用于无生命的东西：the legs of the chair, the cover of the book
用于有生命的东西，尤其是有较长定语时：the classrooms of the first-year students
用于名词化的词：the struggle of the oppressed
1. one, some与any:
One should learn to think of others.
Have you any bookmarks? No, I don’t have any bookmarks.
I have some questions to ask.
Would you like some bananas? Could you give me some money?
3) some 和any修饰可数名词单数时，some表示某个，any表示任何一个。
I have read this article in some magazine. Please correct the mistakes, if any.
There are some 3,000 students in this school. Do you feel any better today?
each强调个别，代表的数可以是两个或两个以上，而every强调整体，所指的数必须是三个或三个以上。 Each student has a pocket dictionary. / Each (of us) has a dictionary. / We each have a dictionary.
Every student has strong and weak points. / Every one of us has strong and weak points.
no等于not any，作定语。none作主语或宾语，代替不可数名词，谓语用单数，代替可数名词，谓语单复数皆可以。 There is no water in the bottle.
How much water is there in the bottle? None.
None of the students are (is) afraid of difficulties.
1) other泛指“另外的，别的”常与其他词连用，如：the other day, every other week, some other reason, no other way,
the other特指两者中的另外一个，复数为the others。如：
He held a book in one hand and his notes in the other.
Two students in our class failed, but all the others passed the exam.
I don’t like this shirt, please show me another (one).
The trousers are too long, please give me another pair / some others.
Some like football, while others like basketball.
5. all和both, neither和either
all表示不可数名词时，其谓语动词用单数。both和all加否定词表示部分否定，全部否定用neither和none. All of the books are not written in English. / Not all of the books are written in English.
Both of us are not teachers. / Not both of us are teachers. / Either of us is a teacher.
1. 同级比较时常常用 as…as…以及not so(as)…as…如：I am not so good a player as you are.
2. 可以修饰比较级的词有：much, many, a lot, even, far, a bit, a little, still, yet, by far, any, a great deal。
3. 表示一方随另一方变化时用“the more…the more…”句型。如：The harder you work, the more progress you will make.
4. 用比较级来表达最高级的意思。如：I have never spent a more worrying day.
Our school is three times larger than yours./Our school is four times as large as yours./Our school is four times the size of yours.
6. 表示“最高程度“的形容词没有最高级和比较级。如：favourite, excellent, extreme, perfect。
I have already read the novel written by the world-famous writer. (已经看过，且了解这本书的内容)
I read the novel last month. (只说明上个月看了，不涉及现在是否记住)
I lived in Beijing for ten years.（只说明在北京住过十年，与现在无关）
两者都可以表示“从过去开始一直持续到现在”，在含义上如着重表示动作的结果时，多用现在完成时，如着重表示动作一直在进行，即动作的延续性时，则多用现在完成进行时。一般不能用于进行时的动词也不能用于现在完成进行时。 I have read that book.我读过那本书了。
I have been reading that book all the morning. 我早上一直在读那本书。
以must为例。must + do(be)是推测现在存在的一般状态进行；must + be doing 推测可能正在进行的事情；must +have done是推测可能已经发生过的事情。
He must be a man from America. / He must be talking with his friend. / He must have already arrived there.
He may not be at home. / They might have finished their task.
The weather in that city could be cold now.
We could have walked there; it was so near.（推测某事本来可能发生，但实际上没有发生）
Can he be in the office now? No, he can’t be there, for I saw him in the library just now.(语气很强，常用于疑问句和否定句中)
1. can和be able to: 都可以表示能力。但be able to可以表达“某事终于成功”，而can无法表达此意。Be able to有更多的时态。另外，两者不能重叠使用。
2. used to和would: used to表示过去常常做现在已经不再有的习惯，而would只表示过去的习惯或喜好，不涉及现在。
做实义动词时可用于肯定句，否定句和疑问句。其形式为：need(needs/needed)/dare(dares/dared) to do, don’t(doesn’t/didn’t) need/dare to do
