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初三英语语法

发布时间:2013-11-22 08:08:52  


1.不定代词(some any,all both,either neither,no none,each every,many much,few little的区别与联系)
不定代词包括:
all ,both,either,neither,any,all,none,ev both, every, each, either, neither, more, little, few, much, many, another, other, some, any , one, no
以及some, something, anything, everything, somebody, someone, anybody, anyone, nothing , nobody,
no one, none, everybody, everyone.等.

2.不定代词用法为:(☆☆☆☆☆重要考点)
不定代词+(of +限定词)+名词
注意:of后一定要有限定词!!这是both,either,neither,any,all,none,ev托福语法中的both,either,neither,any,all,none,ev重要考点both, all可以直接接限定词the!
3.all与both的用法
1) all都,指三者以上both,either,neither,any,all,none,ev.both都,指两者
2) all的主谓一致:all的单复数由它所修饰或指代的名词的单复数决定.
both与复数动词连用,但both...and...可与单数名词连用与.
All goes well.一切进展得很好.
3) all通常不与可数名词单数连用,如:不说all the book,而说the whole book.
但all可与表时间的可数名词单数连用,如all day,all night,all the year;但习惯上不说all hour,all century.
all还可以与一些特殊的单数名词连用,如all China,all the city,all my life,all the way.
4)both, all都可作同位语,其位置在行为动词前,be动词之后.如果助动词或情态动词后面的实义动词省去,则位于助动词或情态动词之前.
Who can speak Japanese We both (all) can.
5) all/any/none
all (所有的,全部的人或物),any (任何一个),none (都不).以上词使用范围为三者以上.
All the flowers are gone.所有的花都谢了.
I don't like any of the flowers.这些花我都不喜欢.
I like none of the flowers.这些花我都不喜欢.
注意:all与none用法一样.跟单数名词,用单数动词;跟复数名词,用复数动词.
All of the students are there.所有的学生都在那.
All (of) the milk is there.所有的牛奶都在那.
3.every和each的用法(☆☆☆重要考点)
1)every强调全体的概念,each强调个体概念.
Every student in our school works hard.我们学校的学生都很用功.
Each student may have one book..每个学生都可有一本书.
2)every指三个以上的人或物(含三个),each指两个以上的人或物(含两个).
3)every只作形容词,不可单独使用.each可作代词或形容词.
Every student has to take one.
Each boy has to take one.
Each of the boys has to take one.
4)every不可以作状语,each可作状语.
5)every有反复重复的意思,如every two weeks等;each没有.
6)every与not连用,表示部分否定;each和not连用表示全部否定.
Every man is not honest.并非每个人都诚实.
Each man is not honest.这儿每个人都不诚实.
4.neither与nor的用法
1)如前句是否定式从句,则主句用neither,而不用nor.
If you don't do it,neither should I.如果你不干,

我也不干.
2)如后连续有几个否定句式,则用nor,不用neither.
He can't sing,nor dance,nor skate.
5.代词比较one,that和it(☆☆☆重要考点)
1)one表示泛指,that和it表示特指.that与所指名词为同类,但不是同一个,而it与所指名词为同一个.
I can't find my hat. I think I must buy one.(不定)
我找不到我的帽子了.我想我该去买一顶.
The hat you bought is bigger than that I bought.(同类但不同个)你买的那顶帽子比我买的大.
I can't find my hat. I don' t know where I put it.(同一物)我找不到我的帽子.我不知道我把它放在哪了
6.one/another/the other的用法
one...the other只有两个
some...the others有三个以上
one...another,another...
some...others,others...
others = other people/things
the others = the rest剩余的全部
1)泛指另一个用another.
2)一定范围内两人(物),一个用one,另一个用the other.
3)一定范围内三者,一个用one,另一个用one (another),第三个可用the other,a third.
4)一定范围内,除去一部分人/物,剩余的全部用the others.
5)泛指别的人或物时,用others当在一定范围内,除去一部分后,剩余部分但不是全部时,也用others.
7.anyone/any one;no one/none的用法
1) anyone和any one
anyone仅指人,any one既可指人,也可指物.
2) no one和none
a)none后跟of短语,既可指人又可指物,而no one只单独使用,只指人.
b)none作主语,谓语动词用单,复数均可,而no one作主语谓语动词只能是单数.
None of you could lift it.你们中没有人可举起它.
---- Did any one call me up just now --刚才有人打电话给我吗
---- No one.--没有.
8. few, little, a few, a little的用法
1)(a) few +可数名词, (a) little +不可数名词
2)a few / a little为肯定含义,还有一点
3)few / little为否定含义,没有多少了.
He has a few friends.他有几个朋友.
He has few friends.他几乎没有朋友.
We still have a little time.我们还有点时间.
There is little time left.几乎没剩下什么时间了.
4)固定搭配:
only a few (=few)not a few (=many)quite a few (=many)
many a (=many)
Many books were sold.
Many a book was sold.
卖出了许多书.
9many, much的用法
Many,much都意为"许多",many +可数名词,much +不可数名词.
How many people are there at the meeting
How much time has we left
Many of the workers were at the meeting.
Much of the time was spent on learning


2.时态

、 一般现在时:

1.概念:经常、反复发生的动作或行为及现在的某种状况。

2.时间状语: always, usually, often, sometimes, every week (day, year, month...), once a week, on Sundays,

3.基本结构:动词 原形 (如主语为第三人称单数,动词上要改为第三人称单数形式)

4.否定形式:am/is/are+not;此时态的谓语动词若为行为动词,则在其前加don't,如主语为第三

人称单数,则用doesn't,同时还原行为动词。

5.一般疑问句:把be动词放于句首;用助动词do提问,如主语为第三人称单数,则用does,同时,还原行为动词。

6.例句:. It seldom snows here.

He is always ready to help others.

Action speaks louder than words.

