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初中英语音标教学

发布时间:2013-09-18 22:44:54  

1

/d/ led/led/ sad/s?d/ feed/fi:d/ do/du:/ dear/di?/

/k/ lack/l?k/ take/teik/ clock/kl?k/ class/kla:s/ weekend/′wi:kend/

/g/ big/big/ lag/l?g/ glass/gla:s/ gum/g?m/ good/gud/ guest/gest/ /f/ face/feis/ fast/fa:st/ leaf/li:f/ surf/s?:f/ favorite/′feiv?rit/

/v/ very/′veri/ five/faiv/ fever/′fi:v?/ serve/s?:v/ never/′nev?/

/θ/ bath/ba:θ/(v洗澡) thick/θik/ mouth/mauθ/ breath/breθ/(n呼吸)

thought/θ?:t/ author/′?θ?/ truth/tru:θ/

/e/ the/ e?/ they/eei/ that/e?t/ mother/′m?e?/ thus/ e?s/ then/een/

/s/ face/feis/ mouse/maus/ cakes/keiks/ caps/k?ps/ likes/laiks/ stops/st?ps/ /z/ close/kl?uz/ keys/ki:z/ boys/b?iz/ pens/penz/ halves/ha:vz/

/t?/ catch/k?t?/ cheep/t?i:p/ rich/rit?/ watch/wt?/ child/t?aild/ question/kwest??n/ teach/ti:t?/ challenge/t?lind?/

/d?/ orange/′?rid?/ large/la:d?/ juice/d?u:s/ job/d??b/

/tr/ tree/tri:/ try/trai/ true/tru:/ trouble/traubl/ track/tr?k/

/dr/ dry/drai/ dream/dri:m/ dress/dres/ drink/dri?k/ hundred/′h?ndrid/ /?/ she/?i:/ sharp/?a:p/ fish/fi?/ shock/??k/ shoe/?u:/

/?/ pleasure/′ple??/ measure/′me??/ television/′telivi??n/

/ts/ let′s/lets/ sports/sp?:ts/ puts/puts/ writes/raits/ seats/si:ts/

/dz/ hands/h?ndz/ birds/b?:dz/ friends/freindz/ beds/bedz/ stands/st?ndz/ /h/ he/ hi:/ hard/ha:d/ him/him/ heard/h?:d/ half/ha:f/

/l/ like/laik/ late/leit/ learn/l?:n/ lead/li:d/ light/lait/

/m/ my/mai/ more/m?:/ seem/si:m/ meat/mi:t/ mind/maind/ men/men/ /n/ nice/nais/ wind/waind/ mind/maind/ rain/rein/ fine/fain/

/?/ sing/si?/ wing/wi?/ ring/ri?/ long/l??/ beautiful/bju:t?fl/

/j/ you/ju:/ few/fju:/ yard/ja:d/ music/′mju:zik/ student/′stju:dnt/ excuse/ik′skju:z/ /w/ work/w?:k/ way/wei/ well/wel/ what/w?t/ twelve/twelv/ twin/twin/ /r/ red/red/ road/r?ud/ write/rait/ wrong/r??/ problem/′pr?bl?m/ 2

3

material mysterious

5./θ/ /e/

month thief that than faith together thank themselves

元音音素:

/i:/ 【衣 发长点】

/I/ 【衣 急促地发声】

/e/ 【哎 发这个音的时候不要把“哎”的ī给读出来,嘴唇放松自然地读】 /?/ 【哎 发这个音的时候不要把“哎”的ī给读出来,嘴唇扁平地发】 /?:/ 【额 发长音】

/?/ 【额 发短音】

/∧/ 【阿 嘴巴微微地张开发出这个音就可以了】

/a:/ 【啊 嘴巴长到最大】

/?/ 【哦 急促】

/?:/ 【哦 声音拖长】

/u/ 【乌 急促】

/u:/ 【乌 声音拖长】

/eI/ 【有点像答应人的“诶”的声音】

/aI/ 【唉】

/?I/ 【哦-喂 连着读】

/?u/ 【呕】

/au/ 【傲】

/I?/ 【衣-饿 连着读】

/ε?/ 【哎-饿 连着读】

/u?/ 【乌-饿 连着读】

辅音音素:

/p/ 【普 不要把ǔ给发出来,轻音】

/b/ 【不 不要把ù给发出来,浊音】

/t/ 【特 不要把è给发出来,轻音】

/d/ 【得 不要把é给发出来,浊音】

/k/ 【克 不要把è给发出来,轻音】

/g/ 【各 不要把è给发出来,浊音】

/f/ 【福 不要把ú给发出来,轻音】

/v/ 【有点像摩托车启动的声音,“呜呜呜”地,但是是像发“vúvúvú”一样,不要把ú给发出来,浊音】

/s/ 【丝 像蛇吐芯子发出的那种声音,不要把ī给读出来,轻音】

/z/ 【就是/s/的浊音】

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/θ/ 【牙齿咬住舌头的轻音】

/δ/ 【牙齿咬住舌头的浊音】

/∫/ 【西 不要把ī给发出来,轻音】

/з/ 【衣 不要把ī给发出来,浊音】

/h/ 【喝 不要把ē给发出来,轻音】

/r/ 【若 不要把uò给发出来,浊音】

/t∫/ 【七 不要把ī给发出来,轻音】

/dз/ 【姬 不要把ī给发出来,浊音】

/tr/ 【缺 不要把uē给发出来,轻音】

/dr/ 【撅 不要把uē给发出来,浊音】

/ts/ 【次 不要把ì给发出来,轻音】

/dz/ 【自 不要把ì给发出来,浊音】

/m/ 【嘴巴闭住,然后发音,气流从鼻子出来,浊音】

/n/ 【嘴巴微张,舌尖顶住上颚,气流从鼻子出来而不是从嘴巴出来,浊音】

/?/ 【嘴巴长大,舌头向下弯曲,气流从鼻子出来而不是从嘴巴出来,浊音】

/l/ 【有两个读音。一是放在音标结尾发呕,浊音;而是放在音标中发了,浊音】

/w/ 【我 不要把ǒ给发出来,浊音】

/j/ 【呀 不要把ǎ给发出来,浊音】

所谓浊音,就是声带要振动的音;轻音就是发出了但声带却不振动的音

所有的元音都是浊音,声带都要振动。

1.关于语音的几个概念

1)字母:语言的书写形式。元音字母a, e, i(y), o, u,

2)音标:词的语音形式。

3)音素:音的最小的单位。英语中有48音素。

4)音节:由元音和辅音构成的发音单位。ap'ple, stu'dent, tea'cher, un'der'stand

5)元音:发音响亮,是乐音;口腔中气流不收阻碍;是构成音节的主要音。英语中有20元音。

6)辅音:发音不响亮,是噪音;口腔中气流受到阻碍;不是构成音节的主要音。英语中有28辅音。

7)开音节:a) 辅音+元音+辅音+e name bike ;b) 辅音+元音 he, go, hi

8)闭音节:a) 辅音+元音+辅音 bad, bed, sit, hot, cup; b)元音+辅音it

9)重读音节:单词中发音特别响亮的音节。

2. 元音:(注意:下面空方括号是电脑无法输入的音标)

1)[i:] sea, he, see, piece, ceiling

2)[i] sit, build, miss, myth

3)[e] bed, desk, head,

4)[?] bad, land, bank, stamp

5)[a:] car, fast, class, plant, calm, aunt

6)[?] hot, want

7)[ ?:] door, more, sport, ball, warm, author, court, bought, caught

8)[u:] good, who, blue, soup,

9)[u] look, put, women, could

10)[Λ] cup, come, blood, rough

5

11)[?:] girl, work, serve, nurse

12)[?] cadre, ago, forget, polite, dollar, doctor, famous, Saturday

13)[ei] cake, they, play, eight, great,

14)[ai] bike, die, neither, light, try, find, height, eye

15)[?u] phone, cold, boat, soul, grow

16)[au] house, town

17)[?i] boy, oil

18)[i?] dear, idea, deer, here, fierce,

19)[ε?] pear, care, there, fair

20)[u?] tour, poor,

3. 容易混淆的元音

1)[e] [?] bed bad; men, man; pen, pan; lend land

2)[i:] [ei] real rail; greet, great; mean, main; read raid

3)[e] [ai] bet bite; red write; said side, head, hide

4)[au] [?:] house horse; loud lord; south sauce; now nor; count corn; cloud clause

5)[au] [Λ] found fond; gown gone; down don

4. 辅音

1)[p] pen,

2)[b] bed, comb

3)[t] tell,

4)[d], day, played, wanted

5)[k] cold, sky, quick, school, back, accept, box

6)[g] big, go, guess, language

7)[m] man

8)[n] nine, knife, autumn

9)[η] bank, uncle, English, sing,

10)[l] land, world

11)[r] read, write,

12)[f] five, cough, laugh

13)[v] voice, of

14)[θ] think,

15)[ e] this, bathe

16)[s] sit, miss, science, case, scarf

17)[z] zoo, close,

18)[∫] sure, she, social, nation

19)[/] pleasure,

20)[h] hot, who, hour

21)[w] wall, what, answer

22)[j] yes

23)[t∫] child, teach, catch

24)[d/] joke, bridge,

25)[ts] boats

26)[dz] goods

27)[tr] tree

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28)[dr] dream

5. 容易混淆的辅音

1)[v] [w] vet wet; vest west; vine wine; very well

2)[s] [θ] sink think; sort thought; miss myth; mass math

3)[z] [e] closing clothing; breeze breathe; bays bathes

4)[n] [η] thin thing; sin sing; ban bang win wing; ran rang

6. 读音规则

1)重读音节(见元音和辅音的例句)

2)非重读音节 [?] banana, student, today, after,

[i] orange, secret, evening, very, Monday

7. 特殊读音

1)音的连读:not at all, half an hour, I love you and all. after all

2)失去爆破:good girl, good student, good job, expression, school, extreme

3)音的同化:this year, Would you do it? Can't you see it?