1. It was not until midnight that he finished his task.
2. Not until he came back from abroad was I able to see him again.
3. The harder you work, the greater progress you will make.
4. He walked around the house, gun in hand.
5. May you be in good health!
6. Wish you a pleasant journey back home!
7. The professor was a humorous man with big nose and deep-set eyes.
8. What surprised me most was his imagination and patience.
9. He lay on the grass, with his eyes looking at the sky and his hands under his head.
10. Sitting under the tree are Mr. Green and his first teacher.
11. On the wall hang two pictures of famous scientists.
12. Looking back upon those past years, he couldn’t help feeling very proud.
13. No sooner(Hardly) had he arrived at the theatre than(when) the play started.
14. Young as he is, he has learned advanced mathematics.
15. How I regret the hours wasted in the woods and fields!
16. There stands a beautiful vase in the corner of the room.
17. Ten miles north of the town lies a paper factory.
18. There goes the bell.
19. Nowhere has the world ever seen such a bird as here.
20. It is no use crying for help.
21. If only I had been your student in the middle school!
22. It is believed that such a thing will not happen again.
23. Only when he explained did I realize the reason for this.
24. “He works particularly hard.” “So he does, and so do you.”
25. Not only Alice but also Jane and Mary are tired of having one examination after another.
26. Such was Albert Einstein, a simple person of great achievements.
十五。动词搭配 1. add to增加，增进 add … to把…加进… add up相加
add up to总计，所有这一切说明
1) I don't think these facts will ________ anything. 2) Fifty new books have been ________ the library. 3) The music _________ our enjoyment of the film.
4) You must have made a mistake when you _______ the bill ________.
( add up to, added to, add to, added…up ) 2. break away from打破，脱离，挣脱，改掉
break down出毛病，身体(精神)衰弱，分解，拆开 break off暂停，中断 break in强行进入，插话 break into闯入
break into pieces成为碎片 break out爆发
break up捣碎，驱散，瓦解，学期结束，拆散 break through突破
1) The criminal managed to break _______ ______ the police and ran into the woods.
2) When he heard the news, he broke _______ and cried. 3) Don't break ________ while others are speaking.
4) Why don't you break ________ for a few minutes and have some coffee?
5) When does school break ________?
6) After harvest we break _________ the soil with a tool pulled by two oxen.
( away from, down, in, off, up, up ) 3. bring up抚养，呕吐，提出 bring about造成 bring out拿出，出版 bring in引入，引进，挣钱 bring back使回想起
1) The shopkeeper brought his price _________ to only five dollars.
2) The school has brought _________ new foreign teachers to teach oral English.
3) The song brought ___________ happy memories of our schooldays.
4) Do you know what brought ___________ this misunderstanding?
5) The kind old man agreed to bring __________ the young orphan.
6) We decided to bring the matter ___ at the next meeting. 7) The wind brought _______ a lot of trees last night. 8) Next month they will bring ________ a new edition
of the book.
( down, in, back, about, up, up, down, out ) 4. call on号召，拜访（某人） call at拜访、参观（某地） call for去叫某人, 要求, 需要 call up使回忆起, 征召入伍 call in召集，请某人来 call out大喊，高叫 call off取消，不举行
1) Doctors are often called _____ in the middle of the war. 2) Please wait for me at home. I'll call _______ you at your house at seven tonight.
3) The trains calls _______ several big cities between Beijing and Guangzhou.
4) He called her name __________, but she didn't answer. 5) The sports meet was called ____ on account of the rain. ( in, for, at, out, off)
5. come about发生，出现
come down下跌，落，降，传下来 come in进来
come into (sight/being/existence/use/notice/effect) come on来临/ 快点 come out出版，结果是 come along一道来，赶快
come to达到 (an end/an agreement/a stop)苏醒，合计，总共是
come over走过来 come up发芽，走近 come across偶然碰到 come back回想起 come from来自，源自
1) I come _________ the book I lent you last month.
2) How did it come _________ that you both got lost? I thought you had a map.
3) It suddenly came _________ to me where I had seen the boy before.
4) Come __________ now, or else we shall be late. 5) He came __________ me like a tiger.
6) The price of petrol has come _________ since the beginning of this year.
7) The word came __________ use many years ago.
8) When the examination result came _________, he had already got a job.
9)The bill came __________ over a thousand dollars. 10) I sowed the seeds over a month ago, but they haven't come __________ yet.
( for, about, back, on, at, down, into, out, to, up )
6. cut across抄近路 cut down砍倒，削减
cut off切断，割掉，断绝关系 cut up连根拔除，切碎 through剪断，凿穿
cut out删（省）掉，戒掉 cut in插嘴
1) Don't cut ___ this tree. It will be very shady in summer. 2) You must cut ________ the number of cigarettes you smoke, or it will cause illness.
3) We decided to cut _________ the moor（旷野） to the village.