二、 一般过去时:

1.概念:过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为。

2.时间状语:ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week,last(year, night, month...), in 1989, just now, at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, once upon a time, etc.

3.基本结构:be动词;行为动词 的过去式

4.否定形式:was/were+not;在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词。

5.一般疑问句:was或were放于句首;用助动词do的过去式did 提问,同时还原行为动词。

6.例句:She often came to help us in those days.

I didn't know you were so busy.

三、 现在进行时:

1.概念:表示现阶段或说话时正在进行的动作及行为。

2.时间状语:now, at this time, these days, etc.

3.基本结构:am/is/are+doing

4.否定形式:am/is/are+not+doing.

5.一般疑问句:把be动词放于句首。

6.例句: How are you feeling today?

He is doing well in his lessons.

四、 过去进行时:

1.概念:表示过去某段时间或某一时刻正在发生或进行的行为或动作。

2.时间状语:at this time yesterday, at that time或以when引导的谓语动词是一般过去时的时间状语等。

3.基本结构:was/were+doing

4.否定形式:was/were + not + doing.

5.一般疑问句:把was或were放于句首。

6.例句:At that time she was working in a PLA unit.

When he came in, I was reading a newspaper.

五、 现在完成时:

1.概念:过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。

2.时间状语:recently, lately, since...for...,in the past few years, etc.

3.基本结构:have/has + done

4.否定形式:have/has + not +done.

5.一般疑问句:have或has。

6.例句:I've written an article.

The countryside has changed a lot in the past few years.

六、 过去完成时:

1.概念:以过去某个时间为标准,在此以前发生的动作或行为,或在过去某动作之前完成的行为,即"过去的过去"。

2.时间状语:before, by the end of last year(term, month...),etc.

3.基本结构:had + done.

4.否定形式:had + not + done.

5.一般疑问句:had放于句首。

6.例句:As soon as we got to the station, the train had left.

By the end of last month. We had reviewed four books

七、 一般将来时:

1.概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。

2.时

间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year...),soon, in a few minutes, by...,the day after tomorrow, etc.

3.基本结构:am/is/are/going to + do;will/shall + do.

4.否定形式:was/were + not; 在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词。

5.一般疑问句:be放于句首;will/shall提到句首。

6.例句:They are going to have a competition with us in studies.

It is going to rain.

八、 过去将来时:

1.概念:立足于过去某一时刻,从过去看将来,常用于宾语从句中。
2.时间状语:the next day(morning, year...),the following month(week...),etc.
3.基本结构:was/were/going to + do;would/should + do.
4.否定形式:was/were/not + going to + do;would/should + not + do.
5.一般疑问句:was或were放于句首;would/should 提到句首。
6.例句:He said he would go to Beijing the next day.
I asked who was going there .

九.将来完成时:
1.概念:在将来某一时刻之前开始的动作或状态
2.时间状语:by the time of;by the end of+时间短语(将来);by the time+从句(将来)
3.基本结构:be going to/will/shall + have done

十.现在完成进行时:
1.概念:在过去某一时刻之前开始的动作或状态一直持续到说话为止
2.基本结构:have/has +been+doing
几种常见时态的相互转换

英语中的几种时态在一定情况下可以互相转换,以下是几种常见的转换形式:

十一、 一般过去时与现在完成时的转换

在现在完成时中,延续性动词能与表示一段时间的状语连用,瞬间动词却不能。但是,可用别的表达方式:①瞬间动词用于"一段时间 + ago"的一般过去时的句型中;②瞬间动词可改成与之相对应的延续性动词及短语,与一段时间连用;③瞬间动词用于"It is + 一段时间 + since + 一般过去时"的句型中,表示"自从......以来有......时间"的意思,主句一般用it is来代替It has been;④瞬间动词用于"Some time has passed since + 一般过去时"的句型中。请看:

A. He joined the League two years ago.

B. He has been in the League for two years.

C. It is two years since he joined the League.

D. Two years has passed since he joined the League.

十二、 一般现在时与现在进行时的转换

在一般现在时中,at加上名词表示"处于某种状态",如at work(在工作), at school(上学、上课)等。此短语可与进行时态转换。请看:

Peter is at work, but Mike is at play.

Peter is working, but Mike is playing.

十三、 现在进行时与一般将来时的转换

在现在进行时态中go, come, leave, start, arrive等动词常与表示将来的时间状语连用表示将要发生的动作。如:I am coming, Mum! 意为"我就来,妈妈!"请看:

The train is leaving soon.

The train will leave soon.

3.宾语从句(3

种)
宾语从句是英语复合句中的其中非常重要的从句之一。它是用一个句子做另一个句子的宾语,将这个句子叫做宾语从句。宾语从句做介词或及物动词的宾语。现在从下列三个方面总结归纳如下:
  一,引导词
  A,由that 引导的陈述句性的宾语从句,在很多动词如say, think, wish , hope, see, believe, agree, expect, hear , feel等动词后。连词that只起连接作用,在从句中不做句子的成分,也无词汇意义,在口语中常被省略,但在大多数情况下还是以不省为好,特别是在笔语中。
  例:I told him that he was wrong.
  l在think, believe, suppose, expect等动词引起的宾语从句中,有时谓语尽管是否定意义,却不用否定形式,而将think 等动词变为否定形式。
  例:I don't think you are right. (我认为你做的不对)
  l在许多带有复合宾语的句子中,that引导的宾语从句经常移到句子的后面,而用it做形式宾语。
  例:We think it wrong that he told a lie to everyone (我认为他向每一个人撒谎是错误的)
  B,由连词if、 whether 引导的表示"是否..."的宾语从句。Whether, if 在从句中不做句子的成分,一般情况下,whether和if 可以替换。
  例:I don't know if/whether he will come tomorrow.
  The teacher asked if/whether we had finished the experiment.
  l在介词后面的宾语从句中不用if引导
  例:Everything depends on whether we have enough money。
  l宾语从句中有or not时不用if引导.
  例:I don't know whether the movie star will come or not.
  l和不定式连用作宾语时不用if引导.
  例:Whether to go there or not hasn't been decided.
  C,由wh-引导的宾语从句。连接代词who,whom,whose, what, which,和连接副词when, where, why, how 等连接的宾语从句,它们在句中即有连接从句的作用,又在句中充当句子的成分。
  例:Do you know which film they are talking about? (which做定语)
  I don't know where he lives. (where 做地点状语)
  二,宾语从句的语序,
  宾语从句从句的语序必须是陈述语序,既连接词+主语+谓语+其他成分
  例:I believe that they will come soon.
  He asked me whether I was a teacher.
  They wanted to know what they can do for us.
  二,宾语从句的时态。
  宾语从句的时态受主句的限制,
  既:主句是一般现在时态,从句根据实际情况而定。
  主句是一般过去时态,从句用相应的过去的时态。如果从句的动作发生在主句之前,则从句要用过去完成时态。
  例:
  1)She says that she is a student.
  She said that she was a student.
  2)She says that she will fly to Japan in a week.

