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2013年中考英语阅读理解解题指导

发布时间:2013-11-15 13:51:56  

The Skills of reading comprehension

考查事实细节:

阅 读 理 解 考 查 题 型

猜测生词含义:
推理判断: 归纳主旨大意: 推测作者的态度、意图和目的:

(一)事实性细节题
对时间、地点、特征、方式、数字等的寻找 对原因、结果、事实的正确理解 ? 常用提问方式: 1. According to the passage, who (what, why, where, when,how many/much, how long)….? 2. According to the passage, which of the following statements is (not) true? 通常是特殊疑问句或判断句子正误

1.He / she should have an interest in making pizza. More importantly, he/ she should have work experience in a —————————————————— restaurant. B The ad tells us that______ A. The assistant must be a man. B. The assistant must have once worked in a restaurant. C. Pucci pizza has branches all over China.

事实理解题解题技巧:
事实细节题一般在: 1文中有原句; 2找相关信息进行比对; 3找近义词或同义句; 4进行简单数学计算;

在读文章时把这些信息划下来

(二) 猜测词义
词汇题是询问文章中出现的某个词、词组或 句子含义的题型。 常见的提问方式有: ? 1) The word ….. refers to _____ ? 2) The underlined ….. probably means ____________

1、根据定义、释义、举例或复述猜词 常用的:be, be called, mean,破折号或定语从 句等来表示。

Well, I’ve relearned it. I hope I have time left to enjoy the successes of others and to take pleasure in the day. That’s the heart of the watermelon. “the heart of the watermelon” refers to___. D ? A. the best part of the watermelon. ? B. the writer’s busy life ? C. the writer’s decision of making money. ? D. the writer’s hope of enjoying life.

2、根据上下文情景和逻辑进行判断
As they go around town, they help people. When they find lost children, they take the children home. If they see a fight, they put an end to it right away. They know all the streets and roads well. Often people ask them how to get to a place in town. A In the text, “put an end to” means ___ ? A. stop B. cut C. kill D. fly

3、根据关联词来猜测 ? There is a place on our earth where hot water and steam come up under the ground. It is on a large island in the Pacific Ocean. The island is North Island in New Zealand. ? What does the word “steam” mean in Chinese? _________ D A. 自来水 B. 大气 C. 冰川 D. 蒸汽

3、根据关联词来猜测
because, as, since, ? 表示因果关系的:for, so, as a result… and, like, just as…the ? 表示同义关系的: same as….

? 表示反义关系的:but, however, though,
although, yet, instead (of)

演练1 A bag is useful and the word “bag” is useful. It gives us some interesting phrases . One is “to let the cat out of the bag.” It is the same as “to tell a secret” Now when someone lets out a secret,

he “lets the cat out of the bag.” Q:John lets the cat out of the bag” means he ? A. makes everyone know a secret. A ? B. the woman bout a cat. ? C. buys a cat in the bag. ? D. sells the cat in the bag.`

实战演练2
? If you want to be a musician, you usually have to move to an area that has a lot of jobs, such as New York City. The cost of living in these areas is usually very high. The third disadvantage is that you can’t have a stable family life. Different jobs will take a musician to different places, so most musicians are unable to have a regular family. ? What does the underlined word “stable” B mean in Chinese? __________ ? A. 幸福的 B. 稳定的 C. 健康的

(三)推理判断
考查逻辑推理能力、语言分析能力和综合归纳能力。

下面哪些方式属于推理判断题? √ 1) We can infer(推断) from the story that____ 2) What’s the passage mainly about? 3) It can be inferred from the passage that √_ _ _ 4) According to the story, what would happen √ next? 5) The first paragraph tells us that _______ 6) What can we learn from the passage? √

1、事实推理:先在文章中找出据以推断的文字,然后 加以分析,尤其要悟出字里行间的意思。 Secondly, a news story has to be interesting and unusual. People don’t want to read stories about everyday life. As a result, many stories are about some kind of danger and seem to be “bad” news. bad danger According to the passage, which of the following C can you most possibly watch on TV? _______ A. You often play football with your friends after school. B. Your teacher has got a cold. C. A tiger in the city zoo has run out and hasn’t been caught. D. The bike in front of your house is lost.

