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八年级英语外研版上课件动词不定式用法

发布时间:2013-11-27 10:30:23  

What are the three non-predicates in English?
?The Infinitive ? to do sth ? to be doing sth ? to have done ?The Participle ? doing ? having done ? done ?The Gerund ? doing ? having done

语法: 动词不定式在句子中的作用 ①作主语: e.g.To say is one thing;to do is another. It’s important to do it right away. ②作表语: e.g. What you should is to leave here at once. The problem is how to do it. ③作宾语: e.g. I want to buy something for him . I don’t know what to do next.

④作宾语补足语: e.g.He asked me to wait for him for a while. My father lets me go out alone at night.

不带to的不定式作宾补!! ⑤作定语(位于名词或代词之后): e.g. Do you have anything to say? Have you got the permission to use the computer ?

⑥作状语(目的、结果、原因等): e.g.We eat to live; we don’t live to eat. 目的 e.g.We went to see him only to find him out. 结果状语 e.g.We are glad to see you. 原因状语
在too…to do …;adj./adv.+enough to do…结 构中作结果状语;在in order to ;so as to 结构中作 目的状语;在be + adj. +to do …中作原因或方式状 语。e.g. He is old enough to go to school.

He got up early so as to catch the bus. I’m sorry to hear that.

1. To select the right colors is important for business. ( subject) 2. My dream is to go to Beijing University. ( predicative)
3. Western brides choose to wear white on their wedding days. (object ) 4. To attract more customers, they paint their restaurant red. ( adverbial )

5. I have no way to help him out of trouble. (attribute)

5. I don’t think it difficult to improve our English in a short time. (formal object) 6. Never hesitate to help others. (object)

7. We have been told when and where to have the physical examination. (object) 8. It is necessary for young people nowadays to master at least one foreign language. (formal subject)

Special patterns: 1. He is said to have already finished his task. = It is said that he has already finished … 2. He is thought to be the best player. = It is thought that he is the best player. 3. She is believed to have landed in America. = It is believed that she has landed … 4. You seem to have seen the film. = It seems that you have seen the film.

only to do ----1. He hurried back to his house, only to find that it was empty. 2. He survived the air crash, only to die in the desert. 3. I ran to the station, only to see the train was out of the station. 4. He enjoyed laughing at others ,only to find himself laughed at.

不带to的不定式 a. feel, hear, see, watch, listen to , look at, observe, notice ** I saw/watched him drive off. ** I heard him lock the door (but : He was seen to enter the office.) b. make, let, have ( let has no passive voice )

c. had better, would rather …than do anything/nothing… but /except
** He does nothing but complain. ** My dog does everything but speak.

动词

不定式易考点: 1.They are said to____(在建)a bridge. D
A. build B. built C. have built D. be building.

B 2. She seemed to ____ me before.
A. be meeting B. have met C. have been meeting

动词不定式有时态的变化!!常有进行 时(不定式动作在持续)、完成时(在谓语 动作之前完成)、完成进行时(在谓语动作 之前已经开始并一直持续的动作)。

3. She doesn’t like to ____(被表扬) in public. C A. praise B. be praising C. be praised

4.The coat is too large to ____. A A. wear B. be worn C. be wearing
动词不定式有被动语态(即逻辑主语是不定 式 动作的承受者时使用),但在以下四种情 况中不定式主动表被动!! ①在too(enough)…to 结构中 ②在there be 结构中:

to do e.g. There is a lot of work ___________.

too + adj. / adv. + to do
** You are too young to understand. ** He was too drunk to drive home.

** The case was too heavy(for her)to carry.
…… + adj + enough + to do sth. ** you are old enough to support yourself. ** The ice was thick enough to walk on.

③在形容词 easy,difficult,hard,good,heavy等 词后作状语时。

e.g. The novel is easy to read.