  She said that she would fly to Japan in a week.
  3)She says that she has finished her homework already.
  She said that she had finished her homework already.
  4)She says that she can sing a song in English.
  She said that she could sing a song in English.
  l如果宾语从句说的是客观真理、自然现象或事实时,这时宾语从句要用一般现在时态。
  例:The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.
  He told me that Japan is an island country.
  lCould you tell me...是用来征询对方的意见,语气委婉,并不表示过去。
  例:Could you tell me when we will visit the History Museum?
  注意事项:
  u由陈述句变成宾语从句时,要注意人称的变化。
  例:She said: "I have been to England before."
  She said that she had been to England before.
  She asked me: "Do you like moths?"
  She asked me if I liked moths.
  u宾语从句与简单句的交换。
  由连接代词和连接副词引导的宾语从句,如果宾语从句的主语和主句的主语是同一个人时,可以用"疑问词+不定式
  "做宾语的简单句结构。
  例:I don't know what I should do next.
  I can't know what to do next.
  He didn't know where he would live.
  He didn't know where to live.


4.定语从句(以that为主)
定语从句

I. 定语从句起了形容词的作用,在句中修饰一个名词或代词。被修饰的词叫做先行词,引导定语从句的词叫关系词,他的作用一是放在先行词与定语从句中间起了连接作用,二是在从句中担当一个成分,并与先行词保持数的一致。
关系词 先行词 从句成分 例句 备注
关系代词 who 人 主语 Do you know the man who is talking with your mother? whom, which和that在从句中做宾语时,常可以省略,但介词提前时后面关系代词不能省略,也不可以用that
whom 人 宾语 Mr. Smith is the person with whom I am working
The boy (whom) she loved died in the war..
whose 人,物 定语 I like those books whose topics are about history.
The boy whose father works abroad is my deskmate.
that 人,物 主语,宾语 A plane is a machine that can fly.
She is the pop star (that) I want to see very much.
which 物 主语,宾语 The book (which) I gave you was worth $10.
The picture which was about the accident was terrible.
as 人,物 主语,宾语 He is such a person as is respected by all of us.
This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. as做宾语一般不省略
关系副词 when 时间 时间状语 I will never forget the day when we met there. 可用on which
where 地点 地点状语 This is the house where I was born. 可用in which
why 原因 原因状语 I can't imagine the reason why he turned down my offer. 可用for which
II. that与which, who, whom

的用法区别:
情况 用法说明 例句
只用that的情况 1. 先行词为all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much,等不定代词时。
2. 先行词被all, any, every, each, much, little, no, some, few等修饰时
3. 先行词有形容词最高级和序数词修饰时
4. 先行词既指人又指物时
5. 先行词被the only, the very修饰时
6. 句中已经有who或which时,为了避免重复时 1.He told me everything that he knows.
2.All the books that you offered has been given out.
3.This is the best film that I have ever read.
4.We talked about the persons and things that we remembered.
5.He is the only man that I want to see.
6.Who is the man that is making a speech?
只用which, who, whom的情况 1. 在非限制性定语从句中,只能用which指代物,用who/whom指人
2. 在由"介词+关系代词"引导的定语从句中,只能用which指物,whom指人。
3. 先行词本身是that时,关系词用which, 先行词为those, one, he时多用who。 He has a son, who has gone abroad for further study.
I like the person to whom the teacher is talking.
Those who respect others are usually respected by others.
III. as与which的区别:
定语从句 区别 例句
限制性定语从句中 名词前有such和the same修饰时,关系代词用as,不能用which He is not such a fool as he looks.
Don't read such books as you can't understand.
非限制性定语从句中 as和which都可以指代前面整个主句。如果有"正如,象"的含义,并可以放在主句前,也可以放在后面,那么用as;而which引导的从句只能放主句后,并无"正如"的意思。 They won the game, as we had expected.
They won the game, which we hadn't expected.
As is well known, he is a famous film star in the 1980s.


IV. 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别:
类别 语法意义及特征 例句
限制性定语从句 对先行词起修饰限制作用,如果去掉,主句意思就不完整明确,这种从句与主句的关系十分密切,写时不用逗号分开。 The accident happened at the time when I left.
非限制性定语从句 对先行词作附加的说明,与主句的关系不十分密切,较松散。从句和主句之间用逗号分开,相当于一个插入语,不能用that引导,关系代词做宾语时也不能省略。 His mother, whom he loved deeply, died ten years ago.



