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(无中文解释)中考英语语法透视-主谓一致

发布时间:2013-11-12 12:34:29  

透析中考英语语法主谓一致考点

【语法概说】

【主谓一致命题趋势与预测】

根据对主谓一致部分全国各地试题的分析可知,今后该部分将是重点考查点之一。其考查重点为:

1、 主谓一致的语法一致原则

2、 主谓一致的整体一致原则

3、 主谓一致的就近一致原则

4、 主谓一致的意义一致原则

5、 主谓一致的附加原则

【考点诠释】

一、由or, either... or... , neither... nor... , not only...but also... , whether...or...等连接并列主语时,常采用就近原则,动词与最靠近的主语保持一致。

【考例】Not only Jim but also his sister ______a few cities in the south since they came to China.[临沂市]

A.will visit B. has visited C.have visited D .visited

[答案]B .[解析]本题既考查时态,又考查并列连词not only...but also的用法。由时间状语since they came to China,可判断用现在完成时,排除A、D两项;not only...but also连接两个并列的主语时,谓语动词要用“就近原则。 Neither Jim nor his cousins _______to America, but _____of them know the country very well. [07年潍坊市]

A.have been;a11 B. have been; both C has been; all D.has been; both

[答案]B.[解析]考查neither...nor的用法,以及both与all的区别。neither?nor连接两个主语时,谓语用“就近原则”,cousins是复数,谓语用have been,排除C和D项;指两者用both。

二、 the number of + 复数名词,主语是the number(数量),谓语动词用单数;a number of +复数名词,主语是复数名词,a number of作定语, 相当于many,谓语动词用复数。

【考例】Look! There _______ playing with the tourists on Yinhe Square. (2004包头)

A. are a number of deer B. are a number of deers C. is a number of deer D. is a number of deers

答案:A。该题考查的是主谓一致。这个句子的主语是a number of deer, 是个复数概念,因此谓语动词应用复数形式。(deer单复数相同)

The number of ________ in our class ________ fifty. (2004山东烟台)

A. student, is B. the students, are C. the students, is D. students, are

[答案]: C

[试题解析]:the number of 后接复数名词,作主语时,其谓语动词用单数形式。故应选C。

三、动词不定式、动名词以及名词性从句作主语时,谓语动词常用单数形式。

【考例】As the saying ________,"Where there is a will; there is a way. "[昆明市]

A. go B. goes C. going D. went

[答案]B.[解析] the saying为第三人称单数形式,所以谓语动词用goes。

但what从句作主语而表语是复数时,谓语动词常用复数。

What we badly need here are experienced teachers. 我们这里急需的是有经验的教师。

四、and连接的两个单数名词作主语。

【考例】 Trees and flowers ________every year to make our country more beautiful. [陕西省]

A. is planted B. was planted C. are planted D.were planted

[答案]C.[解析] every year说明本句表示的是一般现在时的概念,去掉B、D项;trees and flowers表达复数意义,所以选C项。

五、表示时间、距离、金钱、体积或数字等的词语作主语且表示总量时,谓语动词用单数。

【考例】

---How much ________the shoes? ---Five dollars_________ enough. [年青岛市]

A.is;is B are;is C.are;are D.is;are

[答案]B .[解析] 答案为B。shoes作主语时,谓语动词应用复数形式;five dollars是一个整体,应按单数对待。 How time flies! Ten years ________ passed. (2004天津)

A. have B. has C. is D. are

答案:B。该题考查的是主谓一致。Ten years通常被看作是一个时间整体,谓语动词用单数形式。

六、就近原则

--There_____ no milk in the fridge. Could you get some for me, Dick --All right, Mum. [福州市]

A. is B. are C. was D. were

[答案]A.[解析]本题考查"there be”句型中be的数及时态,be在数上要与最近的主语保持一致.句子的主语是不可数名词,所以be应使用单数形式,B、D两项可以排除。

