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初中语法-被动语态

发布时间:2013-11-24 10:39:41  

被动语态

主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。

被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,一般说来,只有需要动作对象的及物动词才有被动语态。汉语往往用"被"、"受"、"给"等词来表示被动意义。

如:He opened the door.他打开了这扇门。(主动语态)

The door was opened.这扇门被打开了。(被动语态)

一、被动语态的时态及结构(以动词do为例)

结构:主语 + be + 过去分词

时态:1. 一般现在时: am (is, are) done.

2. 带情态动词的被动语态:must (can, may, should, need, would) be done

3. 一般过去时: was (were) done

4. 一般将来时: will (shall) be done

5. 现在进行时: am (is, are) being done

6. 现在完成时: have (has) been done

例:He opened the door.他开了门。(主动句)

门被开了。(被动句)

二、被动语态的用法

1.不知道或没有必要说明动作的执行者是谁。

例如:This book was published in 1981. (publish出版)

这本书出版于1981年。(没有必要或说出出版者)

2.强调动作的承受者,而不强调动作的执行者。

例如:The wind 窗户是迈克打破的。

这本书是鲁迅写的。

三、主动语态变被动语态的方法

1.把主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语。

2.把谓语变成被动结构(be+过去分词)

3

All the people laughed at him. 改为:

They make the bikes in the factory. 改为:

歌诀是:宾变主,主变宾,by短语后面跟。

四、含有情态动词的被动语态

We can repair this watch in two days.

改为:This watch can be repaired in two days.

We must finish this work soon.

改为:This work must be finished soon.

五、主动变被动语态需要注意的几个问题.

(1)时态保持一致。

I repaired my computer. 改为:My computer was repaired.

(2)谓语为动词短语的被动语态不能丢掉动词短语的介词或副词。

His best friend often looks after him.

改为:(3)主动语态中若有双宾语,将其中一个宾语变为被动句的主语,另一个宾语不变

Linda gave me a book.

(双宾语,me为间接宾语,a book为直接宾语)

改为:I was given a book by Linda.

或者:(直接宾语提前时,要在间接宾语前加介词)

(4)主动语态句中动词make, have, let(使sb.做sth.), see. watch, look at, hear, listen to, feel等变成被动语态时,后面的不定式需要加上to.

Mr. Lee made him wash the dishes.

改为:(5)有些动词不能用于被动语态,例如take place/happen/come true/break out/belong to等。 All your dreams will come true if you try your best.

(6)感官动词不用于被动语态,例如look/sound/smell/taste等。

例如:The flowers smell sweet.

The flowers are smelt sweet.

六.当说话人需要强调客观时,用被动语态。

It is said that the temperature tomorrow will be 40℃.

据说明天的气温将要达到摄氏40度。

It is hoped that they will be successful.

希望她们会获得成功。

It is believed that... 据信,大家相信

It is known that... 众所周知

It is supposed that... 大家认为

It is suggested that... 据建议,有人建议

It must be remembered that... 务必记住

It is taken for granted that... ……被认为理所当然

初中英语被动语态专项练习

( ) 1 The People's Republic of China ___ on October 1, 1949.

A. found B. was founded C. is founded D. was found

( ) 2 English ____ in Canada.

A. speaks B. are spoken C. is speaking D. is spoken

( )3 This English song___ by the girls after class.

A. often sings B. often sang C. is often sang D. is often sung

( ) 4 This kind of car ___ in Japan.

A, makes B. made C. is making D. is made

( ) 5 New computers ___ all over the world.

A. is used B. are using C. are used D. have used

( ) 6 Our room must ___ clean.

A. keep B. be kept C. to be kept D. to keep

( ) 7 -I'd like to buy that coat.

-I'm sorry. ___. A. it sold B. it's selling C. It's been sold D. it had been sold

( )8A new house ___ at the corner of the road.

A. is building B. is being built C. been built D. be building

( ) 9 The key ___ on the table when I leave.

A. was left B. will be left C. is left D. has been left

( ) 10 Doctors ___ in every part of the world.

A. need B. are needing C. are needed D. will need

( )11 His new book___ next month.

A. will be published B. is publishing

C. is being published D. has been published

( ) 12 Japanese ___ in every country.

A. is not spoken B. are spoken C. is speaking D. is not speaking

( ) 13 These papers___yet.

A. have not written B. have not been written

C. has not written D. has not been written

( ) 14 The sports meet ___ be held until next week.

A. didn't B. won't C. isn't D. doesn't

( ) 15 -My shoes are worn out.

A. Can't they be mended? B. Let me have a look at it.

C. How much do they cost? D. Can't they mended?

( ) 16 ___ the watch been repaired yet? I badly need it.

A. Does B. Has C. Is D. Are

( ) 17___ these desks be needed? A. Will B. Are C. Has D. Do

( ) 18 Why ___ to talk about it yesterday?

A. didn't a meeting hold B. wasn't a meeting held

C. wasn't held a meeting D. a meeting wasn't held

( ) 19 Who was the book___?

A. write B. wrote C. written D. written by

( ) 20 Where ___ these boxes

A. was B. were C. is D. am

( )21 The flowers___often.

A. must be water B. must be watered C. must watered D. must water

( ) 22 The books may___ for two weeks.

A. be kept B. be borrowed C. keep D. borrow

( ) 23 The broken bike____ here by Mr Smith.

A. can mend B. can mended C. can be mend D. can be mended

( ) 24 The old bridge in my hometown___ next month.

