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不定式

发布时间:2013-09-20 10:16:45  

Module 9 Animals in danger

撰 稿:胡欲晓 审 稿:牛新阁 责 编:白雪雁

本模块语法:不定式

动词不定式构成:to+ do(动词原形)

否定式:not to+do 动词原形

动词不定式特点:动词不定式没有人称和数的变化,在句子中不能独立作谓语。可以在句子中作主语、宾语、表语、宾语补足语、定语、状语.

一. 带to的不定式结构

1. 我们学过的能直接跟带to的不定式结构的动词主要有:want, ask, tell, hope, learn, try, decide, forget, remember, like , love, stop, go, come等。

二. 不带to的不定式结构

以下几种情况使用不带to的动词不定式:

1. 在固定词组had better之后。注意:had better的否定形式是had better not do sth.。 例如:You had better go home now. 你最好现在回家。

It's cold outside. You’d better not go out. 外面很冷,你最好不要出去。

2. 在let, make, see, feel, watch, hear等感官或使役动词后,要跟不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语。

例如:I made them give me the money back. 我迫使他们把钱还给我。

I didn’t see you come in. 我没看见你进来。

3. 在引导疑问句的why not之后。

“Why not+不带to的不定式”是“Why don’t you do?”的省略,可以用来提出建议或劝告。

例如: Why not go with us? 为什么不和我们一起去呢?

Why not take a holiday? =Why don’t you take a holiday? 为什么不休假呢?

三.动词不定式的句法功能:

(一)作主语

不定式结构作主语时,现代英语倾向于采用it作形式主语,而把不定式结构后置的形式。

e.g. It’s easy (for me) to do that.

我做这事太容易了。

It’s so nice to hear your voice.

听到你的声音真高兴。

It’s necessary for you to lock the car when you do not use it.

当你不用车的时候,锁车是有必要的。

It’s very kind of you to help us. 承蒙惠助,不胜感激。

(二) 作宾语

在下列动词后用不定式作宾语:

afford; agree; ask; decide; want; expect; hope; fail; happen; help; learn;

mean; manage; offer; plan; promise; refuse; wish; forget; remember?

e.g. The driver failed to see the other car in time.

司机没能及时看见另一辆车。

It is raining hard. Jack is holding a newspaper over his head.

He forgot to take an umbrella.

雨下得很大。Jack头上顶着一张报纸。他忘记带伞了。

(三) 作宾语补足语

动词不定式作宾语补足语是动词不定式用法的一个重点,学习时要注意以下三种情况:

1. 作动词ask, like, tell等的宾语补足语时,动词不定式符号to不可以省略。 e.g. He asked me to talk about English study. 他请我谈谈英语学习的问题。

2. 作使役动词let, have, make以及感官动词feel, hear, see, watch等的宾语补足语时,动词不定式符号to要省略。

e.g. The teacher made him say the word like this. 老师让他像这样说这个单词。

3. 作动词help的宾语补足语时,动词不定式符号to可以带,也可以不带。 e.g. Could you help me (to) carry the heavy box? 你能帮我搬这个重箱子吗?

(四) 作定语

不定式作定语,要放在它所修饰的名词或代词的后面。

e.g. After he finished college, he had a lot of jobs to choose.

大学毕业之后,他有许多工作可选。

I have nothing to say on this question.

对这个问题我无可奉告。

He has something important to tell her.

他有重要的事情要告诉她。

(五) 作状语

动词不定式及其短语具有副词的特性,可在句中用作状语。

1. 放在句首也可以放在句尾表示目的等。

e.g. He stopped to have a rest. 他停下来休息。

2. 跟在作表语的形容词或过去分词的后面。

e.g. I’m sorry to hear that. 听到这事我感到很难过。

3. 用在too...to...结构中。

e.g. He is too young to understand it. 他太年轻,理解不了这件事。

语法练习:

1. Don’t forget _________ the letter.

A. to send B. send C. sending D. being sent

2. The chair looks very old, but in fact it is very comfortable to _________.

A. sit B. sit on C. be sat D. be sat on

3. Is ______ necessary to return the book tomorrow?

A. this B. that C. it D. which

4. I’m afraid they would not allow him ________ here.

A. to smoke B. smoking C. smokes D. smoke

5. Mother told me ________ the water before I drank it.

A. boiling B. boiled C. boil D. to boil

6. On my way home, I stopped _______ some food.

A. buy B. to buy C. buying D. bought

7. John was made _______ the car for a week as a punishment.

A. to wash B. washing C. wash D. to be washing

8. The sitting-room needs _______, but it’ll have to wait until Saturday.

A. be cleaning B. to be cleaned C. clean D. being cleaned

9. The first thing I want to do is __________.

A. visit to him B. to visit him C. visiting him D. visited him

10. Li Yang advised me _________ too much, otherwise I would have been drunk.

A. not to drink B. to drink C. not drinking D. drinking

参考答案:

1. A. forget to do sth. 忘记去做某事;forget doing sth. 忘记做过某事。

2. B. sit on the chair,其中on不能少。

3. C. it为形式主语。

4. A. allow sb. to do

5. D. tell sb. to do

6. B. stop to do 停下去做另一件事;stop doing 停止做某事。

7. A. make sb. do 在被动语态中为be made to do.

8. B. need to be done与need doing皆为“需要被做”之意。

9. B. 不定式结构作表语。

10. A. 不定式的否定式:advise sb. not to do

第九模块相关知识点:

重点短语及句型:

1. 濒危动物 animals in danger

2. 需要做某事 need to do

3. 没有喝水 without drinking

4. 了解 learn about?

5. 令人惊奇的事情 the surprising thing

6. 很吃惊地干某事 be surprised to do sth.

7. 干某事很悲伤 It’s sad to do sth.

8. 为了??而杀死 kill?for?

9. 停止捕杀很难 It’s hard to stop killing?

10. 没有地方住 no places to live in

11. 没有足够吃的食物 no enough food to eat

12. 这水不好喝 The water isn’t good to drink.

13. 带走它 take it away

14. 住在森林里 live in the forests

15. 决定不做某事 decide not to do

16. 变得很严峻 become very serious

17. 以??为生 live on?

18. 照顾 look after

19. 有足够住的地方 enough places to live in

20. 越来越少的土地居住 less and less land to live on

21. 制定计划 make a plan

22. 生长得更好 grow better

23. 最著名的科学家 the best-known scientist

24. 以而闻名 be famous for?

25. ??的标志(象征) the symbol of?

26. 想起 think of?

27. 考虑 think about (it)

28. 例如 for example / such as?

29. 几乎没有熊猫 very few pandas

30. 也,同样 as well as?

31. 你真是太好了干某事 It’s really nice of you to do?

32. 向某人展示某物 show sb. about sth.

33. 干某事的一个计划 a plan to do sth.

34. 设计海报 design a poster

35. 保持??干净 keep sth. clean

36. 保持地球的干净 keep the Earth clean

37. 砍伐森林 cut down the forests

38. 污染河流 pollute the rivers

39. 为某人而工作: work for sb.

40. 在野外 in the wild

41. 究竟 on earth

42. 听到那个消息很难过 I’m sorry to hear that.

43. 使得某人发狂 make sb. mad

44. 把它变脏 make it dirty

45. 查找它 find it out

46. 和平地生存 live in peace

47. 自然保护区 nature reserve

48. 最后 at last

49. 干某事是有趣的 It’s interesting to do sth.

50. 需要保护 need to protect?

重点句子:

1. Which animals are they talking about?

他们在谈论什么动物? 2. The panda is the most important animal to protect. 熊猫是最重要的动物,需要保护。 3. There are about 1, 000 pandas living in nature reserves today. 今天在自然保护区就有1000多头大熊猫。 4. Why do you think there is still a long way to go to help the pandas? 为什么你认为保护大熊猫仍然要费一些周折? 5. It was interesting to learn about the Wolong Panda Reserve. (我)对学习卧龙熊猫保护区的知识很感兴趣。 6. I went to the post office to buy a stamp. 我去邮局买一张邮票。 7. I’m happy to see you again. 非常高兴又看到你。 8. The surprising thing was to hear how many animals are in danger. 令人吃惊的是听到很多动物都处在危险的境地中。

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