第 1 页 共 7 页

Not only Jim but also his sister ______a few cities in the south since they came to China.[07临沂市]

A.will visit B. has visited C.have visited D .visited

[答案]B .[解析]本题既考查时态,又考查并列连词not only...but also的用法。由时间状语since they came to China,可判断用现在完成时,排除A、D两项;not only...but also连接两个并列的主语时,谓语动词要用“就近原则。 Neither Jim nor his cousins _______to America, but _____of them know the country very well. [07年潍坊市]

A.have been;a11 B. have been; both C has been; all D.has been; both

[答案]B.[解析]考查neither...nor的用法,以及both与all的区别。neither?nor连接两个主语时,谓语用“就近原则”,cousins是复数,谓语用have been,排除C和D项;指两者用both。

【语法回顾】

主谓一致是指谓语动词与主语在人称和数上保持一致。

谓语受主语支配,须和主语在人称和数上保持一致,这叫做主谓一致。主谓一致一般遵循三条原则:

1. 语法一致的原则

2. 意义一致的原则

3. 邻近一致(就近一致)的原则

一、语法形式一致的原则

即在语法形式上取得一致。如:主语为单数形式,谓语动词用单数;主语为复数形式,谓语动词也采用复数形式。但须注意下列几种情况:

1.以单数名词或代词、动词不定式短语、动名词短语或从句作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 例如:

Much land has been deserted in this area in the past few years.

To start smoking is quite easy, but to give it up needs courage.

Reading English newspapers is a good way of improving you English.

What you need most is to have a good sleep.

How you can get there is a problem.

[注意:]由what引导的主语从句,后面的谓语动词多数情况用单数形式。但若表语是“复数或what从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结构”时,主句的谓语动词用复数 。例如:

What I bought were three English books.

What I say and do is (are) helpful for you.

2、由and 或both...and来连接并列主语时,谓语用复数。例如:

Swimming and walking are good exercises.

He and I were classmates when we were at college. Both John and Ann have got pen-friends.

Both Zhou Lan and Yang Pei like sports.

[注意]

1)但是,并列主语如果表示同一个人、同一事物或同一概念时,谓语动词用单数形式(这时and后的名词前没有冠词)。例如:

The manager and secretary was absent at the meeting.。

The manager and the secretary are busy now. Their teacher and friend is Mr. Li.

2)由and连接的并列单数主语前如果分别被no, each, every或many a ,more than one修饰时,其谓语动词用单数形式。 例如:

In our country every boy and every girl has the right to receive education.

Each man and each woman is asked to help.

Many a student is having practice in that factory.

More than one student is interested in the book.

[注意] 在“more than one+单数名词”作主语时,若在There be句型中,亦可用复数。如:

There is/are more than one man here.

3、如果主语是单数,尽管后面跟有(together) with, as well as, like, but, except, besides,including, no less than, rather than ,as much as,more than,along with in addition to等介词短语,其谓语动词仍用单数形式;若主语为复数,则谓语动词也用复数。例如:

An English teacher together with some students has climbed to the top of the mountain.

Mary as well as her friends likes this painting.

No one except my close friends knows anything about this matter.

She, like you and Tom, is very tall.

4、不定代词each, either, neither 和由 some, any, no, every 构成的复合代词作主语时,谓语动词用单数。例如: Each (of us) takes a cup of coffee.

Everyone knows smoking cigarettes is bad for health.

Nothing is to be done

第 2 页 共 7 页

Everybody obeys the school rules; anybody who breaks the rules is punished.

2)若后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动词就要用单数;若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动词用单数或复数都可以。例如:

None of the sugar was left.

None of us has (have) been to America.

