宾 语 从 句
引导词 that 陈述句 if/whether 一般疑问句 疑问词 特殊疑问句 陈述语序 语序：
主句为现在时态，从句可以是需要 的任何时态 主句为过去时态，从句应使用相 应的过去的时态。 时态： 从句如果描述的是客观真理、科 学理论等则永远用一般现在时态。
直接引语： 直接引述别人的原话.直 接引语的前后必须加引号。 间接引语： 转述别人的话。间接引 语前后不加引号。
1）直接引语为陈述句 2）直接引语为疑问句（一般疑问句、特殊 疑问句） 3）直接引语为祈使句
直接引语如果是陈述句，变为间接引语时， 用 连词that引导，that在口语中常省略。主句的谓 语动词可直接用引语中的say, 也可用tell来代替， 注意，可以说say that, tell sb. that，不可直接 说tell that
e.g. He often says,“China is great.” → He often says (that) China is great. Tom says,“I am a student.” → Tom says (that) he is a student. He says,“I leave my book in your room” → He said (that) he left his book in your room.
一般疑问句 间接引语用连词whether或if引导，原主句中谓 语动词say要改为ask ，语序要变为陈述语序
? He said, “Do you have any difficulty with pronunciation?”
asked (me) whether/if I had any difficulty with my pronunciation. ? He said, “You are interested in English, aren't you?” ? He asked whether I was interested in English.
注意：大多数情况下，if ,whether 可以互换，但句中 出现or (not),或放在介词后作连接词，只用whether。 ? He asked, “Do you speak English or French?”
? He asked me whether I spoke English or French.
? I asked, “Will you take bus or take train?”
? I asked him whether he would take bus or take train. ? “Is he all right?”They cried out. ? They cried out whether he was all right.
原来的疑问词作为间接引语的连词，主 句的谓语动词用ask(sb. )来表达，语序 改为陈述句语序
? He said to me，“What's your name?” ? He asked me what my name was. ? He asked us, “How many car factories have been built in your country?” ? He asked us how many car factories had been built in our country.
直接引语是祈使句，则改为 tell/order/ask sb. (not) to do sth. 其他变化同上。
He said, “Please come here tomorrow.”
He asked me to go there the next day.
The teacher said, “Don’t talk any more.”
The teacher told us not to talk any more.
引号内的第一人 称变间引后与主 句主语的人称保 持一致 引号内的第二人 称变间引后与主 句宾语的人称保 持一致
一 随 主
二 随 宾 三 不 变
She said,“ I like She said that she liked tennis Tennis.” He said to Lily, He told Lily that “ you must get she must get up up early” early
She said to me , She told me that 引号内的第三人 称在变间引后去人 “ They want to That they wanted help him” help him 称不变
1) He said,“ My brother failed in the exam.” He said ____brother had failed in the exam. his 2) He said to Mary,“ How is your mother now?” he asked Mary how _____mother was then. her
3)My teacher said, ?? she is a good student. ?? she My teacher said ____was a good student 4) He said to me,“ I?ve left her book in your he her room” my He told me that ___had left ___ book in ___ room.
1." We want you to take a message for her." said the Greens.
The Greens told me that theywanted me to take a message for her .
2."Are you willing to lend us a hand?" she said to him. She asked him whether he was willing to lend them a hand.
He says,“Is Tom a student or a teacher？” → He asks whether Tom is a student or a teacher. He asked me, "Do you like playing football?“ → He asked me if/whether I liked playing football. My sister asked me : “ What is your friend?” →My sister asked me what my friend was. Jack asked me, "How do you like the film?" →Jack asked me how I liked the film. The solider ordered,“Be quiet.” → The solider ordered us to be quiet. He said to her,“Open the door, please.” →He asked her to open the door. She says,“I will go to Beijing next month.” →She says (that) she will go to Beijing the next month. He often says “ I shall tell you about them.” →He often tells me that he will tell me about them.
