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初一英语语法

发布时间:2013-11-17 10:56:44  

初一英语语法
一. 词汇
⑴ 单词
1. 介词:in, on, under, behind, near, at, of

1). in表示"在......中", "在......内"。例如:
in our class 在我们班上
in my bag 在我的书包里
in the desk 在桌子里
in the classroom 在教室里

2). on 表示"在......上"。例如:
on the wall 在墙上
on the desk 在桌子上
on the blackboard 在黑板上

3). under表示"在......下"。例如:
under the tree 在树下
under the chair 在椅子下
under the bed 在床下

4). behind表示"在......后面"。例如:
behind the door 在门后
behind the tree 在树后

5). near表示"在......附近"。例如:
near the teacher's desk 在讲桌附近
near the bed 在床附近

6). at表示"在......处"。例如:
at school 在学校
at home 在家
at the door 在门口

7). of 表示"......的"。例如:
a picture of our classroom 我们教室的一幅画
a map of China 一张中国地图

2. 冠词 a / an / the:

冠词一般位于所限定的名词前,用来署名名词所指的人或事物。冠词有不定冠词和定冠词两种。不定冠词有两个形式,即a和an。a用在以辅音音素开头的词前,如a book; an用在以元音音素开头的字母前,如an apple.
a或an与可数名词单数连用,泛指某类人或某物中的一个。

This is a cat.
这是一只猫。
It's an English book.
这是一本英语书。
His father is a worker.
他的爸爸是个工人。

the既可以用在可数名词前,也可以用在不可数名词前,表示某个或某些特定的人或事物,也可以指上文提到过的人或事物。
Who's the boy in the hat?
戴帽子的男孩是谁呀?
------ What can you see in the classroom?
------ I can see a bag.
------ Where's the bag?
------ It's on the desk.
------- 你能在教室里看到什么呀?
------ 我能看见一个书包。
------ 书包在哪呀?
------ 在桌子上。

3.some和any

①在肯定句中用some.例如:
There are some books on the desk.桌子上有一些书。
Lucy has some good books露西有一些好书。

②在疑问句和否定句中用any。例如:
Is there any ink in your pen?你的钢笔里有墨水吗?
Do you have any brothers and sisters?你有兄弟姐妹吗?
There isn't any water in the glass.杯子里没有水。


⑵记住它们的特殊用法。

①some亦可用于表示盼望得到对方肯定的答复或表示建议、委婉请求的疑问句中,这一点我们不久就会学到。例如:
Would you like to have some apples?你想吃苹果吗?

②any也可用于肯定句中,表示"任何的"。例如:
Any one of us can do this.我们当中任何一个都能做这个。
some 和any的用法是经常出现的考点,希望大家能准确地掌握它们的用法。

4.family
family看作为一个整体时,意思是"家庭

",后面的谓语动词be用单数形式 is ;如把family看作为家庭成员时,应理解为复数,后面的谓语动词be应用are。
My family is a big family. 我的家庭是个大家庭。
My family are all at home now. 我的家人现在都在家。
Family强调由家人组成的一个集体或强调这个集体中的成员。home指个人出生、被抚养长大的环境和居住地点。 house指"家"、"房屋",侧重居住的建筑本身。
His family are all workers. 他的家人都是工人。
My home is in Beijing. 我的家在北京。
He isn't at home now. 他现在不在家。
It's a picture of my family. 这是一张我全家的照片。

5. little的用法
a little dog 一只小狗,a little boy 一个小男孩。little常用来修饰有生命的名词。
*但little还可表示否定意义,意为"少的",加不可数名词。
There is little time. 几乎没时间了。
There is little water in the cup. 杯中水很少。

⑵ 词组
on the desk 在桌子上
behind the chair 在椅子后
under the chair 在椅子下面
in her pencil-box 在她的铅笔盒中
near the door 在门附近
a picture of a classroom 一个教室的图片
look at the picture 看这张图片
the teacher's desk 讲桌
a map of China 一张中国地图
family tree 家谱
have a seat 坐下,就坐
this way 这边走


二. 日常用语
1. Come and meet my family.