5.不定代词none 以及由"none/either/neither+of+复数合词(或代词)"构成的短语作主语时,谓语用单复数均可,这取决于说话人的意思。当说话人着眼于“每一个都不.......”或“两个中的任何一个都不.......”时,谓语动词用单数;当说话者着眼于“所有的都不.......”或“两个中的全部都不.......”时,谓语动词用复数。例如:

None know when that was. (强调所有的人)

None is so good as he.(强调每一个人)

None of them have / has a car.

Neither of them know / knows the answer.

Neither of the article is (are ) interesting.

Neither of them have replied.

Neither of them has replied.

5、在定语从句中,关系代词that,who,which等作主语时,其谓语动词的数,应与句中先行词的数一致。例如: It sounded like a train which/that was going under my house.

People who study the think that there will be another big one soon.

The horse which is tied to the tree belongs to John.

Those who want to go on a journey please sign your name here.

Some of the energy that is used by man comes from the sun.

[注意]在以“one of the+复数名词”为先行词的定语从句中,关系代词作主语时,谓语动词用复数;但如果“one of the+复数名词”这个结构前有the only之类的修饰语时,其从句的谓语动词用单数。 例如:

This is one of the questions that have been asked by the students.

Bob is one of my friends who are helping me with English.

He is the only one of the officers who was invited to the ball here.

The head master is the only one of the teachers who knows Esperanton.

6、“a lot of (lots of, plenty of, a head of, heaps of, the rest(majority) of ,some(many,anymore,most, all等)of++名词”构成的短语作主语时,其谓语动词的数要与of后面的名词(短语)保持一致。例如: Some of us do not know much about the theatre.

Some (of the sugar) is wet.

Most of the students in our class are league.

Most of the food tastes delicious.

Half of the work is left unfinished.

Half of the apples are given to the children.

Lots of damage was caused by smoking.

Plenty of English books are on the shelf.

注意:

1)all单独作主语表示“人”时,谓语用复数;表示“整个事件或事情”时,谓语用单数。 如:

All are present. 所有的人都出席了。(表人)

All is well. 一切都好。 (表示整个事情或情况)

2)“a number of+复数名词 ”作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式;“The number of+复数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:

A large number of buildings were burnt down.

A number of students in our class are out by the lake.

The number of students in our school is 2500.

The number of books on women published in China is growing. The number of wagging dances per minute told the exact distance to the feeding place.

7、由“分数或百分数+of +名词(或代词)”构成的短语作主语时,其谓语动词的数要与of后面的名词(短语)保持一致。例如:

Two thirds of the country is dry or desert.

Two thirds of the people present are against the plan.

More than 70 percent of the surface of our earth is covered by water.

30 percent of the students in our class are girls.

8、 如果主语是由“a kind of, 或this/that kind of, a series ( a species) of ,a pair of等 + 名词”构成谓语动词通常用单数形式。例如:

This kind of men is dangerous.

Is this kind of car made in Shanghai ?

第 3 页 共 7 页

There is a kind of rose in his garden.

This kind of apple/apples is rather expensive.

That kind of snake/snakes is dangerous.

[注意]但"there/those kinds of+复数名词"作主语时,谓语动词要用复数。 如:

There kinds of tests are good .

Those kinds of apple trees have not yet grown up.

如果种类不是一种而是多种,谓语动词应为复数。例如 : There are many kinds of pears.

●a/an+单数名词+or two 作主语,谓语动词用单数。

A student or two has failed the exam.

●不定代词somebody, someone, something, anybody, anything, everybody, everyone, everything, nobody, no one, nothing作主语,谓语动词用单数,

Is everyone here today. Something is wrong with him. Nobody was in.

二、逻辑意义一致原则

即谓语动词的单复数取决于主语所表达的内在涵义。常见的有以下几种情况:

1、表示总称意义形单意复的名词,如people, police, cattle 等作主语时,只当作复数看待,谓语在任何情况下都用复数。如:

Cattle are one cause of the problem.造成戈壁滩的原因之一是牲畜问题。

The police are searching for a murderer in that mountain.警察正在山中搜寻一名杀人犯。

2、以集体名词army, class, enemy, family, government, group, team,crew,crowd,public等集体名词作主语时,谓语应视其情况而用不同形式:当作主语被看作一个整体时,谓语用单数,如果被看成是其中的个体成员时,谓语就用复数。如:

Our class is better than any other classes at playing basketball in our school.

