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中考英语总复习语法大全定语从句人教新目标版

发布时间:2013-11-16 10:53:45  

新东昊教育 专业一对一课外辅导

定 语 从 句 人教新目标版

(一) 知识概要 

定语从句并不属于中考范围,但由于作者在多年的教学中体会到,这一语法现象影响了许多学生自学英语。这些学生一般是成绩较好的学生,想进行大量阅读来提高自己的英语水平,但总是碰到一些问题,百思不得其解。苦于自己的水平只限于初中水平,无法提高,但各种补习班又都是为一些水平较差的学生开设的,所以又投师无门。为了解决这部分学生的学习困难,也为那些有志青年铺平学习上的道路,特用这一节讲述定语从句,不是从语法上讲述,而是从阅读理解方面去讲述。可供同学们在学习时参考。这会对你的英语学习起到事半功倍的作用。对于形容词我们已十分熟悉了,如: a good book, 形容词 good 用来修饰书 book。 我们也可以用一个句子来修饰名词,这种句子叫做形容词性从句,它起修饰名词的作用,又被叫做定语从句(The attributive clause)。但有一点不同的是这个从句不是像形容词那样放于名词前,而是放在名词之后。它所修饰的名词又被叫作先行词,如: Do you know the scientist who gave us the talk this afternoon? 这句中的主句是 Do you know the scientist? (你知道那位科学家吗?)而 who gave us the talk this afternoon (他今天下午给我们作的报告。)是定语从句。所以这两句话合为一体即是:你认识今天下午给我们作报告的那位科学家吗?这里 scientist 叫作先行词,而 who 叫作定语从句的引导词。 who 在定语从句中起主语的作用, who 的数与它的先行词相同。又如: You must do everything that I do 这里先行词是 everything, 而 that I do 是定语从句,此句应译为:你必须作我所作的一切。 that 叫作定语从句的引导词,在句中作 do 的宾语。引导定语从句的引导词有关系代词: that, which, who, whom, whose 和关系副词 when, where, why, how。不论关系代词还是关系副词,都应放于先行词和定语从句之间,起联系作用,但它们都要在定语从句中起语法作用,充当一个成份。如关系代词在定语从句中不是作主语便是作宾语,而关系副词则是作状语。我们先来看关系代词的用法。① that 的先行词可以是人也可以是物。如: A plane is a machine that can fly 这里先行词是 machine 而 that 是关系代词,在定语从句中作主语。这句译为:飞机是一种会飞的机器。又如: I like the book (that) you lent me yesterday 这里先行词是 book, 关系代词用 that, 它在定语从句中作 lend (借)的宾语。要注意的是关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时可以省略,即: I like the book you lent me yesterday② which 关系代词的先行词只能是物。它在定语从句中作主语或宾语,如: The book shop is a shop which sells books 这里 shop 是先行词, which 在从句中作主语。又如: The book (which) I read last night was wonderful 这里主句是 The book was wonderful 而定语从句是修饰主句的主语 book, 即我昨晚读的那本书,which 在定语从句中作 read 的宾语,可以省略。③ who, whom, whose who 在定语从句中作主语, whom 是 who 的宾格,在定语从句中作宾语,而 whose 则是形容词性物主代词,在从句中作定语,如:The man who visited our school yesterday is an American friend 昨天参观我们学校的人是一位美国朋友。 Who 在定语从句中作主语。又如: Who's that woman (whom) you just talked to ? 你刚才与之谈话的那个女人是谁?而 whom 作定语从句中介词 to 的宾语,可以省略,而在现代英语中,句首的 whom 也常常可用 who代替。This is our classmate, Mary, whose home is not far from our school 这是我们的同学玛丽,她的家离我们学校不远。为了便于理解,我们来看看是如何将两句话并为一句话的。

1. I saw the man. He closed the door

I saw the man who (that) closed the door

2. The girl is happy She won the race

The girl who won the race is happy

3. The students are from China They sit in the front row

The students who sit in the front row are from China

(要注意的是先行词是 students 则 who 的数也应看作复数。)

4. We are studying sentences They contain adjective dause

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新东昊教育 专业一对一课外辅导

We are studying sentences that (which) contain adjective dause 

5. The taxi driver was friendly He took me to the airport

The taxi driver who took me to the airport was friendly 

6. The book was good I read it

The book that I read was good

The book I read was good 

7. The people were very nice We visited them yesterday

The people we visited yesterday were very nice

8. The man called the police His wallet was stolen

The man whose wallet was stolen called the police

9. I come from a country Its history goes back thousands of years

I come from a country whose history goes back thousands of years

10. I have to call the man I picked up his umbrella after the meeting

I have to call the man whose umbrella I picked up after the meeting

关系代词 whom, which 在定语从句中作介词宾语时,可以和介词一起放于先行词与定语从句之间,有时为了关系紧凑也可以将 whom 与 which 与先行词紧挨着书写,而将介词置于定语从句的后面,如: That was the room in which we had lived for ten years 或可以写作:

That was the room which we had lived in for ten years

He was the man whom(who) you were looking for 要注意的是此句的关系代词 whom 可以用主格取代,而 look for 是短语动词也不可将 for 放于定语从句之前。that 作关系代词作介词宾语时,不能紧跟介词,而只能将介词置于定语从句的后面。如: The man that we were talking about has come to our school 这时不可用 about that … 请看下面例句:

1. The meeting was interesting I went to it

The meeting that I went to was interesting 

2. The man was very kind I talked to him yesterday

The man who I talked to yesterday was very kind

3. I must thank the people I got a present from him

I must thank the people who I got a present from

4. The picture was beautiful She was looking at it

The picture that (which) she was looking at was beautiful

5. The man is standing over there I told you about him

The man who I told you about is standing over there

除关系代词外,还有关系副词, when, where, why, 其中 when用来指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。如: I never forget the day when I first came to the Great Wall 而 where 则指地点,如: This is the house where the old man lives 请看下面例句:

1. The city was beautiful We spent our vacation there

The city where we spent our vacation was beautiful

2. That is the restaurant I will meet you there

That is the restaurant where I will meet you

3. The town is small I grew up there

The town where I grew up is small

4. That is the drawer I keep my newpapers there

That is the drawer where I keep my newspapers

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新东昊教育 专业一对一课外辅导

5. Monday is the day We will come then

Monday is the day When we will came

6. 7∶05 is the time My plane arrives then

7∶05 is the time when my plane arrives

7. 1960 is the year The revolution took place then

1960 is the year when the revolution took place

8. July is the month The weather is usually the hottest then

July is the month when the weather is usually the hottest 

在定语从句中又可分为两大类定语从句,即限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。

① 限制性定语从句是先行词在意义上不可缺少的定语,如果去掉的话,主句的意思就不完整,意义就表述不明。这种句型一般定语从句紧接先行词,如:I was the only person in my office who was invited

② 非限制性定语从句。它与主句的关系不十分密切,只是对其附加说明,也就是讲即便去掉定语从句,句意也不受影响,仍然清晰明了。这样的定语从句要在它和主句之间加一逗号分开。且关系代词不引导这种非限制性定语从句,如: Abraham Lincoln, who led the United States through these years, was shot on April 14, 1865 at a theatre in washington D. C. 又如:Galileo lived in the city of Pisa, where there is a leaning tower about 180 feet high

(二) 正误辨析 

[误] I won't tell you the name of the person who teach me English 

[正] I won't tell you the name of the person who teaches me English 

[析] 在定语从句中,关系代词作主语时,从它本身看不出其数的形式,这时要由它的先行词决定。这里who 应由 the person 单数决定,应该用单数谓语动词。又如:I who am a student want to find a spare time job这里的 who 应与 I 是一致的,所以其谓语动词应该用am。

[误] We talked about the things and the people who we met during the Second World War  [正] We talked about the things and the people that we met during the Second World War 

[析] 这里的关系代词不要用 who, 因为其先行词有两个一个是 things (物),而另一个是people (人),这时既不可用 who, 又不可用 which, 因前者只能用于先行词是人的情况下,而后者则用于先行词是物的情况下,所以只能用 that, 因为它的先行词既可以是人又可以是物。

[误] The book, that I bought yesterday, was very good

[正] The book, which I bought yesterday, was very good 

[析] 先行词与定语从句被逗号分割开来时,即作为非限制性定语从句。在非限制性定语从句中 which, when, who, whom, where, when, whose 等都可以和限制性定语从句中的作用一样,而独有 that 不易用于非限制性定语从句。

[误] The dictionary which I lent it yesterday is a very useful tool 

[正] The dictionary which I lent yesterday is a very useful tool 

[析] 关系代词在定语从句中是要起语法作用的,它不是作主语就是作宾语。虽然在作宾语时它的位置由原来的宾语位置移到了句首,但它的作用依然存在,而且在原宾语位置上不能再出现宾语。 [误] The teacher I want to learn English from is the one which comes from America [正] The teacher I want to learn English from is the one who comes from America

[析] the one, anyone, those 作代词并且是指某人、物时,其关系代词不能用 which 应用 who。

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新东昊教育 专业一对一课外辅导

[误] This is the room in that the old man lives 

[正] This is the room in which the old man lives 

[正] This is the room which the old man lives in 

[正] This is the room that the old man lives in 

[析] that 不能紧跟在介词后作介词宾语,但如果介词不前置仍放于句尾,则可用 that 作引导词,而且可以省略。如: This is the room the old man lives in

[误] I can do everything which is good for you 

[正] I can do everything that is good for you 

[析] 在先行词是 all, much, little, something, everything, anything, nothing, none, the one 等不定代词时,虽然它们指的是物体,但不要用 which 而用 that 作定语从句的引导词。 [误] The only thing which the students can do is studying hard 

[正] The only thing that the students can do is studying hard 

[析] 在先行词前有 only, any, few, little, no, all, one of 等词修饰时,虽然先行词指的是物,也不要用 which 作关系代词,而要用 that。

[误] This is the first American film which I've ever seen 

[正] This is the first American film that I've ever seen 

[析] 在先行词是序数词,或由序数词修饰时,其关系代词不可用 which 这样的用法还有在形容词最高级修饰的先行词之后,如: This is the best book that I have ever seen

[误] He is from Africa, that we can see from the colour of the skin 

[正] He is from Africa, as we can see from the colour of the skin 

[析] 当 as 或 which 引导非限制性定语从句时,它可能没有明确的先行词,它们所指代的是前面整个句子。如例题应译为他是从非洲来这个事情是可以从其肤色上看出的。

希望可以帮到您!

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