2. Go and see. I think it's Li Lei.

3. Glad to meet you.

4. What can you see in the picture?
I can see a clock / some books.

5. Can you see an orange?
Yes, I can. / No, I can't.

6. Where's Shenzhen?
It's near Hong Kong.

7. Let me see.(口语)让我想想看。
see 在这是"明白、懂了",不可译作"看见"。例如:

8. Please have a seat.
seat表示"座位",是个名词。have a seat表示"就坐",也可以说take a seat, 和sit down的意思相同。


三. 语法

1. 名词所有格
名词如要表示与后面名词的所有关系,通常用名词所有格的形式,意为"......的"。一般有以下几种形式:

(1). 一般情况下在词尾加"'s"。例如:
Kate's father Kate的爸爸
my mother's friend 我妈妈的朋友

(2). 如果复数名词以s结尾,只加"'"。例如:
Teachers' Day 教师节
The boys' game 男孩们的游戏

(3). 如果复数名词不以s结尾,仍加"'s"。例如:
Children's Day 儿童节
Women's Day 妇女节

(4). 表示两个或几个共有时,所有格应加在后一个名词上。例如:
Lucy and Lily's room Lucy 和Lily的房间
Kate and Jim's father Kate 和Jim的爸爸

动物和无生命事物的名词的所有格一般不在词尾加"'s",而常常用介词of的短语来表示。
a map of China 一幅中国地图
the name of her cat 她的猫的名字
a picture of my family 我的家庭的一张照片
the door of the bedroom 卧室的门

2.

祈使句
祈使句主要用来表示说话人的请求、命令、建议、叮嘱等意图。祈使句一般不用主语,读时用降调。为使语气委婉、礼貌,常在句首或句尾加please 。在句尾时,please前多用逗号。

(1). 祈使句肯定形式的谓语动词一律用动词原形。
Go and see. 去看看。
Come in, please. 请进。

(2). 祈使句的否定形式常用don't于句首。
Don't look at your books. 不要看书。
Don't play on the road. 不要在马路上玩。

3. There be 的句子结构

There be是一个"存在"句型,表示"有"的意思,
肯定句的形式为:There be + 名词(单数或复数)+地点状语或时间状语。
be动词单复数的确定,看be后边第一个名词,当所接主语为单数或不可数名词时,be动词形式为is;当所接主语为复数名词时,be动词为are;当be动词后接两个以上主语时,be动词与最临近主语保持数上的一致。意思为"某地有某人或某物"。如:
There is an eraser and two pens on the desk. 桌子上有一块橡皮和两支钢笔。
There are two pens and an eraser on the desk. 桌上有两支钢笔和一块橡皮。

(1)there be的否定句,即在be的后面加上not。
否定形式为:There be + not + (any) + 名词+地点状语。
There is not any cat in the room. 房间里没猫。
There aren't any books on the desk. 桌子上没书。

(2)there be句型的疑问句就是将be提到句首:Be there + (any) +名词+地点状语?肯定回答:Yes, there is / are. 否定回答:No, there isn't / aren't.
---Is there a dog in the picture? 画上有一只狗吗?
---Yes, there is. 有。
---Are there any boats in the river? 河里有船吗?
---No, there aren't. 没有。

(3)特殊疑问句:How many . . . are there (+地点状语)?"某地有多少人或物?"回答用There be . . .
There's one. / There are two / three / some . . .
有时直接就用数字来回答。One. / Two . . .
---How many students are there in the classroom? 教室里有多少学生?
---There's only one. / There are nine. 只有一个。/有九个。

(4)如果名词是不可数名词,用:How much + 不可数名词 + is there + 地点状语?
How much water is there in the cup? 杯中有多少水?
How much food is there in the bowl? 碗里有多少食物?

第二章

一、初一英语语法--词法
1、名词
A)、名词的数
我们知道名词可以分为可数名词和不可数名词,而不可数名词它没有复数形式,但可数名词却有单数和复数之分,复数的构成如下:
一)在后面加s。如:fathers, books, Americans, Germans, apples, bananas
二)x, sh, ch, s, tch后加es。如:boxes, glasses, dresses, watches, wishes, faxes
三)1)以辅音字母加y结尾的变y为i再加es 如:baby-babies, family-families, duty-duties, comedy-comedies,