7.形容词与副词的比较级,最高级

A 特殊变化与一般变化

B 用法

8.动词的种类

行为、情态、联系、助动词

9.句子的成分

主语、谓语、宾语、表语、定语、状语、补语

10.简单句5大基本句型(顺便掌握及物与不及物动词的区别)

11.动词不定式

A基本结构(to+动词原型,否定式为not to+动词原型)

B用法

C疑问词+不定式

12.被动语态

A主动与被动的概念

B构成
C情态

动词被动语态
  一、 明确被动语态的使用场合
  一般来说,当句子的主语是句子谓语动作的承受者时,句子要用被动语态而不能用主动语态。如:
  According to the news, many college students asked to be sent to the faraway places. 按照这个消息的说法,很多大学生要求被派往边远地区。
  二、主动形式表被动意义
  1. 有些表示状态特征的系动词、感官动词,如look, sound, feel, smell, taste, prove, appear, sound, turn out 等+形容词/名词的系表结构。如:
  The music sounds beautiful. 这音乐听起来很美。
  2. 表示主语的某种属性特征的动词。如:read, write, act, sell, wash, clean, wear, open, cook, lock, shut, dry, eat, drink, keep, feel,burn, last, strike, cut等。这类动词一般不单独使用,常有一个修饰语。或与表示行为方式的状语连用,或与情态动词连用。如:
  This coat dries easily. 这件大衣很容易干。
  The door won't lock. 这扇门锁不上。
  3. 表示开始、结束、运动的动词。如begin, finish, start, open, close, stop, end, move。如:
  Work began at 7 o'clock this morning. 今天早晨的工作是7点开始的。
  4. 少数动词用于进行时,其主动形式表示被动含义。如:print, build, cook, fry, hang, build, make。如:
  The books are printing. 这些书正在印刷中。
  5. 介词in, on, under ... + 名词构成的介词短语表示被动意义。如:
  The house facing the tower is in the possession of Mr Bob. 面对着塔的屋子是Bob的。
  6. 当get, become, go 等动词用作系动词,其表语是过去分词时,可以表示被动,此结构比较口语化。如:
  The patient got treated once a week. 那位病人一周得到一次治疗。
  7. 某些不及物动词或相当于不及物动词的短语动词如break out, go well, take place, occur等。如:
  What body changes occur when the sperm whale drives? 抹香鲸潜入水中时,身体会发生什么变化?
  8. want, need, require等动词后用V-ing形式可以表示被动意义。如:
  The machine needs repairing. 这台机器需要修理了。
  9. 形容词worth + V-ing分词时。如:
  This book is well worth reading again. 这本书很值得再读一遍。
  三、不能转化成被动语态的主动句
  我们知道不及物动词没有被动语态,有的及物动词也可以用作不及物动词,同样也没有被动语态,凡是属于下列情况的主句不能转化成被动语态:
  1. 某些表示状态的及物动词。如:have, own, possess, lack, want, fit, suit, become, last, cost, fail, escape, hold等。如:
  Our boss possesses great wealth. 我们老板拥有巨大的财富。
  2. 当宾语是反身代词或相互代词时,不能有相应的被动

语态。如:
  I cut myself when I was cutting meat. 当我切肉时,割伤了自己。
  3. 当宾语是不定式或动名词时,通常不能有对应的被动句。如:
  This might help to bring out the problem more clearly. 这也许有助于使问题明朗化。
  四、不及物动词的被动结构
  一般地说,不及物动词没有被动结构,这是因为不及物动词没有宾语,但有些不及物动词接上介词、副词或其他成分构成一个短语动词,相当于及物动词,这时可以有被动语态,但是要注意所接的介词、副词或其它成分一定不能省略。如:
  We must write to him. →He must be written to. 我们必须写信给他。


13.虚拟语气(以"现在不可能发生"为主)

结构为If+主+V-ed,主+would do。

注意从句里面be用were

14.双宾语

15.情态动词

can,could,should,would,would like,might may,have to must,need
特别注意掌握情态动词表推测

16.直接引语,间接引语

注意指示代词、时间与地点词、动词转换的情况

注意不转换的情况

注意主从一致

17.状语从句(特别是IF ,WHEN和UNTIL)

注意主句一般将来时,从句用一般现在表将来。
1、时间状语从句
(1)as、when、while用法一览表。
类别
作 用
例 句
as
as表示"当......的时候",往往和when/ while通用,但它着重强调主句与从句的动作或事情同时或几乎同时发生。
She came up as I was cooking.(同时)
The runners started as the gun went off.(几乎同时)
when
(at or during the time that )既可以表示在某一点的时候,又可表示在某一段时间内,主句与从句的动作或事情可以同时发生也可以先后发生。
It was raining when we arrived.(指时间点)
When we were at school, we went to the library every day.(在一段时间内)
while
while意思是"当......的时候"或"在某一段时间里"。主句中的动作或事情在从句中的动作或事情的进展过程中发生,从句中的动词一般要用延续性动词。在when表示a period of time时,两者可以互换。
Please don't talk so loud while others are working.
He fell asleep while/when reading. Strike while the iron is hot.(用as或when不可,这里的while意思是"趁......")
  (2)引导时间状语从句的连接词除上述外还有:
①till, not ... until ..., until, before, since
Don't get off the bus until it has stopped.
  He waited for his father until(till)it was twelve o'clock.
  It will be five years before he returns from England.
 ②hardly / scarcely ... when, no sooner ... than, as soon as once
表示"一......就"
  As soon as I have finished it , I'll give yu a call.
  Once you show any fear, he will attack you.
 We had hardly got / Hardly had we got into the country when it
began to rain.
No sooner had he arriv

