“很多”,但many 后接可数名词复数,而much后接不可数名词。 题:There are vegetables and milk in the fridge.

3、 let, make, have 当他们表“使”时,是使令动词,后常接动词原形。

题:① let’s home. (go) ② The movie made me . (cry)

③ I would have him for me. (wait)

Unit 6

可数名词的复数变化规则:

⑴一般加s,大多数可数名词变复数后直接加“s”。如:book →books pen→ pens ⑵s; sh; ch; x 结尾加 es 如:bus→ buses watch →watches box→ boxes

⑶“辅+y”结尾变y为i加es 如:baby→ babies family → families

但注意以下几点特殊的:

⑴无规则名词:

man—men ; woman—women ; policeman—policemen;Englishman—Englishmen

child—children;foot—feet ; tooth—teeth mouse(鼠)—mice

⑵一般以“o”结尾的,加“s”如: photo→ photos; kilo→ kilos ;但初中有四个以“o”结尾的可数名词要加“es”即:negro→ negroes(黑人); hero→ heroes(英雄);

potato—potatoes(土豆); tomato—tomatoes(番茄)

⑶一般以f (fe) 结尾则变f(fe)为v加es 如:leaf→ leaves knife→ knives;

但roof (房顶)直接加s ,即:roof -roofs

⑷单复同形: fish ; sheep ; deer ; Chinese ; Japanese

⑸名词修饰名词,第一个名词充当形容词,所以第一个名词常不用复数形式。如;

a book shop →two book shops; 但有以下2种特殊情况。

①由man , woman表性别,修饰可数名词复数时,man和woman 也要用复数形式。 a man doctor — two men doctors; a woman teacher →two women teachers

②sport常用复数形式修饰后面的名词 a sports meeting; a sports jacket

⑹“某国人”的复数:中日不变英法变,其余s加后面. eg. German—Germans

⑺ people , police 常用单数形式表示复数概念 The police are looking for the missing boy. 题:

( )1.—Are those ______?---No, they aren’t. They’re _____.

A. sheep ; cows B. sheep ; cow

C. sheeps ; cow D. sheeps ; cows

( )2.Mum, I’m quite thirsty. Please give me ____.

A. two orange B. two bottles of orange

C. two bottles orange D. two bottles of oranges

( )3.I have got ___ news from my friend. Do you want to know?

A. a very good B. any C. a piece of D. two pieces

( )4.Mrs. Green has two ____. They’re very bright.

A. childs B. child C. children’s D. children

( )5.The cat caught two ___ last night.

A. mouses B. mice C. mouse D. mices

( )6.Jack went to have two ___ pulled out yesterday afternoon.

A. tooths B. tooth C. teeth D. toothes

( )7.In our school there are fifty-five ___.

A. women teachers B. woman teachers

C. women teacher D. woman’s teacher

( )8.The three ___ will be put into prison.

A. thiefs B. thief C. thieves D. thiefs’

Unit 7

1、不定冠词a, an用于可数名词前,都表“一(个、只、张…)”

⑴ a用在辅音音素开头的词前 如:a book; a useful book; a “u”

⑵ an用于元音音素开头的词前. 如:an apple; an umbrella; an hour; an “F”

题:( )1.There is ____ “s” in ____ word “bus”.

A. a ; a B. an ; the C. a ; the D. an ; a

( )2.Math is ___ useful subject. You can’t drop it.

A. an B. a C. the D. /

2、take 的用法:

⑴ 拿走:Who has taken my pen ?

⑵ 买下(同buy)It’s ten dollars, I’ll take it.

⑶ 乘,搭车 I take a bus to school.

⑷ 花费 It takes me ten years to finish the work.

⑸ 记录 take notes记笔记;take photos照相; take one’s temperature 量体温

⑹ 服(药)(=have) Take this medicine after each meal.