When you cough or sneeze, please turn your head away from others and cover your mouth with the full part of your hand. Afterwards, you should say, “Excuse me.” This is a rule I set for my students. It is so simple, but many kids have never been told to do this. What does the underlined word “this” mean?_ A. Don’t cough or sneeze in front of people B. Don’t stand beside someone who coughs or sneezes. D C. Many people cough or sneeze on the underground train. D. Cover your mouth when coughing or sneezing and say sorry.

? ? ? ? ? ?

解题技巧:推断题在文章无法直接找到答 案,须在正确理解文章字面意思的基础 上,运用逻辑推理的方法,综合主旨句、 主题句和上下文信息以及作者的措辞,作 出总结性的判断。同时要特别注意代词所 指代的对象

(四)归纳主旨大意:主要包括主题思想、 写作意图、文章的题目等 常见的提问方式有: (1)What is the main idea of the passage? (2) The first paragraph tells us that _____ (3) Which of the following expresses the main idea? (4) The passage is mainly about ______ (5) The best title for the story is _______ (6) Which of the following is the best

title?

Can you find the topic sentence?
1. All living things on the earth need other living things to live. Nothing lives alone. Most animals must live in a group, and even a plant grows close together with others of the same kind. Sometimes one living thing kills another, one eats and the other is eaten. Each kind of life eats another kind of life in order to live, and together they form a food chain .Some food chains become broken up if one of the links

2. Reading is a good habit, but the problem is , there’s too much to read these days, and too little time to read every word of it. There are hundreds of________________________ skills to help you _______________ read more in less time. Here are two skills that I think are especially good.
解题技巧:此类题目多出现于议论文和说明文。 要确定文章的主题思想,最重要的是要找到主题 句。主题句一般在段首或段尾,有时也在中间。

3. Do you know more and more Chinese artists have made regular donations to charity or put their efforts into charity work in China? Here let’s know some of them. ________________________________ B ? What is the passage mainly about? _____
? ? ? ? A. Chinese charity work. B. Charity work of some Chinese artists. C. Some famous Chinese artists. D. Organizations started by Chinese artists.

(五)作者的意图、态度和目的题
? 1、作者的语气态度往往不会直接写在文章里,只 能通过细读文章,从作者的选词及修饰手段中体会 出来。 题目都是围绕作者的意 ? 常见的提问方式有: 图、目的和态度 ? (1) What is the writer’s purpose in writing the passage? ? (2) The writer probably feels that ______ ? (3) What is the writer’s main point? ? (4) What is the writer’s attitude towards…? ? (5) In the passage the writer tries to tell us that _______ ? (6) The writer suggest(暗示) that __________ ? (7) The writer wants to prove that ___________

解题技巧: 正确理解文章中反映作者态度和观点的关键词,同 时通过选项中的关键词来推断正确答案,学会根据作者使 用的词语的褒贬性去判断作者的态度,要区别作者的态度 和其他人的态度,不应把你自己的态度渗透其中。

? Today I can iron pretty well. I know where to start on a shirt and the right way to do the trousers. Now when I think about it, I don’t think she is an old lady. I thin she might have been about my age now. Anyway, when I iron, I think of her and —————————————— silently thank her for all the things I learned. —————————————————— D ? Now the writer ____________ ? A. is still afraid of the lady ? B. hates the strict lady. ? C. admires the disabled lady. ? D. is very grateful to the lady.

Read the passage and finish the exercises
?

?

Happiness is important for everyone. Most people want to be happy but

few know how to find happiness. Money and success don’t bring lasting happiness. Happiness depends on ourselves. In other words, we make our own happiness. Some people believe that if they are wealthy, they will be able to do anything they want, which means happiness. On the other hand, some people believe that holding a high position in the government is happiness. In this way, you have not only money, but also many other things which can’t be bought by money. However, other people believe that having lots of money is not happiness, nor is holding a high position in the government. These people value(重视) their beliefs, or their intelligence, or their health. They think these can make them happy.

