haihongyuan.com
海量文库 文档专家
全站搜索:
您现在的位置:首页 > 初中教育 > 初中英语初中英语

初一英语语法总结

发布时间:2013-11-18 10:37:59  

初一英语语法总结

初一英语语法虽然是从简单的一些日常用语出发的,但语法中常会有一些知识点看起来很细小,容易被忽视,但这些知识点掌握不熟练,往往会造成一些语法应用上的错误。因此在学习初一英语语法时,要认真、细心,不要觉得一些地方不重要而得过且过。

下面从几个方面,总结出了初一英语语法,如果要复习英语句法的同学,可以参考一下,

一、初一英语语法——词法

1、名词

A)、名词的数

我们知道名词可以分为可数名词和不可数名词,而不可数名词它没有复数形式,但可数名词却有单数和复数之分,复数的构成如下:

一)在后面加s。如:fathers, books, Americans, Germans, apples, bananas

二)x, sh, ch, s, tch后加es。如:boxes, glasses, dresses, watches, wishes, faxes 三)1)以辅音字母加y结尾的变y为i再加es 如:baby-babies, family-families, duty-duties, comedy-comedies, documentary-documentaries, story-stories

2)以元音字母加y结尾的直接加s。如:day-days, boy-boys, toy-toys, key-keys, ways

四)以o结尾加s(外来词)。如:radios, photos, 但如是辅音加o的加es:如: tomatoes西红柿, potatoes马铃薯

五)以f或fe结尾的变f为v再加es(s)。如:knife-knives, wife-wives, half-halves, shelf-shelves, leaf-leaves, yourself-yourselves

六)单复数相同(不变的)有:fish, sheep, deer鹿子, Chinese, Japanese

七)一般只有复数,没有单数的有:people,pants, shorts, shoes, glasses, gloves,

clothes, socks

八)单词形式不变,既可以是单数也可以是复数的有:police警察局,警察, class班,同学, family家,家庭成员

九)合成的复数一般只加主要名词,多数为后一个单词。如:action movie-action movies, pen pal-pen pals; 但如果是由man或woman所组成的合成词的复数则同时为复数。如:man doctor-men doctors, woman teacher-women teachers

十)有的单复数意思不同。如:fish鱼 fishes鱼的种类, paper纸 papers报纸,卷子,论文, work工作 works作品,工厂, glass玻璃 glasses玻璃杯,眼镜, orange桔子水 oranges橙子, light光线 lights灯, people人 peoples民族, time时间 times时代, 次数, chicken 鸡肉 chickens 小鸡

十一) 单个字母的复数可以有两种形式直接加s或’s。如:Is (I’s), Ks (K’s)。但如是缩略词则只加s。如:IDs, VCDs, SARs

十二) 特殊形式的有:child-children, man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, mouse-mice, policeman-policemen, Englishman-Englishmen

B)名词的格

当我们要表示某人的什么东西或人时,我们就要使用所有格形式。构成如下:

一)单数在后面加’s。如:brother’s, Mike’s, teacher’s

二)复数以s结尾的直接在s后加’,如果不是以s结尾的与单数一样处理。如:Teachers’ Day教师节, classmates’; Children’s Day六一节, Women’s Day三八节

三)由and并列的名词所有时,如果是共同所有同一人或物时,只加最后一个’s,但分别拥有时却分别按单数形式处理。如:Mike and Ben’s room迈克和本的房间(共住一间),

Mike’s and Ben’s rooms迈克和本的房间(各自的房间)

2、代词

项目 人称代词 物主代词 指示代词 反身代词

人称 主格 宾格 形容词 名词性

第一人称 单数 I me my mine myself

复数 we us our ours ourselves

第二人称 单数 you you your yours yourself

复数 you you your yours yourselves

第三人称 单数 she her her hers herself

he him his his himself

it it its its this that itself

复数 they them their theirs these those themselves

3、动词

A) 第三人称单数

当动词是第三人称单数时,动词应该像名词的单数变动词那样加s,如下:

一)一般在词后加s。如:comes, spells, waits, talks, sees, dances, trains

二)在x, sh, ch, s, tch后加es。如:watches, washes, wishes, finishes

三)1)以辅音字母加y结尾的变y为i再加es。如:study-studies, hurry-hurries, try-tries

2)以元音字母加y结尾的直接加s。如:plays, says, stays, enjoys, buys

四)以o结尾加es。如:does, goes

五)特殊的有:are-is, have-has

B) 现在分词

当我们说某人正在做什么事时,动词要使用分词形式,不能用原形,构成如下:

一)一般在后加ing。如:spell-spelling, sing-singing, see-seeing, train-training, play-playing, hurry-hurrying, watch-watching, go-going, do-doing

二)以不发音e的结尾的去掉e再加ing。如:dance-dancing, wake-waking, take-taking, practice-practicing, write-writing, have-having

三)以重读闭音节结尾且一个元音字母+一个辅音字母(注意除开字母组合如show –

showing, draw-drawing)要双写最后的辅音字母再加ing。如:put-putting, run-running, get-getting, let-letting, begin-beginning

四)以ie结尾的变ie为y再加ing。如:tie-tying系 die-dying死 lie-lying 位于

4、形容词的级

我们在对两个或以上的人或物进行对比时,则要使用比较或最高级形式。构成如下:

一) 一般在词后加er或est(如果是以e结尾则直接加r或st)。如:greater-greatest, shorter –shortest, taller –tallest, longer –longest, nicer- nicest, larger -largest

二)以重读闭音节结尾且1个元音字母+1个辅音字母(字母组合除外,如few-fewer fewest)结尾的双写结尾的辅音再加er /est。如:big-bigger biggest, red-redder reddest, hot-hotter hottest

三) 以辅音字母+y结尾的变y为i加er/est。如:happy-happier happiest, sorry-sorrier sorriest, friendly-friendlier friendliest(more friendly most friendly), busy-busier busiest, easy-easier easiest

四)特殊情况:(两好多坏,一少老远)

good/well - better best many/much - more most bad/ill – worse worst

little- less least old- older/elder oldest/eldest far- farther/further farthest/furthest

5、数词 (基变序,有规则;一、二、三,自己背;五、八、九、十二;其它后接th;y结尾,变为i, eth跟上去。) first, second, third; fifth, eighth, ninth, twelfth; seventh, tenth, thirteenth, hundredth; twenty-twentieth, forty-fortieth, ninety-ninetieth

二、初一英语语法——句式

1.陈述句

肯定陈述句 a) This is a book. (be动词)

b) He looks very young. (连系动词)

c) I want a sweat like this. (实义动词)

d) I can bring some things to school. (情态动词)

e) There’s a computer on my desk. (There be结构)

否定陈述句 a) These aren’t their books. b) They don’t look nice.

c) Kate doesn’t go to No. 4 Middle School. d) Kate can’t find her doll. e) There isn’t a cat here. (=There’s no cat here.)

2. 祈使句

肯定祈使句 a) Please go and ask the man. b) Let’s learn English!

c) Come in, please.

否定祈使句a) Don’t be late. b) Don’t hurry.

3. 疑问句

1) 一般疑问句 a) Is Jim a student? b) Can I help you? c) Does she like salad? d) Do they watch TV? e) Is she reading?

肯定回答: a) Yes, he is. b) Yes, you can. c) Yes, she does. d) Yes, they do. e) Yes, she is.

否定回答: a) No, he isn’t. b) No, you can’t. c) No, she doesn’t. d) No, they don’t. e) No, she isn’t.

2) 选择疑问句 Is the table big or small? 回答 It’s big./ It’s small.

3) 特殊疑问句

① 问年龄 How old is Lucy? She is twelve.

② 问种类 What kind of movies do you like? I like action movies and comedies. ③ 问身体状况 How is your uncle? He is well/fine.

④ 问方式 How do/can you spell it? L-double O-K.

How do we contact you? My e-mail address is cindyjones@163.com.

⑤ 问原因 Why do you want to join the club?

⑥ 问时间 What’s the time? (=What time is it?) It’s a quarter to ten a.m.. What time do you usually get up, Rick? At five o’clock.

When do you want to go? Let’s go at 7:00.

⑦ 问地方 Where’s my backpack? It’s under the table.

⑧ 问颜色 What color are they? They are light blue.

What’s your favourite color? It’s black.