【总结】take 短语还有:take/have a bath/shower 洗个澡;take /have a walk 散一散步 take off 脱下,起飞;take away 拿走;take in 吸收;take it easy 别紧张;take out 取出; take over 接管;take place 发生;take up 占据(空间)

3、at和in的用法:

At 和in 都可以接地名,表在某地。At 后接小地名,in后接大地名。但如果强调在某建筑物内部时,用in. 如:at school, at home, in Beijing, in China, at/in the library. 题:He’ll arrive Shanghai tomorrow .

4、 at a …price 以一种…的价格:We got it at a very low/good price.

5、 afford 表“买得起,负担的起”,常与can, be able to, could 等表“能”的情态动词连用。

① I can afford a car. ②He isn’t able to afford (to buy)a car.

6、 have a look 看一看 Let me have a look.

have a look at… 看一看某物 Let me have a look at your watch.

7、 on sale (廉价)出售:8、 in + 颜色:①We have T-shirts in red/ green. (此处in表“处于某种状态”)

②Do you know the girl in red ?(此处in 表“穿着”)

9、 短语:see for oneself 亲自看:Come and see for yourself.

10、for 是一个介词,用法有:

① 为:I can do anything for you.

② 给:This letter is for you.

③ 对于 It is important for us to learn English well.

④ 适合于 books for children.

⑤ (表时间,距离,数量)达,计:I’ll stay there for a week.

11、help sb. (to) do sth. 帮助某人做某事 (help 后接动词不定式或动词原形)

题:She often helps the room. (A. clean B. cleans C. cleaning D. to cleaning )

Unit 8

1、 问生日:When is your birthday? --- It’s January fourth.

2、基数词变序数词的方法:

基变序,有规律;词尾要加th。一二三,特殊记;词尾分别tdd。八去t ,九去e ; ve则以f替,ty 则变作 ti ; 后面还有一个e。要是遇到几十几;只将个位变成序。 one—first two—second three—third eight—eighth nine—ninth

five—fifth twelve—twelfth

twenty—twentieth twenty-one —twenty-first

题:① Today is the of March. (九)

② He is the person. (十二)

unit 9

1、 go to a movie 去看电影

2、 助动词do/does 的用法。

3、 What kind (of ) 用来问种类: What kind (of movie) do you like ?

4、 too, as well, also, either 都表“也”,不同用法有:

① too和as well都用于肯定句末,可互换,但too前常用逗号隔开.

I’m a student. He is a student as well/too.

② also 用于肯定句中(位于系动词、情态动词之后,行为动词之前)如:

He is likes English.

③ either 用于否定句末。I’m not a student, he isn’t a student either.

5、短语:learn about 学习,了解 know about 得知,了解

6、短语:on weekends

7、名词所有格:名词’s (意思是 “……的”)

有生命的名词所有格,一般在后加“’s”但注意:

⑴ 表两者共有则在后者加“’s”,表“各自的”则分别在每人头上加“’s”。

①Lucy and Lily’s father 露西和莉莉的父亲(共有的)

②Jim’s and Lily’s fathers吉姆的父亲和莉莉的父亲.(Jim和Lily各自的) ⑵ 以s结尾的词只加“ ’ ”

如:① the boys’ books ② James’ father

⑶ 无生命的名词所有格用of来引导

如:the leg of the desk

⑷ 双重所有格:a friend of my father’s

a friend of mine ( √ ) a friend of my( × )

题:( )1.___ room is on the 5th floor.

A. Lucy and Lily B. Lucy and Lily’s

C. Lucy’s and Lily D. Lucy’s and Lily’s

( )2.Every morning Mr. Smith takes a ____ to his office.

A. 20 minutes’ walk B. 20 minute’s walk

C. 20-minutes walk D. 20-minute walk

Unit 10

1、 情态动词can 的用法。

2、 join 加入(人群,组织,成为其中一员):①join us ②join the chess club.

take part in 参加(活动):take part in the contest.

冠词

1、不定冠词a, an

a用在辅音音素开头的词前 如:a book; a seful book; a “

an用于元音开头的词前. 如:an apple; an hour; an “F”

2、定冠词the

⑴ 特指某人/某物,表“这,那”

⑵ 世上独一无二的事物前

the sun , the moon, the earth, the sky

⑶ 形、副最高级及序数词前

【注意】当这些词前已有其他限定词,如物主代词、指示代词时,则不能再用the He is my first English teacher.