Our class are playing a basketball match tomorrow.

Our family is not poor any more.

My family all speak the Intuit language.

[注意]population 单独使用作主语时,谓语动词用单数;而前面有some, most 或与分数、百分数连用作主语时,则谓语动词用复数形式。例如:

Most of the population of the city are workers.

One third of the population now smoke.

The population in our country is very large, and eighty percent of the population are farmers.

3、当一些有两部分构成的表示衣物或工具的名词作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数形式,如glasses, trousers(裤子), shoes ,chopsticks(筷子),goods(货物),scissors(剪刀),socks, compasses(圆规) ,但如果这些名词前有a pair of,等量词修饰时,(clothes被修饰a suit of),谓语动词一般用单数形式。例如:

Your trousers need washing.

My glasses are new.

A pair of compass is an instrument for drawing circles.

A pair of new shoes is in your suitcase.

Two pairs of socks are enough for me.

4、由“pair, piece of +名词 / 代词”作主语时,谓语动词与pair, piece等词保持一致与后的代词、名词无关。例如: There is a pair of shoes left.

The pieces of stone were then carried to the new place for the temple.

5、当表示时间、金钱、距离、重量、长度、价值等数词短语作主语,根据意义一致原则,通常被看作一个整体,其谓语用单数。 如:

Twenty years is a long time to us.

One thousand pounds is a lot of money.

Ten miles isn’t a long distance.

Five minus four is one.

6.某些形复意单的名词(如表示人名、地名、国名及组织、书籍、报刊等名称的专有名词和学科名词等)作主语,谓语用单数。 如:

Zhangjiajie is really a good place which is famous for its beautiful mountains.张家界的确是个好地方,它是以美丽的山而闻名的

Physics is a difficult subject to learn, I think.

The United States is in North America.

News is travelling fast nowadays.

The American film True Lies was directed by a world-famous director.

7、如果主语由“the+形容词(分词)”担任时,往往根据意义一致原则,来决定谓语动词的单、复数形式。如果

第 4 页 共 7 页

表示一类人时,谓语动用复数形式;如果指个人或抽象概念时,则谓语动词用单数形式。例如:

The poor are very happy, but the rich are sad.

The old is taken good care of in our country.

The sick is one of the students in our class.

The beautiful lives forever. 8、名词所有格之后的名词被省略的情况,一般只指商店、公共建筑物、住宅等,作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数。例如:

The baker's is on the side of the street.

My uncle's is not very far from here.

9、数词作主语时,谓语用单数,但有四则运算中,谓语单、复数均可。如:

Ten is a round number.

Ten times five is / are fifty.

Three hundred and forty plus six hundred and sixty is / are one thousand.340 加660等于1000。

10.疑问代词who, what, which作主语时,谓语动词的形式取决于它产本身的含义。如:

Who teaches you English? Who have gone there?

Which is your room? Which are your rooms?

11、表示数量的短语“one and a half+名词复数”及“a+单数名词+and+a half”作主语时,谓语用单数。如: One and a half oranges has been left on the table.

A month and a half has passed.

12.某些单数同形的名词作主语时,依照意义一致的原则,表示单数意义时,谓语动词用单数;反之谓语动词则用复数形式。这类名词有:sheep,deer, fish,means(方法、手段)species (种类) -ance及以-ese/-ss结尾的表示民族的名词等)。例如:

One day this white sheep was lost.

There are many fish in the Jia Ling River.

A Japanese is coming to visit our school tomorrow.

We Chinese are realizing the four modernizations.