ed / He had no sooner arrived than she started complaining.
③directly, immediately, the moment, the minute that... 一......就
He made for the door directly he heard the knock.
④each time, every time, by the time
Each time he came to my city, he would call on me.
注意:表示未来情况,主句用将来时,从句用现在时。
2、让步状语从句
(1)although与though可以引导让步状语从句,不能与but连用,但可以与yet连用。
Although they are poor,(yet)they are warm-hearted.
(2)even if或even though引导让步状语从句,表示"即使","纵然",用来使人注意下文所强调内容的性质。
I'll get there even if(though)I have to sell my house to get enough money to go by air.
(3)no matter后接上who、what、where、how等疑问词,也可以在这类疑问词后面加上ever构成whoever、whatever、wherever、however等。
Don't trust him, no matter what / whatever he says.
Whoever breaks the law will be published.
No matter how hard the work is, you'd better try to do it well.
(4)as也可以引导让步状语从句。要用倒装。
Child as(though)he is, he knows a lot.
Much as I like it, I won't buy.
Try as he would, he couldn't lift the heavy box.
3、原因状语从句:because, for, as, since, now that
(1)表示不知道的原因时用because,即说话人认为听话人不知道,因此because从句是全句最重要的部分,通常它被置于主句之后。
You want to know why I'm leaving? I'm leaving because I'm full.
for虽然表示不知道的原因,但其语气较because要弱得多,是可说可不说的话,它只能置于主句之后,这时,for是并列连词。如果不是因果关系,而是对前面主句的内容加以解释或推断时,只能用for。如:It's morning now, for the birds are singing.(很显然,鸟叫不可能是"现在已是早上"的原因。)
(2)表示已经知道的原因时用as或since,即某种原因在说话人看来已经很明显,或已为听话人所熟悉,因此它是句中不很重要的部分。since要比as正式一些,它们通常被置于语句之前,但有时却相反。
Seeing all of the children already seated, he said,"Since everyone is here, let's start."
(3)下列情况下只能使用because:
①在回答why的问句时;
②在用于强调句型时;
③被not所否定时。
4、地点状语从句:where, wherever
Make a mark wherever you have any questions.
We will go where the Party directs us.
5、目的状语从句:that, so that, in order that
注意:目的状语从句的谓语动词常与情态动词连用,否则可能是结果状语从句。不可置于句首。
6、结果状语从句:that, so that, so ... that, such ... that ...
注意:so + 形容词/副

词 + that从句;such + 名词 + that从句。
7、方式状语从句:as, as if(though)
I'll do as I am told to.
It looks as if it is going to rain.
8、比较状语从句:than, as
9、条件状语从句:if, unless, so (as) long as, in case, once, a far as, on condition that.
注意if与unless的区别:不能用and连接两个unless从句,即不能有... unless ...,and unless ... 。但if ... not and if ... not却不受此限。
You won't lose your weight unless you eat less and unless you exercise more.(×)
但可以说 ... unless you eat less and exercise more.
10、注意状语从句中从句的省略现象
(1)连接词 + 过去分词
Don't speak until spoken to.
Pressure can be incrased when needed.
Unless repaired, the washing machine is no use.
(2)连词 + 现在分词
Look out while crossing the street.
(3)连词 + 形容词/其他
常见的有it necessary、if possible、when necessary、if any等。
8.名词

A专有名词与普通名词
B可数与不可数
C可数名词单数与复数
D所有格
1、英语名词可分专有名词和普通名词两大类:
1、专有名词是个别的人、地、物、团体、机构等的专用名称。
专有名词中实词的第一个字母要大写。
如:Beijing, Tom, the People's Republic of China(中华人民共和国)
   专有名词如果是含有普通名词的短语,则必须使用定冠词the。如:the Great Wall(长城)
   姓氏名如果采用复数形式,则表示该姓氏一家人(复数含义),如:the Greens( 格林一家人)。
 2、普通名词是许多人或事物的共有名称。如:pupil, family, man, foot.
   普通名词又分为可数名词和不可数名词。
  ▲可数名词是可以用简单的数词进行计数的名词,如: box, child, orange;
▲不可数名词是不可以用简单的数词进行计数的名词。如:water, news, oil, population, information .
2、英语可数名词的单复数:英语可数名词有单数和复数两种形式。
 1、名词由单数变复数的基本方法如下:
  ①在单数名词词尾加s。如:map → maps,boy→ boys,horse→ horses, table→ tables.
②s,o,x ,sh,ch结尾的词加es.如:class→classes, box→boxes, hero→heroes, dish→dishes, bench→benches.
   [注]:少数以o结尾的词,变复数时只加s。如:photo→photos, piano→pianos.
  ③以辅音字母加y结尾的名词,变y为i,再加es。如:family→families, city→cities, party→parties.
④以f或fe结尾的名词,变f或fe为v,再加es。如:shelf→shelves, wolf→wolves, life→lives, knife→knives.
2、不规则变化:man→men, woman→women, sheep→sheep,tooth→teeth, fish→fish, child→children, ox→oxen, goose→geese
不可数名词一般没有复数形式,说明其数量时,要用有关计量名词。如:a