?

?

?

?

?

Here are a few ways to help you be happier. The first secret of happiness is to enjoy the simple things in life. Too often, we spend so much time thinking about the future, for example, getting into college or getting a good job that we don’t enjoy the present. You should enjoy life’s simple pleasures, such as reading a good book, listening to your favorite music, or spending time with close friends. People who have close friends usually enjoy happier and healthier lives. The second secret of happiness is to be active. Many people go dancing or play sports. People can forget about their problems and only think about the activities. Finally, many people find happiness in helping others. According to studies, people feel good when they volunteer their time to do many meaningful things for other people. If you want to feel happier, do something nice for someone. You can help a friend with his or her studies, go shopping to get food for an old neighbor, or simply help around the house. Now maybe you know how to find happiness!

( A ) 1. Some people who hold a high position in the government think they can ________.

考查事实细节
( D ) 2. The underlined word “wealthy” means________ in the article.

猜测生词
( B ) 3. We can infer(推断) that Many people find it happy to __________.

推理判断
( A ) 4. The passage mainly tells us ________.

归纳主旨大意
( C ) 5. The writer thinks the secret of happiness is that people ________ 推测作者的意图、态度、目的

? ? ? ?

要充满自信 要善于抓关键句和主题句 要有文中信息支持点 要扫读全文

Homework for Today
1. Finish off the other passages on the paper. 2. Guess the meanings of the new words in passages.

(3). 根据关联词猜词 表示因果关系的:because, as, since, for, so, as a result… 表示同义关系的:and, like, just as…

表示反义关系的: but, however, though, although, yet, instead (of)等等。

1.I could see nothing because the light was so

faint

(昏暗的)

2.Tom is very rude, but his brother is quite polite. (有礼貌的) 3. She is beautiful, and her daughter is as pretty as her. (漂亮的)

点击中考
? There is a place on our earth where hot water a

nd steam come up under the ground. It is on a large island in the Pacific Ocean. The island is North Island in New Zealand. ? What does the word “steam” mean in D Chinese? _________ ? A. 自来水 B. 大气 C. 冰川 D. 蒸汽

(4)根据生活经验及普通常识猜词
1. China is our motherland. (祖国) 2.Kangaroo mothers have pouches to carry their babies. (育儿袋) 3.It's really cold outside, and my hands are both numb.
(冻僵了的,麻木的,失去知觉的)

Exercises: Guess the meaning of the new words quickly.

1. Wealthy means having lots of money. (富裕的,有钱的)
2. Doctors

believe that smoking is detrimental to your health. (有害的) 3. My mother-in-law, my husband’s mother, was a teacher. (婆婆) 4. The boy had a happy family before. However, after the war, he became homeless. (无家可归的) 5. You must stop dreaming and face reality. (现实)

解题技巧
? 1. 根据作者使用的词语的褒贬去判断作者 的态度,正确理解反映作者态度和观点的 关键词。 ? 2. 要区别作者的态度和其他人的态度,不 应把自己的态度渗透其中。

? 解题技巧: ? 找主题句。一般新闻报道、说明文、议论 文大都采用先总述、后分述的叙事方法, 因此主题句大都在段首或篇首。 ? 用归纳法写文章时,往往表述细节的句子 在前,概述性的句子在后,并以此结尾。 那么主题句往往就在段末或篇末。

一.阅读理解题目的设置方式: 2. 逻辑推理型 2) 根据计算判断

If everyone sets their air conditioning (空调)at 26℃,Beijing will save 400 million kilowatt-hours(千瓦时) of electricity in one summer. That’s one-third of all the usage of the city in the season,” said a TV advertisement. A Beijing will use______ million kilowatt-hours electricity in one summer. A. 1200 B. 800 C. 400

一.阅读理解题目的设置方式:

2. 逻辑推理型 1) 根据常识判断

One day we invited some friends to dinner. When it was about six o’clock, my wife found that we had little bread. So she asked our fiveyear-old daughter, Kathy, to buy some. One day, Kathy’s parents invited some friends to________. C A.have breakfast B. have lunch C. have supper D. have a party.