8. 重音

1)单词重音

A)双音节词

a)一般在第一个音节重读。letter, sorry

b)有 a-, be-, de-, re-, res-, in-, im-, en-, em-, es-, ex-, con-, com-, dis-, mis-, pre-, per-, pro-, trans- 等前缀的词,第二个音节是重音。

a'bout, be'lieve, ad'dress, de'cide, re'port, con'demn, res'pect, com'pare, in'form, dis'cuss,

im'press, mis'take, en'force, pre'pare, em'ploy, per'mit, es'cape, pro'duce, ex'claim,trans'late

c)有 de-, in-, re-, con-, pre- 等前缀的重音与词义和词类有关, 一般名词的重音在第一个音节上,其它的词性在第二个音节上。

'record, re'cord; 'insult, in'sult; 'conduct, con'duct; 'present pre'sent; 'content, con'tent

d)有些复合词和带有前缀 re-, ex-, un-, pre-, post-, 等的词,有两个重音。

'out'side, 're'tell, 'well-'known, 'un'real, 'fif'teen, 'Chi'nese, 'pre-'war, 'post-'war

B)多音节词

a)一般倒数第三个音节是重音。'difficult, 'communist, 'family, e'conomy, oppor'tunity,de'mocracy.

b)有一些双音节词,加了前缀和后缀成了多音节,但这些词按原来词根的重音读音。

'carefully, in'definite, 'comfortable, con'ductor, ac'cording, dis'turbance, 'complicated,es'tablishment,

c)词尾有-eous, -grahpy, -ial, -ian, -ic, -ics, -ience, ient, -ify, -ion, -ious, -ity, ive 后缀的词,重音在这些后缀的前一个音节上。

cour'teous, cal'ligraphy, edi'torial, his'torian, peri'odic, mathe'matics, ex'perience,suf'ficient, i'dentify, trans'lation, re'ligious, curi'osity, pro'tective

d)词尾有 -ain, -ee, -eer, -ese, -ette 后缀的词,重音在该后缀上,而且有一个次重音。enter'tain, emplo'yee, mountai'neer, Japa'nese, ciga'rette

2)句子重音

A) 英语的节奏:(轻)-轻-重-轻-(轻)或重-轻-(轻)(轻)重

B) 英语句子的长短:是由句子中的重读词的数目决定的,而不是象汉语那样由句子中的汉字数目决定的。

C) 实词重读(副词重读),虚词轻读(冠词,单音节介词,单音节连词,人称代词,反代词,物主代词,关系代词,相互代词,助动词,情态动词和系动词be.

D) 实词不重读的特殊情况

a) 实词第二次出现

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He thinks of that as a child thinks.

b) 一个名词被第二个名词修饰

I met her in the railway station.

c) 代替词

Which book do you want? The small one.

d) 感叹词中的 what 和how

What a good day it is! How beautiful she is!

e) street 在专有名词中

Wangfujing Street.

f) this在这些短语中,this morning/afternoon/evening

E)虚词重读的特殊情况

a) 情态动词,助动词和系动词be在句首,句尾和否定时。

Do you like it? Yes, I do. Are you a doctor? Yes, I am. Can you help me? Yes, I can.

I don't like you. He isn't a worker.

b) 情态动词表示可能,惊奇和肯定时。

They may come this evening. Can it be five already? He must be in the room.

c) 介词在句首和句尾。

In the box, he found a letter. He is the person I talked with.

d) 引导复合句的连词在句首。

If you wish, I'll visit you. When he comes, I'll tell him.

e)反身代词表示强调。

He couldn't come himself.

英语发音连读的规则

连读的条件:相邻的两词在意义上必须密切相关,同属一个意群。连读所构成的音节一般都不重读,只需顺其自然地一带而过,不可读得太重,也不可音。(连读符号:~)

(1)“辅音+元音”型连读

在同一个意群里,如果相邻两词中的前一个词是以辅音结尾,后一个词是以元音开头,这就要将辅音与元音拼起来连读。

I’m~an~English boy.

It~is~an~old book.

Let me have~a look~at~it.

Ms Black worked in~an~office last~yesterday.

I called~you half~an~hour~ago.

Put~it~on, please.

Not~at~all.

Please pick~it~up.