⑨ 问人物 Who’s that? It’s my sister.

Who is the boy in blue? My brother.

Who isn’t at school? Peter and Emma.

Who are Lisa and Tim talking to?

⑩ 问东西 What’s this/that (in English)? It’s a pencil case.

What else can you see in the picture? I can see some broccoli, strawberries and hamburgers.

11问姓名 What’s your aunt’s name? Her name is Helen./She’s Helen.

What’s your first name? My first name’s Ben.

What’s your family name? My family name’s Smith.

12 问哪一个 Which do you like? I like one in the box.

13 问字母 What letter is it? It’s big D/small f.

14 问价格 How much are these pants? They’re 15 dollars.

15 问电话号码 What’s your phone number? It’s 576-8349.

16 问谓语(动作) What’s he doing? He’s watching TV.

17 问职业(身份) What do you do? I’m a teacher.

What’s your father? He’s a doctor.

三、初一英语语法——时态

1、一般现在时 表示普遍、经常性的或长期性的动作时使用一般现在时,它有: Be 动词:She’s a worker. Is she a worker? She isn’t a worker.

情态动词:I can play the piano. Can you play the piano? I can’t play the piano. 行为动词:They want to eat some tomatoes. Do they want to eat any tomatoes? They don’t want to eat any tomatoes.

Gina has a nice watch. Does Gina have a nice watch? Gina doesn’t have a watch.

2、现在进行时 表示动词在此时正在发生或进行就使用进行时态,结构为sb be v-ing sth + 其它.

I’m playing baseball. Are you playing baseball? I’m not playing baseball.

Nancy is writing a letter. Is Nancy writing a letter? Nancy isn’t writing a letter. They’re listening to the pop music. Are they listening the pop music? They aren’

t listening to the pop music.

初中英语学习方法

网友评论 条 来源:(edu.58.com) 发布时间:2009-10-31

初中英语学习还是有些一些方法和规律可遵循的,很多孩子英语学不好,是因为初中英语方法有些不对,那样很可能是事倍功半,浪费精力和时间,成绩得不到提高,下面就学大教育的初中英语家教老师总结给我们一些初中英语学习方法。

一、 一般现在时:(1、现在的状态。2、经常或习惯性动作。3、主语所具备的性格和能力。4、真理。)

1、标志:often(经常),usually(通常),sometimes(有时),always(总是),never(从不),

on Sundays(在星期天), every day/month/year(每一天/月/年)

2、结构:

(1)主语+连系动词be(am/is/are)+名词/形容词/数词/介词短语/副词等做表语表状态(包括There be +n.)

练习:1.I______(be) a student. My name_____(be) Tom.

2. Where _____(be) my shoes? They___(be) here.

3.Who ____(be) the girl with long straight hair? I think she ___(be) Kate.

4. You and I ___(not be) in Class Six.

5.___(be) there a supermarket on the Fifth Avenue? Yes, there_____(be).

6. ____ her parent tall? No, he____.

(2)主语(非第三人称单数)+行为动词原形+其他 (用助动词do 帮助构成否定句、一般疑问句和特殊疑问)

(3)主语(第三人称单数)+行为动词的第三人称单数+其他(用助动词does 帮助构成否定句、一般疑问句和特殊疑问句)

行为动词第三人称单数加-s的形式1.- s 2. 辅音+y: study-studies 3.以s,x,ch,sh结尾watch-watches teach-teaches4特殊have-has do-does go-goes

.1)His parents _______(watch) TV every night. 肯定句 1) My brother _________(do) homework every day.

2)His parents _________(not watch) every night.否定句2)My brother________(not do)homework every day.

3)_____his parents_____(watch) TV every night?一般疑3)______ your brother _____ homework every day?

Yes, they _______. No, they _______. Yes, he______. No, he _________.

4)When___ his parents _____(watch) TV? 特疑 4)When _____ your brother ____(do) homework?

They watch TV every night. He does homework every day.