4) Cutting the tree ____ means cutting the tree into pieces. 5) The electricity was cut ___________ when the lady refused to pay the bill.
6) We were having a pleasant conversation when Tom cut __________.
（down, down, across, up, off, in ）
7. die of (disease/hunger/grief/old age)死于（疾病，饥饿，寒冷，情感原因）
die from死于（意外事故、情形） die away渐渐消逝 die out绝种
die down(炉火)渐熄 die off逐一死去 8. fall behind落后
fall over one's feet 跌跤 fall down掉下，跌倒 fall back撤退，后退
1) Babies often fall _____ when they are learning to walk. 2) Our team seems to have fallen __________ the others. 3) As soon as the enemies fell __________, the people returned to their village.
4) She fell__________ the bench and had her leg broken. （down, behind, back, over ） 9. go in for从事，喜爱，参加 go through通过，经受 go over复习，检查
go up（价格）上涨，建造起来 go after追捕，追赶 go against违反
go ahead先行，开始吧，问吧，说吧 go away离开 go by时间过去
go down下沉，降低，（日、月）西沉 go on(with)继续进行 go with相配，陪同 go without没有，缺少 go out外出，熄灭 go all out全力以赴 go off爆炸，进行，变坏，断电，停止供应 go back on背约，食言 go beyond超出
1) Many new factories have gone __ in the past few years. 2) Rents have gone __________ greatly recently.
3) Many years have gone ___________ since we first met. 4) Let's continue our journey until the sun goes _______. 5) His actions went ___________ the will of the people, 6) I can't do it, for it goes ___________ my duty.
7) Over 100 students went ____________ this entrance examination.
8) The bomb went ____________ and killed ten people. 9) The buyer went ___________ the car carefully before reaching a decision.
10) This tie doesn't go ___________ my blue shirt. 11) If you think you can solve the problem, go ______. 12) Many students went __________ playing basketball. (up, up, by, down, against, beyond, through, off, over, with, ahead, in for )
10. get down下来，记下，使沮丧 get down to致力于，专心于
get on进展，进步，穿上，上车 get off脱下,下车
get over忘记，越过，克服，从疾病中恢复 get along with进展，相处 get up起床
get through打通电话，完成，通过 get round消息传开
get close to sth. 接近，几乎 get into (trouble) get to (know)
get back取回，收回 get out
1) She spoke so fast that I couldn't get ____ what he said. 2) We will find ways to get _________ difficulties.
3) The story has got __________, and everyone knows about it.
4) When I get _________ with the report, I'll go to the cinema.
5) After a delicious meal the two men got __________ to business.
6) Don't always get __________ a word when others are speaking.
7) It took me a long time to get ___________ such an unpleasant experience.
(down, over, round, through, down, in, over) 11. give away赠送，泄露，出卖
give off发出（光、热、气体） give in (to sb.) 屈服
1) His accent at last gave him __________. 2) The liquid gave ________ a strong smell.
3) The headmaster gave ___________ the names of the prize-winners.
4) The soldiers gave _________ the town to the enemies. 5) Who will help me to give the books ___________? 6) Don't believe in those who give his friends ________. 7) After a long walk, my strength gave ____________. (away, off, out, up, out, away, out) 12. hand in交上，提交 hand out分发
hand down流传，遗传 13. hang about闲逛 hang up挂电话
14. hold back阻止，隐瞒 hold up举起，使停顿
hold on别挂电话，等，坚持 hold out持续，坚持，伸出 hold down控制，镇压
1) I'm sure he is holding something _________.
2) She managed to hold ______ her emotion until her guests had left. Then she cried.
3) Tell him to hold ________ a moment. I'll come soon. 4) Our food supply won't hold _________ for more than a few days.
5) The train was held ________ as a result of the floods. 6) These measures helped to hold ___________ the city's population.
7) Hold ___________ your left arm, please. (back, back, on, out, up, down, up)
15. keep up (courage, English, spirits)保持， keep up with跟上
keep off (grass)不接近，离开
keep away from避开，不接近，离…远远的 keep out of
keep to (rules, promise)坚持，遵守 keep on继续，坚持下来
keep back阻止，留下，隐瞒，扣下 keep from克制，阻止
1) The angry lady told the strangers to keep ________ from her.
2) I can hardly keep ________ my tears after hearing his words.
3) Only pride kept her __________ bursting into tears. 4) I can scarcely keep __________ asking him what he has done.