He says, ?? I will do it tomorrow” He says that he will do it tomorrow.
如果主句的谓语动词是一般过去时，直 接引语变成间接引语时，从句的时态要 做出相应的改变．
一般过去时 过去进行时 过去完成时 过去完成时 不变
1.“ I am ill today.” said my mother.
My mother said that she was ill that day.
2.“We work hard at English.” he said. He said that they worked hard at English.
1.They said to me, “We are working hard at a company.”
They told me that they were working at a company.
2.“I am writing a letter now.”she said.
She said that she was writing
a letter then.
１. John said, “I like reading adventure stories. ” John said that he _____ reading adventure stories. liked ２. She said to me, “I broke your CD player. ” had broken She told me that she ____________ my CD player. ３. He said, “I?ll come here this morning.” He said he_______ go there
that morning would ４. He says, “I have finished my homework.” He says that he had finished his homework. ___________ ５. He said, “they are playing games over there?” He said that they_______ playing games over there. were
１. 直接引语若表示的是客观事实或真理时， 变间接引语时时态不变． ２. 当引语中的时间状语表示过去某一具体时间 时，谓语动词时态不需改变．
1.Our teacher said, “ Light travels much faster than sound.” Our teacher said that light ______ much faster travels than sound. 2.“I graduated in 1966.”My brother said. My brother said that he graduated in 1966.
1.The teacher said to the students, “The earth is round.” The teacher told the students that the earth is round. 2. My father said to me, “I was born in 1961.” My father told me that he was born in 1961.
now today tonight ago yesterday last night then That day That night Before/earlier The day before The night before
The next/following day
The next/following …
1. “What does this word mean?” she asked me. She asked me what that word meant. 2. “Can you see that map on the wall?” he asked me. He asked me if I could see that map on the wall. 3. “Do you like these toys?” Jane asked us. Jane asked us if we liked those toys.
4. “Bring those balls to me.” said my sister. My sister asked us to bring those balls to her.
主句 +谓语 + that从句
1、改人称I ---he/she we--they 2、改所有格 my- his/her our - their 3、主句过去时，从句改对应的时态
一般现在时----------------------------------- 一般过去时 现在进行时（am/is/are doing)---------------过去进行时 (was/ were doing) 一般将来时(will do)------------------------------过去将来时(would do) 现在完成时(have /has done)------------------过去完成时(had done)
一般疑问句变间接引语: 1.连接词用if或whether引导， 2.从句改成陈述句语序， 3.时态随主句的时态而变化． ．
特殊疑问句变间接引语: 1.连接词用特殊疑问词引导， 2.从句改成陈述句语序，do,does,did要去掉。 3.时态随主句的时态而变化．
祈使句变间接引语: 1. ask/ tell/order sb to do 2. ask/ tell/order sb not to do
He said, “You are younger than I ”. He said that I was younger than him. He says, “Tom is a good student ”. He says that Tom is a good student.
She said, “ Do you often come here to read newspaper? ” She asked if (whether) I often came here to read newspaper. “Will they go to visit the Great Wall?” he asked. He asked if (whether) they would go to visit theGreat Wall.
特殊疑问句变为由特殊疑问词引导的宾语从句 e.g. 1. He asked, “Where do you live?”
He asked where I lived.
2. “How can we get to the post-office?” he asked
He asked how they could get to the postoffice.
直接引语为祈使句时，变为间接引 语时变为ask/tell sb. (not) to do sth结构。 它的否定形式是在to前加not。 The teacher said to us, “Be careful.” The teacher told us to be careful.
若要直引变间引， 三大要素要审清。 语序必须要陈述， 时态变化需记清。 人称变化合逻辑， 直引间引意要同。 引导词语很重要， 选择需要看直引。 直引若为陈述句， that引导要记清。 直引一般疑问句， if, whether来指引。 直引特殊疑问句， 疑问词语放在中。 若要直引祈使句， 特殊句式记在心。 特殊句式：Tell/ ask sb. (not) to do sth.