documentary-documentaries, story-stories
2)以元音字母加y结尾的直接加s。如:day-days, boy-boys, toy-toys, key-keys, ways
四)以o结尾加s(外来词)。如:radios, photos, 但如是辅音加o的加es:如: tomatoes西红柿, potatoes马铃薯
五)以f或fe结尾的变f为v再加es(s)。如:knife-knives, wife-wives, half-halves, shelf-shelves, leaf-leaves, yourself-yourselves
六)单复数相同(不变的)有:fish, sheep, deer鹿子, Chinese, Japanese
七)一般只有复数,没有单数的有:people,pants, shorts, shoes, glasses, gloves, clothes, socks
八)单词形式不变,既可以是单数也可以是复数的有:police警察局,警察, class班,同学, family家,家庭成员
九)合成的复数一般只加主要名词,多数为后一个单词。如:action movie-action movies, pen pal-pen pals; 但如果是由man或woman所组成的合成词的复数则同时为复数。如:man doctor-men doctors, woman teacher-women teachers
十)有的单复数意思不同。如:fish鱼 fishes鱼的种类, paper纸 papers报纸,卷子,论文, work工作 works作品,工厂, glass玻璃 glasses玻璃杯,眼镜, orange桔子水 oranges橙子, light光线 lights灯, people人 peoples民族, time时间 times时代, 次数, chicken 鸡肉 chickens 小鸡
十一) 单个字母的复数可以有两种形式直接加s或's。如:Is (I's), Ks (K's)。但如是缩略词则只加s。如:IDs, VCDs, SARs
十二) 特殊形式的有:child-children, man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, mouse-mice, policeman-policemen, Englishman-Englishmen
B)名词的格
当我们要表示某人的什么东西或人时,我们就要使用所有格形式。构成如下:
一)单数在后面加's。如:brother's, Mike's, teacher's
二)复数以s结尾的直接在s后加',如果不是以s结尾的与单数一样处理。如:Teachers' Day教师节, classmates'; Children's Day六一节, Women's Day三八节
三)由and并列的名词所有时,如果是共同所有同一人或物时,只加最后一个's,但分别拥有时却分别按单数形式处理。如:Mike and Ben's room迈克和本的房间(共住一间),Mike's and Ben's rooms迈克和本的房间(各自的房间)
2、代词
项目 人称代词 物主代词 指示代词 反身代词
人称 主格 宾格 形容词 名词性
第一人称 单数 I me my mine myself
复数 we us our ours ourselves
第二人称 单数 you you your yours yourself
复数 you you your yours yourselves
第三人称 单数 she her her hers herself
he him his his himself
it it its its this that itself
复数 they them their theirs these those themselves
3、动词
A) 第三人称单数
当动词是第三人称单数时,动词应该像名词的单数变动词那样加s,如下:
一)一般在词后加s。如:comes, spells, waits, talks, sees, dances, trains
二)在x, sh, ch, s, tch后加es。如:watches, washes,

wishes, finishes
三)1)以辅音字母加y结尾的变y为i再加es。如:study-studies, hurry-hurries, try-tries
2)以元音字母加y结尾的直接加s。如:plays, says, stays, enjoys, buys
四)以o结尾加es。如:does, goes
五)特殊的有:are-is, have-has
B) 现在分词
当我们说某人正在做什么事时,动词要使用分词形式,不能用原形,构成如下:
一)一般在后加ing。如:spell-spelling, sing-singing, see-seeing, train-training, play-playing, hurry-hurrying, watch-watching, go-going, do-doing
二)以不发音e的结尾的去掉e再加ing。如:dance-dancing, wake-waking, take-taking, practice-practicing, write-writing, have-having
三)以重读闭音节结尾且一个元音字母+一个辅音字母(注意除开字母组合如show -showing, draw-drawing)要双写最后的辅音字母再加ing。如:put-putting, run-running, get-getting, let-letting, begin-beginning
四)以ie结尾的变ie为y再加ing。如:tie-tying系 die-dying死 lie-lying 位于
4、形容词的级
我们在对两个或以上的人或物进行对比时,则要使用比较或最高级形式。构成如下:
一) 一般在词后加er或est(如果是以e结尾则直接加r或st)。如:greater-greatest, shorter -shortest, taller -tallest, longer -longest, nicer- nicest, larger -largest
二)以重读闭音节结尾且1个元音字母+1个辅音字母(字母组合除外,如few-fewer fewest)结尾的双写结尾的辅音再加er /est。如:big-bigger biggest, red-redder reddest, hot-hotter hottest
三) 以辅音字母+y结尾的变y为i加er/est。如:happy-happier happiest, sorry-sorrier sorriest, friendly-friendlier friendliest(more friendly most friendly), busy-busier busiest, easy-easier easiest
四)特殊情况:(两好多坏,一少老远)
good/well - better best many/much - more most bad/ill - worse worst
little- less least old- older/elder oldest/eldest far- farther/further farthest/furthest
5、数词 (基变序,有规则;一、二、三,自己背;五、八、九、十二;其它后接th;y结尾,变为i, eth跟上去。) first, second, third; fifth, eighth, ninth, twelfth; seventh, tenth, thirteenth, hundredth; twenty-twentieth, forty-fortieth, ninety-ninetieth
二、初一英语语法--句式
1.陈述句
肯定陈述句 a) This is a book. (be动词)
b) He looks very young. (连系动词)
c) I want a sweat like this. (实义动词)
d) I can bring some things to school. (情态动词)
e) There's a computer on my desk. (There be结构)
否定陈述句 a) These aren't their books. b) They don't look nice.
c) Kate doesn't go to No. 4 Middle School. d) Kate can't find her doll.
e) There isn't a cat here. (=There's no cat here.)
2. 祈使句
肯定祈使句 a) Please go and ask the man. b) Let's learn English!
c) Come in, please.
否定祈使句a) Don't be late. b) Don't hurry.
3. 疑问句
1) 一般疑问句 a) Is Jim a student