一.阅读理解题目的设置方式:

4.理解词句含义型
Now there are many houses around the lake. people often use chemicals in their gardens. They use other chemicals inside their houses for cleaning or killing insects (昆虫). There are also many businessmen. Businessmen use chemicals in their machines or shops. D “Chemical” in the story means_______. A. 化学家 B 污染品 C 药品 D. 化学制品

一.阅读理解题目的设置方式: 3. 归纳主旨句 常用提问方式: ? According to(根据) the passage, we know that____ ? The title (标题) of the passage can be________. ? The writer tells us_________. ? From the story we can see/ learn / say_____ ? The main

idea of this passage is______. ? What is this passage about?

The ways of guessing the new words in context:

A. 利用构词法进行猜测
1. 根据单词的前缀与后缀进行猜词。如, care(小心) →careful(小心的) →carefully (小心地); write(写) → rewrite (改写)。
un- ; dis-;-less : 不无 ; mis-: 错误 ; 表方向 re-: 再,重复,重新; -ern: -er ,-or, -ist : 表示人 ;

2. 根据“合成词”猜测。 如school + bag → schoolbag down+stairs → downstairs

Exercises: Match the meaning with the new words.

1. rebuild 2.modernize 3.man-made 4.unsafe 5.misunderstanding

A.不安全的 B.误解 C.重建 D.现代化 E.人造的

Exercises: Choose the right answer. 1. A lot of the world’s natural resources like oil come from poor countries. A. 环境 B. 资源 √ C. 汽油 2. The old man put on his spectacles and began to read. A. 帽子 B. 雨鞋 C. 眼镜 √ 3. My mom was a little heavy. And I was almost as plump as my mom. A. B. 苗条 C. 强壮 √ 丰满 4. Children have schoolbags with two straps to carry them. A. 口袋 B. 肩带 C. 纽扣



二.阅读理解解题方法 1.先看文章,再看试题. 2.先看试题,然后带着问题再看文章.(常用方法) 三.阅读理解解题步骤 1.扫读:即快速阅读,通览全文.发现关键句(特别 要注意文章的第一段和最后一段的头一句. 2.细读:集中精力研读课文,分清文章体裁,把握 文章中心和主要内容,进而掌握文章细节信息 (五个W,who,what,when,where,why) 3.查读:认真检查,尽量减少答题错误.

Mr.and Mrs.Bell are very forgetful. For example, Mr.Bell sometimes goes to his office for work on Sunday morning, for he thinks it is Monday. And Mrs.Bell sometimes forget to cook supper for the family. One summer they planned to fly to New York for their holidays. They got to the airport only ten minutes before the plane took off. So time was short. But suddenly Mrs. Bell said she must tell Alice,their daughter, not to forget to lock the front door when she went to school. As Alice was then at school,they couldn’t tell her about it by telephone. So they hurried to the post office. Mrs.Bell wrote a short note to Alice while Mr.Bell bought a stamp and an envelope. Soon the note was ready. They put the stamp on the envelope in a hurry and dropped it in the letter box. But suddenly Mrs.Bell began to cry. The short note was still in her hand. She had put the plane tickets in the envelope.

1.Read the article for 2 minutes, and find the key sentence of the article. (B )(1). The word “forgetful ” means______. A.忘记 B.健忘的 C.难忘的 (A )(2).How did they plan to go to New York onesummer? A.by plane B.by train C.by bus (B )(3). Because Alice was then ay school , they had to ________to Alice. A. phone B.write a note C.send a E-mail (B )(4). What did they drop ____in the letter box? A. a note B. the tickets C. the money (A )(5). The main idea of this passage is______. A. Mr.and Mrs.Bell are v

ery forgetful. B. Mr.and Mrs.Bell planned to fly to New York. C. Mr.and Mrs.Bell are very old.

Summary
阅读技巧: 1. 浏览问题,通读全文 2. 抓住中心句 (标题,首段,每段的首尾句,总--分--- 总,总---分) 3. 克服以下不良习惯: 心读,一个词 一个词的看,只读不记 4. 遇到生词要沉着冷静


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