bag of rice→two bags of rice, a piece of paper→three pieces of paper, a bottle of milk→five bottles of milk.
3、名词所有格:
1、 名词所有格表示所属关系,相当于物主代词,在句中作定语、宾语或主语。其构成法如下:
(1)表示人或其它有生命的东西的名词常在词尾加's。如:Childern's Day(儿童节), my sister's book(我姐姐的书)
  (2)以s或es结尾的复数名词。只在词尾加'。如:Teachers' Day(教师节)
(3)有些表示时间、距离以及世界、国家、城镇等无生命的名词,也可在词尾加's. 如:
today's newspaper(今天的报纸), ten minutes' break(十分钟的课间休息),
China's population(中国的人口).
(4)无论表示有生命还是无生命的东西的名词,一般均可用介词of短语来表示所有关系。如:
a fine daughter of the Party(党的好女儿).
 2、[注解]:① 's还可以表示某人的家或者某个店铺,如:my aunt's(我阿姨家), the doctor's(诊所)
② 两人共有某物时,可以采用 A and B's 的形式,如:Lucy and Lily's bedroom(露西和丽丽合住的卧室)
③ "of+名词所有格/名词性物主代词",称为双重所有格,如:a friend of my father's(我父亲的一位朋友), a friend of mine(我的一位朋友)
4、名词或代词作主语时和谓语之间的单复数的一致问题:
1、谓语和谓语基本保持单复数的一致,即:主语是可数名词单数或不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数形式:如:The computer was a great invention.(计算机是个了不起的发明)The water in the glass is very cold.(玻璃杯里的水很冷)
 2、集体名词(如family, class, team, group, row, police, school等)做句子主语时,
   ① 如果表示整体概念,则谓语用单数形式,如:Class Three is a very good class.(三班是好班)
   ② 如果表示其中的所有成员时,则谓语用复数形式,如:Class Three have a map of China.(三
    班有张中国地图)
3、Chinese, Japanese, fish, sheep, people等表示单个时谓语用单数,表示许多时,谓语用复数。如:There is a sheep in the yard.(院子里有只绵羊) / There are some sheep in the yard.(院子里有一些绵羊)
4、maths, news等虽然有s结尾,但不是复数,因此谓语仍用单数:The news is very exciting. (这个消息令人兴奋)
 5、glasses, shoes, socks, trousers, gloves等名词往往用复数形式,故谓语用复数。如:
   The trousers are very cheap and I want to take them.(裤子很便宜,我想买)
6、a lot of 后跟名词复数时谓语用复数形式,跟不可数名词时谓语用单数形式。如:A lot of students are playing baseball now.(现在有许多学生在打垒球) A lot of time was wasted on that work.(大量的时间花在了那个工作上)(被动句)
7、and 连接两个名词做主语时,谓语原则上用复数,但是两个名词若构成一个整体事物时,谓语则用

单数。如:The teacher and his son are picking apples now.(老师和他的儿子在摘苹果) / Fish and chips is very famous food. (鱼和薯条是一种出名的食品)
8、 there be 句型中be的单复数一般由靠近的名词决定。如:There is a table and four chairs in the room.(房间里有一张桌子和四张椅子)
9、用both...and...连接两个事物做主语时,谓语一般用复数。如:Both you and I are required to be here tomorrow.(你和我明天要求都来)
10、主语中含有with的短语时,谓语单复数由with之前的人物决定。如:A woman with a 7-year-old child was standing at the side of the road. (一名妇女带着一个七岁的孩子(当时)就站在路边)
11、either...or...或者 neither...nor...连接两个人物做句子主语时,谓语采用就近原则。如:Either you or he is right.(要么是你对,要么是他对。/你和他有一个人是对的) / Neither you nor I am going there.(你和我都不打算去那里)
12、表示一段时间或长度概念的复数名词做主语时,谓语一般用单数。如:Two months is not a short time.(两个月不是个短时间)Two thousand kilometers is quite a long distance(距离).(两千千米是相当长的一段距离)
13、主语中含有half of... / (three quarters)of... / all (of) the ....等词语时,谓语的单复数由名词确定,如:Over three quarters of the information on the Internet is in English.(因特网上四分之三以上的信息是用英语写的) / A third of the students were playing near the lake.(学生的三分之一(当时)正在湖边玩耍) / All of the water in these rivers has been polluted.(这些河流中的水已经被污染了)(被动句)
但是,population一词又有特殊情况: What's the population of China?(中国人口是多少?)(句子用单数) / Three quarters of the population in this city are Arabs(阿拉伯人).(这个城市四分之三的人口是阿拉伯人)(句子用复数)
5、部分名词用法辨析:
1、sport、game、match、race 的区别:sport通常指"户外运动",以锻炼为主,概念较大;game意思是"运动、比赛",不管户内户外还是脑力体力,指以胜负为主的运动;match意为"竞赛、比赛",多指正式比赛;race主要表示"赛跑、赛马、赛车"。如:People all around the world enjoy sports.(全世界的人都喜爱运动) / The 2008 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing.(2008奥运会将在北京举行)(被动句) / Our school football team won the league match(联赛).(我们学校足球队取得了联赛冠军) / They were strong and won the boat race.(汤他们很棒,赢得了划艇比赛)
2、festival、holiday、vacation的区别:festival"节日",指喜庆的日子或持续一段时间的文娱活动;holiday(假日、休息日),指法定假日或风俗习惯,复数可以表示一个较长的假期;vacation"假期",指学习或工作中一段长时间的休息。如:The Shanghai Television Fe

stival will be held next month.(上海电视节将在下个月举行) / Sunday is a holiday and most people do not work.(星期天是个假日,多数人不工作) / What are you going to do during the summer vacation/holidays?(在暑期你打算做什么事情?)
3、journey、tour、trip、travel的区别:journey指在陆地上(或海上或空中)进行的长途旅行,不知终点,含有辛苦的意思;tour指途中作短期逗留的巡回旅行,强调游览多处,常用来指观光等;trip通常指往返定时的短途旅行,如出差度假等;travel多指长期或长途的观光旅行,尤其指到国外,没有明确目的地,也作不可数名词,指旅行这一行为。如:He made up his mind to make the journey to Dunhuang.(他拿定主意要去敦煌旅行)/ He has gone on a walking tour.(他步行观光去了) / He took several trips to Shanghai last yeaar.(去年他去了上海好几次) / Did you go to Santiago(圣地亚哥) during your travels?(旅行期间你去圣地亚哥了吗?) / Travelling through thick forests is dangerous.(在密林里边穿行是很危险的)
4、sound、noise、voice的区别:sound指各种声音;noise主要指"噪音";voice指人的"嗓音"。如:The noise of the street kept me awake in the night.(街上的喧嚣声让我彻夜难眠) / All of a sudden there was the sound of shots and a cry.(突然间传来几声枪响和一声尖叫) / The singer has lost her ringing voice as a result of a bad cold.(因为感冒的缘故,这个歌唱家失去了她银铃般的嗓音)
5、fish的问题:指许多条鱼且不管种类时,用fish,单复数相同;fishes 指许多种类的鱼;fish指"鱼肉"时是不可数名词。如:There are many kinds of fishes in the pool. (池子里有很多种类的鱼)/ I prefer fish to meat.(与肉相比我更喜欢鱼)