A. is going to be rebuilt B. will rebuilt

C. are going to be rebuilt D. are going to rebuilt

( ) 25 The play ___ at the theatre next Sunday.

A. is going to be shown B. will shown C. will show D. is shown

( ) 26 The old stone bridge ___ next week.

A. is going to be rebuilt B. will be rebuild

C. are going to be rebuilt D. will rebuild

( )27Now these magazines___ in the library for a long time.

A. have kept B. are keeping C. have been keeping D. have been kept

( ) 28The pot ___ for ___ hot water.

A. used; keeping B. was used; keeping C. is used; to keep D. are used; keep

( )29Tea ___ in the south of China.

A. grows B. is grown C. were grown D. will grow

( ) 30 The bridges___ two years ago.

A. is built B. built C. were built D. was built

( ) 31 Wet clothes are often ___ up near a fire in rainy weather.

A. hang B. hanged C. hanging D. hung

( )32 The river smells terrible. People must ___ dirty things into it.

A. be stopped to throw B. be stopped from throwing

C. stop to throw D. stop from throwing

( ) 33 The teapot ___ water.

A. is filled with B. filled of C. fulling of D. filled

( ) 34Old people must be looked after well and ___ politely.

A. speak to B. spoken C. speak D. spoken to

( ) 35 Old people must ___.

A. look after well B. be looked well after

C. looked well after D. be looked after well

( ) 36 Newly-born babies___in hospital.

A. are taken good care B. are taken good care of

C. take good care of D. take good care

( )37 They were___ at the sudden noise.

A. frightening B. frightened C. frighten D. frightens

( )38These walls___stone.

A. are made of B. made of C. are made into D. made into

( ) 39 Jane ___ to sing us an American song last Saturday.

A. called B. was asked C. told D. was said

( )40 The papers ___ to them.

A. were shown B. show C. shown / D. have shown

( ) 41 The coat___her sister.

A. made to B. were made for C. was made for D. was made to

( ) 42 I___ five minutes to decide whether I should go or not.

A. gave B. was giving C. had given D. was given

( ) 43 Good care____such things.

A. should take of B. should be taken C. should be taking D. should be taken of

( ) 44She will____good care____.

A. take; of B. be taken; of C. take; for you D. be taken; of you

( )45The teacher made him___ his homework.

A. to do B. do C. did D. done

( ) 46 The boy___ streets without pay in the old days.

A. was made to clean B. made clean C. made to clean D. was made clean

( ) 47 These children____dance.

A. were seen to B. were seen for C. were seen D. saw to

( ) 48 These stones___well.

A. are fitted B. fit C. fits D. is fitted

( )49 The bike ___ 500 yuan.

A. was cost B. costed C. cost D. is costed

( )50 The important meeting ___ on a cold morning last year.

A. was had B. was held C. held D. had

( ) 51 Great changes___ in the past ten years in China.

A. took place B. have taken place C. were taking place D. had taken place

( ) 52 You can't use the computer, it____.

A. was broken down B. is wrong C. is bad D. has broken down

( ) 53 Great changes___in our country during the past 20 years.

A. have happened B. happened C. have been happened D. were happened

( ) 55 The watch has often ___ down.

A. sat B. lain C. broken D. fell

( ) 56 Please pass me another cup. This one___.

A. is broken B. is breaking C. broke D. broken

( ) 57 The story books___ by the writer in the 1960s.

A. are written B. were written C. are writing D. were writing

( ) 58 What time ___ the door ___ every day?

A. does; closed B. does; close C. is; closed D. /; close

( )59 Can he___himself?

A. get dress B. get dressed C. gets dressed D. instead of

( )60 He fell from his bike and ___.

A. is hurt B. gets hurt C. got hurt D. hurt

( ) 61 -What do you think of the TV play?

-Wonderful. It is worth___ a second time.

A. watching B. watched C. seen D. seeing

( ) 62 How dirty the tables are! They need___.

A. to clean B. clean C. cleaning D. cleaned

( ) 63 The book is worth ___.

A. seeing B. reading C. seen D. read

二、将下列主动句转换成被动句。

1.I gave my cousin a toy at Christmas. (give-given)

__________________________________________________

2. They should do it right now.(do-done)

__________________________________________________

3. People in the town laugh at Mike.

__________________________________________________

4.I saw a dog crossing the road.(see-seen)

__________________________________________________

5.Young people must take good care of old people.(take-taken) __________________________________________________

6.He didn't give the dictionary to me yesterday.(give-given) __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

三、将下列句子变为被动语态,每空一词。

1. We can finish the work in two days.

The work _____ _____ _____ in two days.

2. The children will sing an English song.(sing-sung) An English song _____ ____ _____ by the children.

3. You needn't do it now. (do-done)

It _____ _____ _____ by you now.

4. Lucy sent me a New Year Card last week. (sent-sent)

A New Year Card ____ _____ ____ her by me last week.

5.I give this book to the library. (give-given)

This book ____ ____ to the library.

6.We'll put on an English play in our school.(put-put) An English play ____ ____ _____ on in our school.

7.More and more farmers buy color TV sets. (buy-bought) Color TV sets ___ ___ ___ more and more farmers.

8.We must water the flowers every day.

The flowers must ___ ______ (by us) every day.

9.They use knives for cutting things.

Knives ____ _______(by them) for cutting things.

10.We clean the classroom every day.

The classroom ____ _______(____ ____) every day.

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