二. 现在进行时:表示说话瞬间或现阶段正在进行的动作。

1、 标志: now(现在)listen(看)look(听)

2、 结构:主语+助动词be(am/is/are)+行为动词的现在分词(doing)

现在分词的构成:1.-ing: eat-eating 2.辅音字母+e: take-taking

3. sit, put, begin, run, swim, stop, get, shop,(双写最后一个辅音字母,再加ing.) 练习:1. Jim __________________(take) photos in the park now. 2. Jim_________(not take) in the park now. 3. _______________Jim____________(take) photos in the park now? Yes, he _____. No, he _______.

4. Where _________Jim ____________ photos now? In the park.

三、情态动词:1、任何主语+can/may/must+动词原形 2、主语+ can’t/may not/ mustn’t+动词原形

3、 Can/May/Must + 主语+ 动词原形? 4、疑问词+can/may/must+主语+动词原形?

四、非谓语动词(是固定搭配)

1. like+ to do不定式/doing动名词 2.want to do sth. 3. love to do 4. would like to do sth.

5. enjoy doing sth. 6. thanks for doing 7. stop doing sth 8. let sb. do sth.

She wants _____(have) a party. Does he like _______(swim)?

Thanks for _______(enjoy) CCTV show. She never stops ____(talk).

五.祈使句:

Go straight and turn left/ right.

Go through Fifth Avenue.

Take a taxi(Take a bus,Take a walk……)

六.综合练习:1.Mr Green _____(be) a worker. Now he ____(work) in the field. 2.Listen! Who_______(sing)?

3.What time ____ your brother usually _____(do) his homework? 4.You can_______(come) here by bus.

5. Who ____(have) a ruler? 6.Are they_____(clean) the room? 7.-____ you____(eat) dinner? – Yes, we are.

8.Jack ____(have) a soccer ball, but he ____(not have) a basketball. 9._______Jim _______(like)______(run)?

10.They _____(be) from Canada. They______(not speak) Chinese. 11. He wants _________________(be) tall.

1.我们正在吃晚餐。 2、我们每天6点起床。

We __________________________. We __________________ at six every day.

3.你们在聊天吗?是的。 4、他们常常聊天吗?不是。

_______ they _______? Yes, they _____. ______ they often ______ ? No, they ________.

5、他在做什么?他在做作业。 6、他晚上常干什么?他常做作业。 What ____he ___? He_______. What ___he usually ___ in the evening? He usually______.

答案: 1.are having dinner 2. get up 3. Are , talking , are 4. Do , talk, don’t

5. is doing, is doing homework 6. does, do, does , homework

七.人称代词: 我 你 他 她 它 我们 你们 他/她/它们

主格: I you he she it we you they 宾格: me you him her it us you them 形容词性物主代词: 我的 你的 他的 她的 它的 我们的 你们的 他/她/它们的

my your his her its our your their

练习:1.________(我) am a worker. _________(你) are a doctor. ______(她) is a teacher.

2.This is (他的 )shirt.

3. This is __________(我的)pen.

4._________(他们的) trousers are there.

5. I like this picture. Please give ________(它) to ________(我).

6. People get ________(他们的) money from _________(我).

7._____(他们) are new students. _____(他们的) names are Lucy and Lily.

8. These are _____(我们的) shoes. Can ____(我们) wear ______(它们).

9.Thank _______ for _______(你的) help.

10. _______(他) loves _______(她), and _______(她) loves _______(他),too. _______(我) love _________(你), and ________(你) love _______(我),too.

八,There be句型

句型转换

1)There is a bank on the street. 2) There are some cars in front of the park.

否定句:There _______a bank on the street. 否定句:There ______ _______cars in front of the bank.

一般疑问句:_______ ______ a bank on the street? 一般疑问句:____ ______ ______cars in front of the bank?

就划线部分提问:________ on the street? 就划线部分提问:_____ _____ in front of the bank?

There’s a bank on the street. There are some cars in front of the bank.

同上:____ ______ ______are there on the street? 同上:____ ____ ____ are there in front of the bank

There’s only one. There’re some.

2)将下列句子改为否定句、一般疑问句,并就划线部分提问。

1. We are eating lunch. We eat lunch at noon.

2.He is swimming at a pool. He

day.

3.Jim and Tony are playing basketball at school. Jim and Tony play

basketball on Sundays.

swims at the pool every

网站首页网站地图 站长统计
All rights reserved Powered by 海文库
copyright ©right 2010-2011。
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit326@126.com