三、就近一致原则

即谓语动词的数随最近的主语而定,又称为毗邻一致原则。例如:

1、当or,either...or, neither...nor, not only...but also...,not...but....,whether...or...等连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词单复数取决于最靠近于它的名词或代词。例如:

Either you or Lily is to do the cleaning after supper.

Not only the mother but also the children were there.

2、在倒装句中如一个句子由there 或here引起,而主语又不止一个,谓语动词往往与最邻近的一个主语保持一致。例如:

Where is your mother and younger sisters?

There is a desk a table and three chairs in the room.

3、以here,there开关的句子,若主语在两个或两个以上,谓语动词通常与临近的主语一致

There is a book and three pens on the desk.

Here are some books and paper for you.

【典型例题】

[例1] E-mail, as well as telephones, _____ an important part in daily communication.

A. is playing B. have played C. are playing D. play

分析:带有as well as 短语的名词做主语时,谓语动词与这个名词的人称和数一致,不受as well as 短语内容的影响。E-mail是单数形式,故选择A。

[例2] Either John or his friends _____ to blame for the bad results.

A. are B. is C. was D. has been

分析:either…or..连接两个名词做主语时,其谓语动词与离它最近的名词的数和人称一致,本题中his friends 决定了谓语动词的形式,故选择A。

[例3] The conductor and composer _____ by a crowd of people.

A. are greeted B. is greeted C. greets D. have been greeted

分析:根据句意,主语部分的The conductor and composer 是指一个人即:乐队指挥兼作曲家, 所以主语的内容是单数形式,故选择B。

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[例4] —The trousers _____ you well, madam. —But the colour _____ me.

A. fit; don’t suit B. fits; doesn’t suit C. fits; don’t suit D. fit; doesn’t suit

分析:trousers, clothes, glasses,等名词本身就是复数形式。谓语动词用复数形式。Colour 是单数,谓语用单数,故选择D。

[例5] The Smith’s family, which _____ rather a large one, _____ very fond of their old house.

A. were; were B. was; were C. were; was D. was; was

分析:family指“家庭”为单数,指“家庭成员”为复数形式。第一空格前的which 指“家庭” 谓语用was. 第二空格后的fond of指“家庭成员喜欢他们的老房子” 谓语为were,故选择B。

[例6] He is the only one of the students who _____ a winner of scholarship for three years.

A. is B. are C. have been D. has been

分析:当定语从句先行词是“one of +复数形式”时, 其后的从句谓语动词用复数形式。而当one之前有the only时, 定语从句则强调the only one,谓语动词用单数。另外,题目中的时间状语for three years表明从句的时态为现在完成时,故选择D。

[例7] Three fifths of the police _____ in the school near the town.

A. has trained B. have trained C. has been trained D. have been trained

分析:分数+名词做主语时,谓语动词的形式由分数所指的名词的形式(可数名词或不可数名词)决定,police 是集合名词为复数形式,根据句子意思,police 与train 为被动关系,应用被动语态,故选择D。

短文改错片段:

1. Now my picture and the prize is hanging in the library.

分析:本句中主语Now my picture and the prize是复数形式,谓语动词is应改为are.

2. Sometimes, we talked to each other very well in class, but after class we become stranger at once.

分析:本句第一行,根据全篇内容的语境,应当是一般现在时,所以谓语动词talked改为talk.第二行:根据句意:我们下课后立刻又成了陌生人。Stranger应当与主语we一致,改为复数形式,strangers.

3. But not all information are good to society.

分析:主语information是不可数名词,are应改为is

【语法过关】

1.How time flies! Ten years ________ passed.

A. have B. has C. is D. are

2.Not only his parents but also his brother ________ to the Summer Palace. They haven’t been back.

A. have been B. have gone C. has been D. has gone

3.Neither my father ________ going to see the patient.

