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初中英语五种句型及练习

发布时间:2013-11-20 12:45:13  

五种基本句型

一、句子是由主语、谓语动词、表语、宾语、宾语补足语等组成的,依其组合方

式可分为五种。基本句型,如下表所示:

**注意:句子成分的表示法

S: Subject(主语) V:Verb(动词) O: Object(宾语)

P:Predicative(表语)OC: Object Complement(宾语补足语)

第1种 S+V We work.(不及物vi)

第2种 S+V+O He plays(及物vt) the piano

第3种 S+V+P We are(系动词) students

第4种 S+V+IO(间宾)+ DO(直宾) She gave(及物vt) me a pen +DO(直宾) 第5种 S+V+O+OC He made(及物vt) the boy laugh 1

二、五种基本句型讲解

**不及物动词vi:动作不涉及到人或物,本身意义完整,可接状语。 及物动词vt: 动作涉及到人或物,本身意义不完整,必接宾语。

1.第1种句型:主语+不及物动词(vi):S+VI

Birds fly. He runs in the park. -

因为谓语是由是不及物动词充当,后面当然不能带宾语了,但是可以有状语来修饰。例如上面例句中的 in the park,是地点状语。

比较 Class begins(vi). We begin (vt) our class at eight.

begin既可作及物动词(vt),也可以作不及物动词(vi)。

请认真牢记!只能当不及物动词vi的动词

sleep 睡觉 walk 步行 swim 游泳 happen(take place)发生 go去

come来 work 工作 laugh 笑 stay呆在?? arrive 到达 2 第2种句型:主语+及物动词+宾语:S+V+O My father read the book. **注意:有些vi后面加上介词就可把它看成一个vt,后面就可以加宾语了。 You must listen to me.(listen是vi,但+to之后,listen to就是一个vt了) 作vt宾语的词有名词、代词、不定式、动名词,或相当于名词、代词的短语。 She likes English.(n作O) I know him very well.(pron作O) They want to go.(不定式作O)He stopped writing.(动名词作O)

3 第3种句型:主语+系动词+表语:S+V+P He became a scientist.

be动词和become是常见的系动词,后面必须接P,才能用来说明主语,表示 “……是??”,“??变成??”等意思。

表语通常是名词或形容词等。

They are honest. (adj作p) He became a scientist. (n作p)

His face goes red. (adj作p) It grew dark. (adj作p)

**注意:在英语中,除了be和become或状态变化时也可以作系动词。这些词有:

keep 保持 look 看起来 fell 觉得 smell 闻起来 sound 听起来 taste 尝起来 grow, get,go, turn 变得

4 第4种句型:主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语: S+vt|+IO+DO

He gave Tom a present. Give it to me.

1)、双宾语:间接宾语(IO)+直接宾语(DO)。指“人”的宾语,叫间接宾语(IO);

指“物”的宾语,叫直接宾语(DO) Eg: We sent them(IO) a telegram(DO).

2)、双宾语的位置:在句中一般把指“人”的IO放在指“物”的DO前;也可以把指“物”的DO放在指“人”的IO前,DO放在指“人”的IO前时,要加适当的介词to 或for.

请认真牢记!指“物”的DO放在指“人”的IO前时,

A类:在指“人”的IO前+to的

show给?看 send寄,打电报 bring带? read读? pass递给?lend借给? leave留给? hand交给? tell告诉?return把?还给? write给?写信 throw扔? promise答应?refuse 拒绝?

Don’t throw them to the animals. She has lent the pen to her.

B类:在指“人”的IO前+for的

buy买 do做 get得到 play演奏 order命令 sing唱歌 pay为?交钱 I’d like to do anything for you. He has ordered a seat for us.

3)、注意:当IO于IO之前,这时在间接宾语前必须加to或for。

I pass it to my mother. She threw them to me.

Give the book to me.(间接宾语放在句尾为了强调,强调给我而不要给别人) He will buy me some books. =He will buy some books for me.

She made me a cake. =She made a cake for me. 她给我做糕点。

He gave me a pen. =He gave a pen to me. 他把钢笔给我。

I sent him it. (×) I sent it to him. (√) 我把它送给他。

4)、S+V+IO(人)+DO(物)→<疑问词+ to~>

主语+及物动词+间接宾语+疑问词+to~(不定式)

He taught me how to read the word. I told him what to do.