(2)“r/re+元音”型连读

如果前一个词是以-r或者-re结尾,后一个词是以元音开头,这时的r或re不但要发/r/,而且还要与后面的元音拼起来连读。

They’re my father~and mother.

I looked for~it here~and there.

There~is a football under~it.

There~are some books on the desk.

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Here~is a letter for you.

Here~are four~eggs.

But where~is my cup?

Where~are your brother~and sister?

但是,如果一个音节的前后都有字母r,即使后面的词以元音开头,也不能连读。

The black clouds are coming nearer and nearer.(nearer与and不可连读)

(3)“辅音+半元音”型连读

英语语音中的/j/和/w/是半元音,如果前一个词是以辅音结尾,后一个词是以半元音,特别是/j/开头,此时也要连读。

Thank~you.

Nice to meet~you.

Did~you get there late~again?

Would~you like~a cup~of tea?

Could~you help me, please?

“音的同化”

—常把/d/+/j/读成/dV/,did you听上成了/dIdVu/,would you成了/wudVu/,could you成了/kudVu/。

(4)“元音+元音”型连读如果前一个词以元音结尾,后一个词以元音开头,这两个音往往也要自然而不间断地连读到一起。

I~am Chinese.

He~is very friendly to me.

She wants to study~English.

How~and why did you come here?

She can’t carry~it.

It’ll take you three~hours to walk there.

The question is too~easy for him to answer.

(5)当短语或从句之间按意群进行停顿时,意群与意群之间即使有两个相邻的辅音与元音出现,也不可连读。 Is~it a~hat or a cat?(hat与or之间不可以连读)

There~is~a good book in my desk. (book与in之间不可以连读)

Can you speak~English or French? (English与or之间不可以连读)

Shall we meet at~eight or ten tomorrow morning? (meet与 at,eight与or之间不可以连读)

She opened the door and walked~in. (door与and之间不可以连读)

失去爆破6个爆破音有3对/p/,/b/,/t/,/d/,/k/,/g/

失去爆破,又叫不完全爆破,就是在某些情况下,只须做出发音的准备,但并不发音,稍稍停顿后就发后面的音。

(1)“爆破音+爆破音”型

6个爆破音中的任意2个相临时,前一个爆破音会失去爆破,即由相关的发音器官做好这个发音的姿势,稍做停顿后即发后面的爆破音。

The girl in the re(d) coat was on a bla(ck) bike jus(t) now.

The bi(g) bus from the fa(c) tory is full of people.

Wha(t) time does he get up every morning?

This is an ol(d) pi(c)ture of a bi(g) car.

The ol(d) do(c)tor has a ca(t), too.

We’re going to work on a farm nex(t) Tuesday.

9

What would you like, ho(t) tea or bla(ck) coffee?

It’s a very col(d) day, but it’s a goo(d) day.

You can put i(t) down in the bi(g) garden.

I bought a chea(p) book, but it’s a goo(d) book.

(2)“爆破音+摩擦音”型如果前面是爆破音,其后紧跟着某些摩擦音(如/f/,/s/,/W/,/T/等),那么前面那个爆破音仅有十分轻微的爆破,而后面那个摩擦音则要完全爆破。

6个爆破音有3对/p/,/b/,/t/,/d/,/k/,/g/失去爆破,又叫不完全爆破,就是在某些情况下,只须做出发音的准备,但并不发音,稍稍停顿后就发后面的音。

(1)“爆破音+爆破音”型6个爆破音中的任意2个相临时,前一个爆破音会失去爆破,即由相关的发音器官做好这个发音的姿势,稍做停顿后即发后面的爆破音。

The girl in the re(d) coat was on a bla(ck) bike jus(t) now.

The bi(g) bus from the fa(c) tory is full of people.

Wha(t) time does he get up every morning?

This is an ol(d) pi(c)ture of a bi(g) car.

The ol(d) do(c)tor has a ca(t), too.

We’re going to work on a farm nex(t) Tuesday.

What would you like, ho(t) tea or bla(ck) coffee?

It’s a very col(d) day, but it’s a goo(d) day.

You can put i(t) down in the bi(g) garden.

I bought a chea(p) book, but it’s a goo(d) book.

(2)“爆破音+摩擦音”型如果前面是爆破音,其后紧跟着某些摩擦音(如/f/,/s/,/W/,/T/等),那么前面那个爆破音仅有十分轻微的爆破,而后面那个摩擦音则要完全爆破。

Goo(d) morning, Mr. Bell.

Goo(d) morning, dear.

Uncle Li’s fa(c)tory is qui(te) near to the cinema.

I wen(t) there alone a(t) nine las(t) night.

-Do you know his bi(ke) number? -Sorry, I don’(t) know.

The forty-firs(t) lesson is qui(te) difficult.

Goo(d) luck, Lin Tao

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