The bag is heavy to carry at that time. ④虽然不定式与修饰词之间有逻辑动宾关系, 但如与另外一个名词或代词具备逻辑主谓关 系,不定式亦用主动表被动意义。 e.g.Please give the children some books to read
主谓 I have nothing to say.
动宾关系

三:动词不定式的省略问题:为了避免重复 前面已经出现的动词,可以省去不定式中的 动词及其宾语。 e.g. –Would you like to see our baby? --I ‘d love to( 省略!!! . see your baby) I want to mend your radio,but I don’t know how to ___________(如何修)? The boy want to ride his bicycle in the A street,but his father told him____.
A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D.do not to

四:不定式作定语需要加介词的情况: 1.与它修饰的词有动宾关系,而该不定式中 的动词又是不及物动词时,其后需加 适当的 介词以带逻辑宾语: e.g. She is a very nice person to work with . worry about There is nothing to _____________(担心).

2.与修饰的词有动宾 关系的不定式,虽动词 是及物动词但已带有自己的宾语,其后需加 适当的介词,以将不定式短语与其修饰的词 连接起来。 e.g. Here is a box to put things in. =put things 动宾 介宾 in a box. Jack is the very person discuss the matter with to___________________(讨论这个问题)。

3.动词不定式修饰表地点的词如 room,house,school等时,不定式需加适当的 介词。 e.g. He is looking for a hotel to stay at . I have a small room ________________(居住). to live in

注意:不定式所修饰的词表不定式动作 发生的时间、方式时,常不加介词!!!
e.g. It’s time to get up. That will be the best way to solve the proble

m.

4。不定式的时态 I saw him go out.(同时或之后) I’m sorry glad to be working with you (进行) I’m sorry to have kept you waiting.(之 前)

Practice: 1. The patient was warned ___ oily food after C the operation. A.Not eating B. to eat not C. not to eat D. eating not B 2. The little time we have together we try ___ wisely .
A. spending B. to spend it C. to spend D. spending that

3. When I handed the report to John,he said George was the person ____. C A.to send B. for sending C. to send it to D. for sending it to 4.There are five pairs ___, but I’m at a loss B which to buy. A. to be chosen B. to choose from C. to choose D. for choosing

5. To fetch water before breakfast seemed to me a rule___. B A. To never break B. never to be broken C. never to have broken D. never to be breaking

不定式
1

不定式的作用

[例1] NMET 2000 第19题

I’ve work with children before, so I know what ___ in my job.
A. expected B B. to expect C. to be expecting D. expects

该题考查疑问+不定式在句中做宾语的用法。英 语中有一些动词 后可以跟一个疑问词的不定式 做宾语,如:

tell, discuss, know, show, learn, decide, wonder, explain…

不定式
1

不定式的作用
[例2] NMET 1999 第21题

The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ____ it more difficult.

A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. do not make. B

因为主语是the purpose,在(purpose, wish, promise, plan)后常跟不定式,故表语要用 不定式,to不能省略,因此构成the purpose is to…not to…do 句型,故选B 。

不定式
2

不定式的时态和语态
[例3] NMET 1997第12题

I would love _____ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. A. to go B. having gone C. going D. to have gone D

该题考查动词不定式做宾语的 用法。would love(like) to 是固定搭配,因此B、C、不合题 意。Would love +不定式一般式,表示“想, 希望”,而接不定式完成式则表示“原本希望 而未曾实现”的意思。

[例4] NMET 2002 第14题

Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains _______ whether they will enjoy it. (2002) B A. to see B. to be seen C. seeing D. seen

不定式的语态取决于它和主语以及被它修饰的词的逻辑关 系,被动关系用被动.

例如:It was the first such project to be designed
by Chinese engineers.
The question to be discussed at the next meeting

will be rather difficult.

不定式
3

不定式的否定形式
[例5] NMET 1996年

The patient was warned ____ oily food after the operation. A. to eat not B. eating not C not to eat D. not eat C.

该题考查不定式的否定式作主补。要注意 warn后跟词方式, ① warn sb. not to do sth. ② warn sb. against doing sth. 该题应该用①结构 另外,not 应放在to之前。 在大多数的动词可接不定式短语做宾补,只 有少数动词(五个看see

,watch,notice, observe,look at;三使役make,let, have;二听listen to,hear等)须接不带to 的不定式做宾补。


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