He asked me why to sing this song. She asked me which way to go.

5)、第4种句型变为被动语态,有两种情况:We sent them a telegram.→被语态 A: They were sent a telegram. B:A telegram was sent to them.

He bought me a rose. →被语态

A:I was bought a rose. B:A rose was bought for me.

5、第5种句型:主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语,S+V(及物)+O+OC We call her Connie.宾补(n) They made her happy. 宾补(adj)

1).在有些vt后面,需要用一个宾语再加一个宾语的补语OC,才能表达完整的意思。关系。宾补OC由名词、形容词和不定式充当。

I saw her dance. 宾补(不定式) I saw her dancing. 宾补(v-ing)

2).常跟复合宾语的动词有:Call,name,make,think,find, leave。 I will make you captain. I found the movie interesting.

He left the window open.

3).在see, watch, look at, listen to, hear, feel, let, make(使得),have(使得)

这些动词后的宾语补足语如果是不定式充当,则省去“to”。但变为被动语态时“to”还原。 He listened to the pianist play the piano.

被动:The pianist was lisened to play the piano.

4).注意:这种句型变为被动语态时,只有一种句式。

We will make you king. →You will be made king.(被动)

6、第4种句型和第5

(1) He gave me a book.(双宾语) (2)He calls me Tom.(复合宾语)

例(2)中的宾语me(我),和宾语补足语Tom(汤姆),有逻辑上的主谓关系, 即“我是汤姆”。但例(1)则不可以,所以双宾语没有逻辑上的主谓关系。 **He made the boy laugh.他使男孩笑.

(宾语the boy和后边的成分laugh,“男孩笑”,即可以成为一句话,也就是 逻辑上的主谓关系,而不是真正的主谓关系。)

**She bought me a pen.她买给我一支笔。

(宾语me(我)和后面的词a pen(一支笔)不可能成为逻辑上的主谓关系,不可能想像为“我是一支笔”,所以就是双宾语。)

一、用所给的单词组成句子

1, want, take, to, room, heavy, the. →

2.look, things, the, after, boys, their, must. →

3.here, all, are, you. →

4.today, who, duty, is, on? →

5.Miss, them, 3 years ago, Wang, taught, Japanese.

6.is, rice, bag, in, there, much, the. →

7.him, them, to, a, gift, promised, give, I. →

8.begins, eight, the, English, at, class, o'clock. →

二、完成下列句子

1.Have you ever been to ______ (最远的小岛)

2.We must ______ our classroom ______ .(保持清洁).

3.They ______ ______ ______ ______ and ______ ______ two hours (每二小时,必须坐下休息)

4.After work he always ______ ______ ______ ______ (感到有点儿累).

5.The doctor ______ ______ Tom ______ ______ (非常仔细地做了检查).

6.There is ______ ______ (有点毛病)with Linda's cat's eyes.

7.I can see ______ ______ (没有异常之物)in the tree.

8.Mr. Fang is ______ ______ ______ ______ (去??访问) his aunt.

9.Mike ______ ______ ______ his mother ______ (得帮妈妈)the washing every Sunday.

三、指出下列句子的主语部分 1.Who is the gentleman in the room?

2.Who is singing on the plateform? 3.What he said is not true.

四、判断这些句子的类型并理解be动词的用法(连系动词/助动词)

1.The boy is asleep (_____________式) 2.The boy is sleeping. (________式)

3.The boy is playing the guitar. (______式) 4.He is playing happily. (_______式)

5.His music is very beautiful. (______式) 6.It is beautiful music. (________式)

五、判断这些句子的类型

1. She is a very good girl . (_______________式) (__语) (__词) (___语)

2. The girl is very good. (_______________式) (__语) (__词) (___语)

3. They ‖ laughed. (_______________式) (__语) (__词)

4. The kites ‖ fly in the sky. (_______________式) (__语) (__词)

5. I ‖ bought a new bike. (_______________式) (__语) (__词) (__语)

6. He ‖ plays volleyball. (_______________式) (__语) (__词) (__语)

7. She ‖ told me a story. (_______________式) (__语) (__词) (__语) (__语)

8. He ‖ gave me a good book. (_______________式) (__语) (__词) (__语) (__语)

9.He ‖ asked me to help him. (_______________式) (__语) (__词) (__语) (__语)

10.He ‖ made me happy. (_______________式) (__语) (__词) (__语) (__语)

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