⑷ the + 姓的复数表示 “某家人”或“某夫妇”;the +形容词 表一类人,作主语是复数 ① The Greens are visiting Beijing 格林一家正在参观北京。

② The poor live hard .穷人生活艰辛。(类似有:the rich, the old, the young 后面省略了

people)

⑸ 乐器前加the . 如play the piano/ guitar/ violin

3、不用冠词的几种情况:

⑴ 在星期、月份、季节前不用冠词 on Monday; in January; in winter.

⑵ 学科名词前 learn English

⑶ 球类,棋类等运动及早、中、晚三餐名词前

( )1.Mary is ___ cleverer of the two girls.

A. the B. a C. an D. much

( )2.____ young must look after ___ old.

A. The ; a B. The ; the C. A ; a D. A ; the

( )3. ___ earth is one of ____ planets.

A. The ; sun’s B. The ; the sun C. The ; the sun’s D. The ; the suns’

( )4.Kate sometimes plays ___ violin(小提琴) and sometimes plays ___ table tennis before

supper. ( A. / ; the B. the ; / C. the ; the D. / ; / )

Unit 11

1、what time 表“几点”,常用来问小时间;when 表“什么时候”,既可以问小时间(=What time),也可以问大时间,如:哪年,哪月,哪天,此时不用What time。

What time/ When do you get up ? ----At six o’clock.

When is your birthday ?----It’s November second..

2、listen听,是个不及物动词,不能直接接宾语,需加to才能接宾语。如;

Please listen me. (×) → Please me.(√)

类似的词有:wait for 等;look at 看着;arrive at/in 到达;get to 到达;go to 去; talk about 谈论;talk with/to 和某人谈

3、 表喜欢厌恶等心理活动的动词,大多数都能接动词不定式或动名词(v-ing),但enjoy 后

只能接动名词。如:love/like/prefer/hate to do sth. 或love/like/prefer/hate doing sth. 比较 I like to play basketball 我喜欢去打篮球 (还没打篮球)

I like playing basketball.

4、job 表职业,可数名词;work表“工作,做的事”,不可数名词。

题:He has a as a teacher. He has a lot of to do every day.

【扩展】work做可数名词时,表“作品,著作”,常用复数。 如:the works of Luxun.

4、 around 常作介词,表:

① 在…周围 We sat around the table.

② 大约(= about): I usually get up around 6 o’clock.

③ 到处 around the world = all over the world = throughout the world 全世界

5、 start/ begin doing sth. = start / begin to do sth. 开始做某事。

I started to learn/ learning English at the age of 6.

但有3种情况后只能跟to do。①主语是物。②begin和start 本身为ing形式。③它们后的动词与想法,感情有关时。所以当两个答案同时出现时,应选 to do.

①The trees begin green. (A. to turn B. turning)

②I am beginning my homework. (A. to do B. doing)

③She started me. (A. to understand B. understanding )

6、tell sb. about 告诉某人关于… Please tell me about yourself.

tell sb. sth. 告诉某人某事: Please tell me the truth.

7、辨析tell; talk; say; speak

tell表“告诉,讲述”,常后接人或事情作宾语。 Tell me the truth.

talk表“交谈”,是不及物动词,常与with/to/about搭配使用再接宾语

say表“说” 后接说话的内容做宾语。 I say : you are wrong.

speak表“讲”后直接接某种语言作宾语。 Speak English.

题:(1)Our English teacher often us stories in English.

A. tells B. speaks C. talks D. says

(2)I don’t understand what you said. Can you it in English

A. tell B. speak C. talk D. say

8、take sb. to 某地(送某人到某地)The bus usually takes him to work at 19:15.

take sth with sb. 某人随身带着:Don’t forget to take a camera with you.