? b) Can I help you? c) Does she like salad?
d) Do they watch TV? e) Is she reading?
肯定回答: a) Yes, he is. b) Yes, you can. c) Yes, she does. d) Yes, they do. e) Yes, she is.
否定回答: a) No, he isn't. b) No, you can't. c) No, she doesn't. d) No, they don't. e) No, she isn't.
2) 选择疑问句 Is the table big or small? 回答 It's big./ It's small.
3) 特殊疑问句
① 问年龄 How old is Lucy? She is twelve.
② 问种类 What kind of movies do you like? I like action movies and comedies.
③ 问身体状况 How is your uncle? He is well/fine.
④ 问方式 How do/can you spell it? L-double O-K.
How do we contact you? My e-mail address is cindyjones@163.com.
⑤ 问原因 Why do you want to join the club?
⑥ 问时间 What's the time? (=What time is it?) It's a quarter to ten a.m..
What time do you usually get up, Rick? At five o'clock.
When do you want to go? Let's go at 7:00.
⑦ 问地方 Where's my backpack? It's under the table.
⑧ 问颜色 What color are they? They are light blue.
What's your favourite color? It's black.
⑨ 问人物 Who's that? It's my sister.
Who is the boy in blue? My brother.
Who isn't at school? Peter and Emma.
Who are Lisa and Tim talking to?
⑩ 问东西 What's this/that (in English)? It's a pencil case.
What else can you see in the picture? I can see some broccoli, strawberries and hamburgers.
11问姓名 What's your aunt's name? Her name is Helen./She's Helen.
What's your first name? My first name's Ben.
What's your family name? My family name's Smith.
12 问哪一个 Which do you like? I like one in the box.
13 问字母 What letter is it? It's big D/small f.
14 问价格 How much are these pants? They're 15 dollars.
15 问电话号码 What's your phone number? It's 576-8349.
16 问谓语(动作) What's he doing? He's watching TV
17 问职业(身份) What do you do? I'm a teacher.
What's your father? He's a doctor.
三、初一英语语法--时态
1、一般现在时 表示普遍、经常性的或长期性的动作时使用一般现在时,它有:
Be 动词:She's a worker. Is she a worker? She isn't a worker.
情态动词:I can play the piano. Can you play the piano? I can't play the piano.
行为动词:They want to eat some tomatoes. Do they want to eat any tomatoes? They don't want to eat any tomatoes.
Gina has a nice watch. Does Gina have a nice watch? Gina doesn't have a watch.
2、现在进行时 表示动词在此时正在发生或进行就使用进行时态,结构为sb be v-ing sth + 其它.
I'm playing baseball. Are you playing baseball? I'm not playing baseball.
Nancy is writing a letter. Is Nancy writing a letter? Nancy isn't writing a letter.
They're listening to the pop music. Are they listening the pop music? They aren't listening to the pop music.

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