19.代词
A人称代词人称代词有两种形式,即:主格和宾格,它们的汉语意思是一样的,但它们的用法却不一致。具体如下:1. 人称代词主格、宾格如下表:
2. 人称代词的用法
  1) 人称代词的主格在句子中只能够作主语。如:
  She is the best student in her class. 她在她的班级里是最好的学生。
  2) 人称代词的宾格在句子中作动词、介词的宾语或表语。如:
  Please give that book to me, Ben! 请把那本书给我,本!
含义介绍:
  1. 形容词性物主代词起形容词的作用,用在名词前。(黑体为形容词性物主代词)
  例:1. This is my book. 这是我的书。
  2. We love our motherland. 我们热爱我们的祖国。
  2. 名词性物主代词起名词的作用。 (黑体为名词性物主代词)
  例:1. Look at the two pencils. The red one is yours and the blue one is mine.
  看那两支铅笔,红的是你的,蓝的是我的。
  2. He likes my pen. He doesn't like hers.
  他喜欢我的钢笔。不喜欢

她的。
  3. 注意:在使用名词性物主代词时,必须有特定的语言环境,也就是要省略的名词大家已经知道,已经提起过。
  例: It's hers. 是她的。
  (单独使用大家不知是怎么回事,不可以这样用。)
  There is a book. It's hers. 这有本书。是她的(书)。
  (这里的hers=her book)
  只有上文提及了某个名词,才会知道名词性物主代词指代的事物。
  4. 名词性物主代词=形容词性物主代词+名词
  
  为避免重复使用名词,有时可用"名词性物主代词"来代替"形容词性物主代词+名词"的形式。
  例:My bag is yellow, her bag is red, his bag is blue and your bag is pink.
  为避免重复使用bag,可写成My bag(形容词性) is yellow, hers(名词性=her bag) is red, his(名词性=his bag) is blue and yours(名词性=your bag) is pink.
[用法:
  1)物主代词既有表示所属的作用又有指代作用.
  例如:
  John had cut his finger; apparently there was a broken glass on his desk.
  约翰割破了手指,显而易见,他桌子上有个破玻璃杯。
  物主代词有形容词性(my, your等)和名词性(mine, yours等)两种,形容词性的物主代词属于限定词。
  名词性的物主代词在用法上相当于省略了中心名词的 --'s属格结构,例如:
  Jack's cap 意为 The cap is Jack's.
  His cap 意为 The cap is his.
  ------
  2) 名词性物主代词的句法功能
  a. 作主语,例如:
  May I use your pen? Yours works better.
  我可以用一用你的钢笔吗? 你的比我的好用。
  b. 作宾语,例如:
  I love my motherland as much as you love yours.
  我爱我的祖国就像你爱你的祖国一样深。
  c. 作介词宾语,例如:
  Your should interpret what I said in my sense of the word, not in yours.
  你应当按我所用的词义去解释我说的话,而不能按你自己的意义去解释。
  d. 作主语补语,例如:
  The life I have is yours. It's yours. It's yours. 我的生命属于你,属于你,属于你。
  例句:This is my case.
  This case is mine.在这里的mine带有"我的(书)"的意思。
  This book belongs to me.
  用名词性物主代词,一般来说,人称代词都要有所变化,特别是I,不是"mys",要注意。
  
主格
宾格
所有格
名词性物主代词
I
me
my
mine
he
him
his
his
she
her
her
hers
you
you
your
yours
it
it
its
its
we
us
our
ours
they
them
their
theirs
  3)名词性物主代词可以用在介词of的后面,相当于"of+名词所有格"。

C指示代词
1. 指示代词的基本用法

指示代词包括this, that, these, those等,它们在句中既可用作代词,也可

用作形容词。一般说来,this, these表"近指",,而that, those则"远指"。

2. 指示代词指上文还是指下文

指上文提到的事多用that,有时用this,指下文的事只能用this。如:

-He was nearly drowned once.

-When was ________?

-________was in 1998 when he was in middle school.

A. that; It B. this; This C. this; It D. that; This

答案是A。指上文提到的事多用that,it指时间。

3. 电话用语中的指示代词

在电话用语中指自己用this,指对方用that,不用I或you。如:

"Who's that?" "This is Mary speaking.""你是哪位?""我是玛丽。"

4. 指示代词受定语从句的修饰

指示代词that, those后可接定语从句,一般说来,that后接which引导的定语从句,those后接who引导的定语从句。如:

They say the only real knowledge is that which can be measured. 据说唯一真实的知识是可以检验的知识。

Only those who had booked in advance were allowed in. 只有那些预先订票的人可以进去。

5. 指示代词用作替代词

that, those有时可用作替代词,用以替代前面提到过的人或事物。如:

My seat is next to that of the mayor. 我的座位在市长座位旁边。

Waves of red light are about twice as long as those of blue light. 红色光线的波长约为蓝色波长的两倍。
20.数词

表示数目和顺序的词叫做数词。数词又分基数词和序数词,基数词表示数量,序数词表示顺序。
4.1基数词的构成和用法
(1)最基本的基数词如下表所示:
(2)基数词的写法
① 21~99 的两位数,十位与个位之间用连字符"-"。例:
◇ 21 twenty-one ◇ 32thirty-two
◇ 98 ninety-eight ◇ 99ninety-nin
e
② 101~999的三位数,百位数和后面的数之间用连词and,百、千等数词一律用单数形式。例