9、 in the morning 在(每天)早晨; on a morning 在(某天)早晨

【总结】in 用于大时间前(年,月,周)或用于一些习惯短语中。on 用于具体某一天前,或某天上午,下午等前。 at 用于小时间前(几点几分)

题:1.___ the morning 2.___ Monday morning 3. ___ a rainy evening 4. ___3:50

5.__ 2002 6.___ the morning of April 10 7.___ spring 8.___ night

9.___ this time 10. ___ March

10、短语:tell sb. about sth. 告诉某人有关…的情况

Please write to me and tell me about your moring.

1、 短语:write to sb. 写信给某人= write a letter to sb.

Unit 12

1、 tired (1)疲劳的,累的【短语】be tired from/ with 因…而疲劳 He is tired from work.

(2) 厌烦的 【短语】be tired of (doing) sth. 厌烦(做)某事 I am tired of studying.

2、busy 表“繁忙的”短语有:

be busy doing sth. 忙于做某事 We are busy preparing our exams these days.

3、strict 表“严格的”,短语有:

⑴ be strict with sb. 对某人严格要求 His father is strict with him.

⑵ be strict in sth. 对某事严格要求 We should be strict in (doing) our work..

4、ask 表“问;要求;邀请等”,常见短语有:

⑴ ask sb. about sth. 询问某人有关…的情况。He often asks me about the weather.

⑵ ask/tell sb. to do sth. 要求某人去做某事 My father always asks me to study hard.

⑶ ask sb. for sth. 向某人要某物:The beggar often asks me some food. 那个乞丐经常… ⑷ ask sb. for help 向某人寻求帮助 you can ask the police for help.

5、any 常用于疑问句,条件状语从句,否定句中.

⑴ 用于疑问句,条件状语从句,否定句中,表“一些”。

① Are there any people ?

② If you have any trouble, please let me know.

③ I have some sisters, but not any brothers.

⑵ 用于肯定句中,表“任何”,如:Come any day you like.

【扩展】any 构成的不定代词(anything, anybody, anywhere)的用法同any.

6、 before 表“在… 之前”,可作介词或引导时间状语从句的连词。注意下列同义句。

Before going there, I know it is a beautiful place. (作介词,后接动名词,简单句)

=Before I go there, I know it is a beautiful place. (作连词,引导时间状语从句,复合句)

【扩展】反义词after 的用法同before.

7、after 短语: after class 课后;after school 放学后;after lunch 午餐后

8、Mr, Mrs, Miss, Ms 的用法

⑴ Mr /mist?I /意为“先生”,一般用于男子姓氏或职务前?要注意的是,英美人的姓在名字后面,中国人的姓在名字前面?如果一个英国男子叫 John Brown,就称他为 Mr Brown,但不能称其为 Mr John;如果一个中国男子叫刘诚,就称他为 Mr Liu,不能称 Mr Cheng? ⑵ Mrs /misiz/意为“夫人,太太”,常用于已婚妇女的丈夫的姓氏前?如果一个名叫 Mary Jones 的女子嫁给了一个名叫 Jack White 的男子,就称她为 Mrs White,但不能称 Mrs Jones?

⑶ Miss /mis/意为“小姐”,用于对未婚女子的称呼?如果一个未婚女子名叫 Rose Jones,可以称她为 Miss Jones。

⑷ Ms /miz/意为“女士”,如果对一个女子的婚姻状况不明,即不知其是否结婚时,可以在其姓氏前用 Ms。如: I’m not Mr King, I’m Ms King.(我不是金先生,我是金女士?)

9、life 是名词,表“生命,生物”笼统概念时,是不可数名词,其余意义是可数名词 ⑴ 生活[可数] Computers have changed our lives. 电脑已经改变了我们的生活。

⑵ (个人的)性命[可数] Many people lost lives in the earthquake. 很多人在地震中丧命。 ⑶ 一生;寿命[可数] His life was full of sadness. 他的一生充满了不幸。

⑷ 生命,生物 [不可数] There is no life on the moon. 月球上没有生命。

10、常用句型

⑴What’s your favorite subject ? ------ My favorite subject is science.

⑵Why do you like it? -----Because it’s fun/ interesting/ relaxing / exciting.

11、At 8:00, I have math. (have 可用来表上某课程,如: have English/ Chinese/ science/ art)

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