1. He said，“I am very sorry. ” He said (that) he was very sorry. 2. He said to me, “I’ve left my pen in your room.”
He told me (that) he had left his pen in my room.
3. He said, “our English teacher is handsome.” He said (that) his English teacher was handsome. 4. He said to me, “The capital of Australia is Canberra.” He told me (that) the capital of Australia is Canberra.
1. He said to me, “do you like the dog very much？” He asked me if I liked the dog very much. 2. I said to him, “ did you see the film yesterday?” I asked him if he saw the film yesterday. 3. She asked me, “will you go shopping tomorrow?”
She asked me if I would go shopping tomorrow.
1.“What are they drawing?” He asks me
He asked me what they were drawing.
2..“Where do they stop on the way?” I ask him. I ask him Where do they stop on the way. 3. “What will you speak at the meeting?” I asked her. I asked her what she would speak at the meeting.
1. I said to her, “Please give me a glass of water.” I asked her to give me a glass of water. 2. She said to him, “Come at five o’clock.” She told him to come at five o’clock.
3. He said, “Don’t make so much noise, boys.” He told the boys not to make so much noise.
1. “I like reading adventure stories,” said John.
John said that he liked reading adventure stories. 2. “I don’t like computers,” Sarah said to her friend. Sarah told her friends that she didn’t like computers.
3. “Ann, have you seen my blue notebook?” Peter asked. Peter asked Ann if she had seen his blue notebook.
4. “How can you do that?” Mary said to Ann. Mary asked Ann how she could do that. 5. “What difference does it make?” Peter asked Jim. Peter asked Jim what difference it made.
1. Jack said to me, “You look worried today.” Jack told me that ___ worried ___. A. he looks…today B. you look…today C. we looked…that day D. I looked…that day
2. We said to her, “They’re walking through the street now.” We told her that ___ through the street ___. A. we were walking…then B. you are walking…now C .they were walking…then D. they walking…now
3. Mr Black said, “I have walked a long way this week.”
Mr Black said that __ a long way __.
A. I had walked…that week
B. he had walked…that week
C. I walked…last week D. he has walked…this week
4. The man thought, “I shall take it back tomorrow.” The man thought that __ take it back ____. A. I shall…tomorrow B. I shall…the next day C. he should…tomorrow D. he would …the next day
5. They said to us, “Are you afraid to leave this house ?” They asked us ____ afraid to leave _____ house. A. that were we…this B. that we were…that C. if were we …this D. if we were…that
6. Jane said, “What did he hear about a
Jane asked ____ about _____.
A. that he heard…a week ago
B. what he had heard…the week before
C. what he had herd… a week ago
D. if he heard…the week ago
7. She asked, “Whose house will he break into next time ?” She asked whose house ____ break into _____. A. will he…next time B. would he…the next time C. he would…the next time D. he will…next time
8. Jack said to her, “Where do you spend your holidays?” Jack asked her where ____ holidays. A. she spent her B. you spend your
C. she spend her
D. you spent your
9. Black asked me, “ Why haven’t you left here yet?”
Black asked me why ____ yet.
A. I hadn’t left there
B. I haven’t left here
C. hadn’t I left there
D. haven’t I left here
10. The teacher asked her, “Does the sun rise in the east ?” The teacher asked her ___ the sun ___ in the east. A. if…rise B. if…rises C. whether…rose D. whether did …rise
1. Lucy asked,” Could you do something for me, Tom?” 2. He said to me, “I’ve left my pen in your room.” 3. Lucy said,” I am not good at it myself.” 4. The twins asked, “Which classroom is ours? 5. Mary said to me, “When will you be free tomorrow?” 6. He said to me, “close your eyes.” 7. She said, “I will come here this evening.” 8. I asked him, “What should I do?” 9. “ Will he come back?” Tom asks. 10. “ Can I get to the station?” The man asked me.