◇ 101 one hundred andone
◇ 225 two hundred andtwenty five
◇ 999 nine hundred andninety-nine
③ 1000以上的数,从后面向前数,每三位中间点",",第一个","前为thousand,第
二个","前为 million,第三个","前为billion。例:
◇ 2,567 two thousand fivehundred and sixty-s
even
◇ 3,018 three thousand andeighteen
(3) 基数词的用法
① 作主语。例:
◇ Ten is a very important number.
十是一个很重要的数字。
◇ Two and three are (is) five.
2加3等于5。
② 作定语。例:
◇ One kilometer is equal to two li.
1公里等于2华里。
◇ She has three brothers.
她有三个兄弟。
③ 作宾语。例:
◇ I wanted three but he gave mefive.
我想要三个,但他给了我五个。
◇ I get up before six every day.
我每天六点之前起床。
④ 作表语。例:
◇ -What time is it?几点钟啦?
-It's ten. 十点。
(4) 疑难点
hundred,thousand和million在

合成数词中一般用单数形式,但是用来表示不定
数目时,用作复数形式。例:
◇ Hundreds of workers will go onstrike.
◇ Thousands of people are swimmingin the river.
此时 hundred,thousand等词前没有数词修饰,且通常其复数形式与of 连用。
4.2 序数词的构成与用法
(1) 序数词的构成
① 一般来说,是由相应的基数词加词尾th构成。例:
◇ four + th → fourth ◇ six + th → sixth
◇ seven + th → seventh ◇ ten + th → tenth
② 下面这些基数词在变为序数词时,有特殊的变化。例:
◇ one → first ◇ two → second ◇ thre
e → third
◇ five → fifth ◇ eight → eighth ◇ nine
→ ninth
◇ twelve → twelfth
③ 十位整数序数词的构成方法是将基数词的词y变成i,然后再加eth。例:
◇ twenty → twentieth ◇ thirty → thirtiet
h
◇ forty → fortieth ◇ ninety → nine
tieth
④ 两位或两位以上的基数词变成序数词时,仅将个位数变成序数词。例:
◇ twenty-one → twenty-first
◇ thirty-five → thirty-fifth
◇ a hundred andfifty-three → a hundred and fi
fty-third
(2) 序数词的用法
① 序数词在使用时,一般加上定冠词。例:
◇ the firstbook ◇ the second floor
◇ the thirdday ◇ the fourth week.
② 序数词在多数情况下都用作定语,有的也可以作表语、主语和宾语。例:
◇ The may 1st is Labour Day.
五月一日是劳动节。
◇ My room is on the second floor.
我的房间在二楼。
◇ The first is larger than thesecond. (主语)
第一个比第二个大。
◇ Read the book from the first.(宾语)
从开头读这本书。
◇ You'll be the sixth to write. (表语)
你将是第六个写的。
③ 序数词的前面可以加上不定冠词,用来表示"再一","又一"的意思。例:
◇ You may have a third try.
你可以第三次尝试。
(3) 时间表示法
① 时间都由基数词表示。例:
◇ It's nine.
现在九点。
◇ It's not five yet.
还不到五点。
有时后面要加o'clock,但在口语中通常省略。
② 几点几分表示法有两种形式。
A.倒读法:与汉语顺序不同,先读"分"后说"点"。30分钟以内,用"分钟数"+past +"
钟点数"表示"几点过几分",超过30分钟,用"分钟数"+ to+ "下一个钟点数"表示"差几
分到几点"。15分钟也可以用a quarter,30分钟也可以用a half。例:
◇ 2:15 a quarter past two
◇ 2:45 a quarter to three
◇ 1:55 five to two
◇ 7:05 five past seven
◇ 5:35 thirty five past five
◇ 9:30 half past nine
只有指几点钟整时才用o'clock,如teno'clock,但不可以说seven past
ten o'clock.
B.顺读法:与汉语顺序相同,连用两个基数词,第一个表示"点钟",第二个表示"分钟"。

例:
◇ 5:40 five forty
◇ 2:30 two thirty
◇ 1:15 one fifteen
这时的15和30不能用a quater, a half代替。
(4) 日期表示法
① 年的读法:用基数词,分成两位一读。例:
◇ 1949 nineteen forty-nine
◇ 1840 eighteen forty
② 月份的名称要大写。例:
◇ January ◇ February ◇ March ◇ April
③ 日期用序数词表示,前面可加the,也可以省略。例:
◇ 5月4日 May (the) fourth
◇ 10月1日 October (the) first
④ 年、月、日的顺序:在英语中, 按月、日、年的顺序来读。例:
◇ 1949年10月1日 October (the) firstnineteen forty-n
ine
◇ 1999年5月1日 May (the) first nineteenninety-nine

表示在"在某年、在某月"用介词in,如in2000,in September,表示"在某日
"用介词on,如on July 8。
(5) 编号的读法
① 表示"第几课(部分,章或节)"时,用序数词时,前面一定要加冠词;用基数词时,不用冠词,但
语序与汉语相反。例:
◇ lesson one → the first lesson
◇ part three → the third part
② 当数字较长时,通常用基数词。例:
◇ 第219页 page 219 (two one nine)
◇ 第306号房间 room 306 (three o〔?藜u〕six)
◇ 第六路公共汽车 bus number six
◇ 电话号码 885316 telephone number885316 (eight eight
five three one six)
(6) 倍数的用法
① The train arrived half an hourlate.
火车晚到了半个小时。
half 是形容词。
② He has three times as many books as I have.
他的书有我的三倍多。
"~的几倍"的说法,两倍用twice,注意表示倍数的词在句中的
22.介词

A时间介词

B地点介词

C其他

23.冠词

24.分词

A现在与过去分词

B现在分词做主语等

C分词做定语








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