5) "Don't touch me," screamed the woman, "Keep __________!" 6) Keep _________ until you succeed.
7) Keep _________ your courage, and you'll succeed in the end.
8) The thick coat can keep the cold ___________.
9) Always try to keep ___________ the rules when you play a game.
10) I can't keep ________ with everything you're doing. (away, back, from, from, off, on, up, out, to, up) 16. knock at/on敲
knock into撞到某人身上 knock down撞倒 knock out of把…敲出 knock over撞倒
1) The boxer soon knocked his opponent _________. 2) The office stuff knocks _________ at six every day. 3) Try knocking __________ the window and see if there is anyone indoors.
4) He was so absorbed in his book that he knocked __________ the car parked there. (down, off, on, into) 17. leave for离开前往 leave out删去，遗漏
leave behind遗留,忘记拿走 leave to留给，遗嘱赠于 leave over遗留，剩下，延期
1) "Whose name has been left __________?" demanded the teacher.
2) When he died, he left all his property _____ his niece. 3) He suddenly realized that he had left his umbrella ___________.
4) Don't leave this matter _________ until tomorrow. 5) Leave some meat ___________ for tomorrow. 6) Those are questions left _________ by history. (out, to, behind, over, over, over) 18. look up查找，向上看 look through翻阅，浏览 look on旁观 look on…as看作 look into调查
look after/ at / for 照顾/看/寻找 look out(for)当心
look about / around/round四下查看 look down upon瞧不起 look back upon回忆，回顾
look ab. up and down仔细打量某人 look ab in the face/eyes直视某人
1) I spent two hours looking ______ the students' papers. 2)Look _______! There is a big hole in front.
3) He took part in the game, and the rest of us just looked ______ and cheered for him.
4) The old man looked _____ upon the days of his youth. 5) She was so snobbish（势利）that she looked __________ upon all his neighbours.
6) The police promised to look __________ the case as soon as possible.
7) He looked __________ but saw nobody, and he listened but hear nothing.
(through, out, on, back, down, into, about/around/round) 19. make up编造，配制，打扮，组成 make up for弥补
make into / of / from 制成
make out弄懂，发现，看出,填写，开列（清单） make for走向，驶往，促使
1) Can you make this length of cloth __________ a suit? 2) I asked the driver if he was making ___________ London?
3) My father made __________ a check for me to buy the camera.
4) We must make the loss _________ next week./ He tried hard to make ________ for the damage he had done.
5) He made __________ a story, which I found hard to believe.
6) Someone is coming, but I can't make ___________ who it is.
(into, for, out, up/up, up, out) 20. pass away去世 pass by经过
pass down(on)…to传给 pass through经历 pass over漠视，忽视
1) The old clock has been passed ________ to me from my grandfather's grandfather.
2) The man passed ___________ last week in peace. 3) We are passing ____________ difficult times.
4) The secretary passed ___________ the details in the first part of his report.
(down, away, through, over) 21. pay back还钱，报复
pay for付钱，为…受到惩罚，因…得到报应 pay off还清
1) How much did you pay __________ the dictionary? 2) You should pay _________ the money you borrowed from me.
3) I'll pay him ____________ for all his crimes(罪行) against me.
4) Some day, you'll pay __________ what you have done today.
5) Has she pay ____________ the debt yet? （for, back, back, for, off）
22. pick up拾起，获得(information)，接人，站起，收听，自然习得(language
/knowledge)，恢复重获(pick up health) pick out挑选，辨认，看出
1) I picked the information __________ while waiting in the queue.
2) My friend has arranged to pick me _________ at 6:00. 3) The patient has picked _________ health during the last two weeks.
4) She picked _______ the most expensive pair of shoes. 5) I can't pick John ___________ in the crowd.
6) Can I pick __________ VOA with this short-wave radio?
7) He fell down suddenly, but picked himself ___________ quickly.
(up, up, up, out, out, up, up)
23. put up搭起，张贴，举起，安装，投宿，安排住下 put up with忍受 put out伸出，扑灭 put off推迟
put into放进，翻译 put away放好，存钱 put down记下，平息
put on穿戴，上映，增加(put on weight/speed) put forward 提出，提前 put through 接通电话 put aside放到一边 put back放回
1) He put _________ half his wage every week.
2) The government soon put __________ the revolt（暴乱）.
3) Put your watch __________. It's slow.
4) He put __________ his hand for me to shake.
