现在 或时间2 或时间1 表示过去动作影响或持续到现在 （have/has +done）
（2012宜宾） —Yes, I the team two years ago. I in the team for two years.
A. have joined; have been B. was joined; am C. joined; was D. joined; have been ②— Do you know the moving story of Jack and Rose?
— the film Titanic several times. （2012淮安）
A. see B. saw C. have seen D. had seen
③Our English teacher is very nice. We _____ friends since three years ago.
A. were B. became C. have been D. have made （2012广东） ④---Where is your father?---He_____ Australia and he_____ Sydney for two weeks. （2012梅州）
A. has been to; has been in B. has gone to ; has been in
C. has been in; has been to D. has gone to ; has been to
⑤Tony is very nice. He is the most enjoyable person I . （2012乐山）
B. have ever met C. had ever met
③“截止到”：by the time+句子（一般过去时）；by the end of+过去时间
2.汉意“过去的过去发生，影响/持续到过去” 3.谓语动词形式： had done
4.句式变化“一切句式变化围绕助动词→had” 5.（局部）语法通顺，（整体）汉意通顺 ①The plane （起飞）when we got to the airport. （2012淮安） ②By the time I got to the cinema, the movie _______ for ten minutes. （2011淄博）
A. had begun B. had been on C. has started D. has been on
③By the end of last month, I _____ all the CDs of Justin Bieber. （2011上海）
A. collect B. collected C. have collected D. had collected
④－Did the old soldiers from Taiwan enjoy the welcome party last Friday? （2012无锡） －Yes. They were so excited to see their friends again. Most of them _____(not see) each other since 1949.
⑤ 到2011年底为止，你父母已经去过好几个国家了吗? （2012常州）
⑥ I didn’t remember when and where I __________ this umbrella. （2012武汉）
A. buy B. have bought C. will buy D. had bought
⑦ Mary __ an article carefully when the boss went to get a CD he ___in the office. （2009南通）
A. typed; left B .was typing; had forgotten
C. had typed; had left
D. was typing; had left
（2）否定形式，表示“不应该做”。should not ；ought not to（oughtn’t to）
（3）多数情况下should/ought to 意思相同。should比ought to语气轻。
①—Wow! You are cool! — I wear my school uniform, but it’s washed and wet. （2012淄博）
A. should B. can
C. may D. will [
②In order to speak English better, we be afraid of losing face. Because the most
important thing is to practice. Remember, practice makes perfect. （2011黑龙江）
A. should B. shouldn't C. have to
③ol uniforms when they’re at schoo1． （2010黄冈）
C. would like to D. 1ove to
①I think we make some food by ourselves instead of buying some. (2012东营)
A. used to B. prefer to C. had better D. are supposed to ②—Oh , I had a terrible toothache.—You’d better see a dentist and have your bad teeth pulled out.
A. to go to B. going to C. goes to D. go to （2012宜宾） ③Although shopping online is fast and easy, you’d better (not be) crazy about it. (2012常州)
④— You’d better not eat too much salt. It’s bad for your health. —_________. （2011宁波）
A. Not at all B. You’re welcome C. It doesn’t matter D. Thanks for your advice ⑤—Excuse me, but can I sit here?—_____.The man who sat here will he back soon. (2012南通)
D. You'd better not
它和―why don’t you‖句型为同义句，即why not do sth? 和Why don’t you do sth?
（2）―perhaps‖表示―可能‖，一般放在句首向对方提一个建议或猜测。 ①----Why not __ John a toy car for his birthday?----Good idea! He is crazy about cars. （2012徐州） A. buy B. buying C. to buy D. buys ②为何不给她买个相机作为生日礼物呢？ （2012日照） ______ ______ you get her a camera as a birthday present? ③—Why not go out and have a picnic tomorrow, Simon? (2010南通) —_________, but I will help Li Ming with his lessons. He is new here. A. Let’s go B. All right C. Yes, please D. I’d love to ④--A nice day today, isn't it'? --Yes. go for a picnic and relax ourselves?（2012呼和浩特） A. Would you like C. What about D. Why don't ⑤一It might be cool to see a film this afternoon． 一Yes，________? （2012潍坊） A. why not B. so what C. why D. what ⑥－Oh, my God! I can't find my key to the office.
have to→（2）must 侧重（说话人主观意志）；have to侧重（客观需要）
①People ______always be careful with fire，or it can be dangerous. （2012吉林）
A. can B. had better C. need D. must ②—You__be excited that you're going back to your hometown soon.— Yes, I can't wait any longer.
A.shall B.can C.need D.must (2012包头) ③—Can I walk across the road now, mum?— No, you___.You have to wait until the light turns green.
A. couldn't B. shouldn't C. mustn't D. needn't （2012南通） ④-______ I do the laundry first?-No,you _____. You can do your homework first. (2012黄冈)
A. Must; mustn’t B. Can; mustn’t C. Must; needn’t D. May; needn’t ⑤Ben was busy taking a training class. So we ______ wait for himfor half an hour. （2012广东）
A. could B. had to C. must ⑥– What do you want to eat for lunch? I will prepare earlier today. （2012宁波）
-- Honey, you ________. Let’s go out have something different. A. mustn’t B. can’t C. shouldn’t D. don’t have to
⑤the last few years of one's life 某人生命中的最后几年
⑥★have an (bad) effect on sb对某人有(坏的)影响
⑦★silence(n)寂静、沉默→ silent (adj)寂静的
（2）冠词 ①an actress 一个女演员 ②an all-time… 一个空前的…
③an angel 一个天使 ④an action film 一部动作片 [
⑤★an attractive quality 一种有吸引力的品质 ⑥ an experienced …一个有经验的…
last walk 她最后一次散步
into… 把精力投入到… put one's heart into… 全神贯注于… 被改编成戏剧
⑤enter the film industry = go into the film industry 进入电影行业
enter（vt）后不能加into= (go into / come into ) (entrance→名词)
⑥★attract one’s attention 吸引某人的注意力
⑨sb … 某人赢得… 荣誉
sb with sth = present sth to sb
sth 有机会做某事 爱上某人
act inmark the beginning of…标志…的开始
⑥be suitable for ( all ages) 适合于(所有年龄的人)
⑦★★famous/known for 因… 而出名
⑨★ French (adj)法国（人）的，法语的 /
⑩ the one-and-a-half-hour film一个半小时的电影
（6）副词 ①shortly after… = soon after… 在…不久之后 (常用于过去时)
shortly before… = not long before…在…前不久
②★★immediately = at once 立刻,马上 ③work与…密切合作 ④pass away = die (peacefully) (平静地)去世,辞世
⑤★out of breath 上气不接下气(hold one's breath 屏住呼吸)
⑥anyway (adv) 总之（一般在句首）
⑦aloud, loud 和 loudly的共同含义是“大声地”。其区别是：
in one's lifetime在某人的一生中
超越, 超出 ⑤be based on… 以…为基础
⑨end /结束 … 以…开始
herself was an angel.
（8）连词not only/just …but (also)…不但…而且…(谓语动词→临近原则)
②be about to do sth when+从句 将要做某事,突然…
①Action! 开始②Good take! 干地好③Stand by! 准备 ④Take two! 再来一次