A. nor I am B. nor I are C. or me are D. or me is

4.Look! There _______ playing with the tourists on Yinhe Square. (2004包头)

A. are a number of deer B. are a number of deers C. is a number of deer D. is a number of deers

5.The number of ________ in our class ________ fifty.

A. student, is B. the students, are C. the students, is D. students, are

6.The number of the students in our class _____ 54.

A. is B. are C. has D. have

7.Not only I but also Jane and Mary________ tired of having one examination after another.

A.is B.are C.am D.be

8.A library with five thousand books ____to the nation as a gift.

A.is offered B.has offered C.are offered D.have offered

9.When and where to build the new factory _________yet.

A.is not decided B.are not decided C.has not decided D.have not decided

10.The number of people invited __fifty, but a number of them ______absent for different reasons.

A.were,was B.was, was C.was,were D.were.were

11.Between the two buildings __________a monument.

A.is standing B.standing C.stands D.stand

12.Many a student ___that mistake before.

A.had made B.has been made C.have made D. has made

13.None of the money ____his.

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A.is B.are C.belongs D.were

14.About three—fifths of the work ________done yesterday.

A.had B.was C.were D.have

15. Neither your sister nor mine _______the good news.Let's tell them.

A.know B knows C.knew

【参考答案】

1.B.[解析]该题考查的是主谓一致。Ten years通常被看作是一个时间整体,谓语动词用单数形式。

2.D.[解析]该题考查的是主谓一致。如果由not only…but also连接两个并列主语,其谓语动词同相邻的 主语保持一致,谓语动词应用单数形式。又因为他们还都没有回来,所以用has gone而不用has been。

3.A.[解析]该题考查的是主谓一致。Neither…nor是一组连词,可连接连个并列主语,其谓语动词应同靠近的主语I保持一致, 因此应选A。

4.A.[解析]该题考查的是主谓一致。这个句子的主语是a number of deer, 是个复数概念,因此谓语动词应用复数形式。(deer单复数相同)

5.C.[解析]本题考查主谓一致的用法。the number of 后接复数名词,作主语时,其谓语动词用单数形式。故应选C。

6.A.[解析]本题考查主谓一致的用法。the number of 后接复数名词,作主语时,其谓语动词用单数形式。故应选A。7.B。“不仅是我而且简和玛莉都已厌烦了一个接着一个的考试。”not only?需用到就近原则,but also之后又是两个人,是复数。故选B。

8.A.[解析] “一座藏书量是5000册的图书馆作为礼物送给了那个国家。”要找出这句话的主说是a library还是books,根据主谓一致原则with后面的短语是修饰、补充主语的情况的,故主语应是a library,又因为此题是被动语态,因此选择A。

9.A.[解析] “还未决定何时何地建设新工厂。”“两个并列连词+主语+谓语”作主语看作一个整体,谓语动词用单数,根据题意又应用被动语态,故选A。

10.C.[解析] “邀请人的数目是50人,但是许多人由于各种原因都缺席了。”“the number of+复数名词”意为“??的数量”,作主语,谓语动词用单数;“a number of+复数名词”意为“许多”,作主语,谓语动词用复数。

11.C.[解析] “一座纪念碑耸立在两楼之间。”倒装句的谓语动词要与后面的主语保持一致。

12.D.[解析] “许多学生以前就犯过这种错误。”“many a”虽然表达复数概念,意为“许多”,但当它作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

13.A.[解析] “钱都不属于他。”none作主语,谓语动词单复数都可,但这里的money为不可数名词,因此用单数形式为好,而belong to才是“属于”的意思,所以选A。

14.B.[解析] “昨天做了大约3/5的工作。”主语含有分数,百分比等等,谓语动词要根据其后面的名词而定,是不可数名词和单数可数名词,谓语动词用单数,是复数名词,谓语动词用复数。

15.B.[解析]句中的主语是your sister和mine,由并列连词neither?nor连在一起,所以谓语动词要与后一个主语mine相一致,这里mine指my sister。

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