5). Please put me __________ to Extension（分机）2. 6) We put ___________ for night at the village inn. 7) He is very proud, and he often put _________ airs.（摆架子）
8) We had a telephone put _____________ in our office. 9) I can't put __________ with your laziness.
(away, down, forward, out, through, up, on, up, up) 24. pull down拆掉，推翻 pull on匆匆穿上 / off 脱 pull in进站 pull out取出,(火车)离站 pull down往下拉,拆毁 pull over驶到一边 pull through恢复健康,渡过难关,脱离险境 pull up（使）停住
1) The train slowly pulled __________ and disappeared in the distance.
2) All the old houses here have now been pulled ______, and new ones are to be built.
3) The car pulled _________ when I blew the horn.
4) The doctor thinks the man will pull __________. 5) The driver pulled ________ at the traffic lights. (out, down, over, through, up) 25. push over推倒，刮倒
push ahead(on, forward)继续前进，坚持下去
1) We've decided to push __________ with our plan to build a new road
2) Many trees were pushed __________ in the hurricane. 3) They were determined to push the new rules ________ at any cost..
4) Take care not to push the baby _________.
5) They pushed ___________ the crowd and at last reached us.
(on, over, through, over, through )
26. run across偶然碰到 run after追逐，追捕 run away逃跑 run for竞选 run into偶然碰到（困难）遇见（人），相撞 run out of用完
1) If you drive so fast, you'll run _________ someone some day.
2) I ran __________ a friend of mine in the exhibition. 3) Our water has run __________. Can you fill up some more bottles?
4) Why do you always run __________ adventure?
5) He didn't want to run ___________ president that year.
6) In that way you will only run __________ difficulties. ( into, across/into, out, after, for, into) 27. see off送行
see through看透，识破 see to照料，照管 28. send for派人去请 send off送行
send out发出（光亮）等 send up发射 29. set up建立
set out动身，着手(to do)，陈述 set about开始着手(doing) set to work(n.)开始做 set back拨回，使推迟
1) I shall set my watch ___________ by five minutes. 2) We set __________ reading the text aloud immediately the bell rang.
3) We set _________ at daybreak yesterday and we've been travelling ever since then.
4) I set __________ to advise him not to drink.
5) What were the reasons he set ___________ in his report? 6) The president set __________ a special group of soldiers to guard him.
7) The unpopular law set _________ a series of protests.（抗议）
(back, about, off/out, out, out, up, off)
30. take off脱掉，起飞 take on呈现 雇佣 take away拿走 take in吸收，领会 take up从事，占用（时间空间）
take down记录，取下 take back收回 take for误认为 take along随身带 take over接管 take out
1) I take _________ all I said about his dishonesty.
2) He went to the shelf and took __________ a book of poems.
3) At first I took him _________ a doctor.
4) I can see that most of you have taken ________ everything that the teacher taught.
5) Bill has now taken __________ his father's business. 6) My job takes __________ most of my time.
7) The boss took ____________ twenty people for his new company.
(back, down, for, in, over, up, on)
take charge of负责, take sth. for granted想当然, take hold of抓住, take pride in以… ……为自豪, take the place of, 代替take turns to do轮流做, take office就职
31. think of想起 think of…as把…看作 think out想出 think up想出
think about考虑 think over仔细考虑 think well of sb. 对某人看法好 32. turn off / on打开
turn over翻身，反复考虑，翻（书页），翻转 turn out证明为，结果，制造成品 turn to转向，求助 turn down调低，拒绝 turn against变得敌视，反对
turn away打发走，驱逐，转过脸去 turn back返回，转回去 turn round转过身来
turn up向上翻，露面，出现，音量调大 turn in上缴
turn upside down把倒置，弄得乱七八糟
1) The child turned __________ its mother for comfort. 2) Turn ___________ and let me see your face.
3) However much he turned the problem ________ in mind, he could find no satisfactory solution.
4) The English evening party turned _________ a great success.
5) The sight of the accident was too much for her to bear, and she turned _______.
6) The football stadium was full, and many people had to be turned __________.
7) The army turned him ___________ on account of (因为) his poor health.
8) She turned the whole house ___________ in her search for her missing purse.
9) Where did your purse turn ____________? I found it in the snow.
10) The villagers suddenly turned __________ the foreigners who lived nearby.
11) The factory turns ____________ 2000 new cars last year.
(to, round, over, out, away, away, down, upside down, up, against, out)