其 否定句在have/has后加not. 一般疑问句把have/has提到主语前. 动词的过去分词：规则变化（和过去时一样） 不规则变化：
1.He has gotten his hair cut. 否定句:He has not gotten his hair cut. 一般疑问句:Has he gotten his hair cut? 2.She has opened the door. 否定:She hasn’t opened the door. 一般:Has she opened the door? 3.The dog has caught in with its mouth. 否定:The dog hasn’t caught in with its mouth. 一般:Has the dog caught in with its mouth? 4.They have made friends with each other. 否定:They haven’t made friends with each other. 一般:Have they made friends with each other?
1。表过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果,例如 I have just cleaned my clothes. 我刚洗过衣服。 （“洗衣服”是发生在过去的动作，对现在造成的结果是 “衣服干净了”） I have just had my breakfast. (对现在的影响：不饿) 通常与表示包括现在在内的时间副词 just（刚刚）, already（已经）, before(之前), yet（一般疑问：已经； 否定句：还） never(从不), ever(曾经)等状语连用 ① I have never heard of that before. ② Have you ever ridden a horse? ③ She has already finished the work. ④ Have you milked the cow yet? Yes, I have done that already. ⑤ I’ve just finished my homework. ⑥ He has not come yet.
2。表示过去已经开始，持续到现在的动作或状态，也 可以表示实质可能继续下去的动作或状态。通常和 for(加一段时间）, since（加时间点） 连用. I have been here for just over two years. He has worked here since 1989.
She has learnt English for 3 years/since 3 years ago.
They have lived here since 1990.
用于现在完成时中的时间状语还有 today, recently, these days, this week (month, summer, year), in the past few years, in the last two years, until now, up to now(直到现在),so far(迄今为止) for a long time,
What has happened to the USA in the last 350 years?
I haven’t seen her these days.
注意点一： 现在完成时与一般过去时的用法比较 现在完成时表示过去的动作一直延续到现在甚至会继续下去或表示 过去的动作对现在造成的影响；一般过去时表示动作发生的时间在 过去。现在完成时属于现在时态范围，因此，不能和表示过去的时 间状语连用。 如：yesterday, last night, two weeks ago等 试比较： The plane has arrived . 飞机已经来了。（说明现在的情况：飞机 在这儿） The plane arrived a quarter ago. 飞机是一刻中以前来的。（强 调动作发生的时间在过去） I have taught here for fifteen years. 我在这儿已经教了十五年。 （表示十五年前的动作一直延续到现在，还可能会继续。） I taught here for a year. 我过去在这儿教过一年。（表示“我“现 在已经不在这
Put the following sentences into English.
1. A: 火车已经开走了. B: 什么时候开走的?
A: The train has left. B: When did it leave.
A: It left half an hour ago. A: 2. A: 这本书我已经买了两年了. I`ve had the book for two year
B: 你在哪儿买的? A: 在我老家买的. 3. A: 你看过这部电影吗?
B: Where did you buy it? A: I bought it in my hometown. A: have you seen the film? B: Yes, I have.
A: 什么时候看的. B: 上周星期天看的.
A: When did you see it?
B: I saw it last Sunday.
注意点二、非延续性动词与现在完成时 短暂性动词在肯定句、疑问句中不能与时间段连用，这些 动词是：become, begin, buy, borrow, arrive, come, die, fall, finish, get to know, go, join, leave, marry等。 为了表述这种意思，我们常用相应的延续性动词have， keep等来代替非延续性动词。 他入党五年了。He joined the Party five years ago . ——He has been in the Party for five years. ——He has been a Party member for five years. ——it is five years since he joined the Party 电影开始五分钟了。 The film began five minutes ago. ——The film has been on for five minutes. ——It is five minutes since the film began
come/go — be (in) borrow — keep die — be dead begin — be on arrive – be here/there marry/get married (to)— be married (to) begin to work/study/live – work/study/leave fall asleep/get to sleep — be asleep join the Party — be in the Party/be a member of leave — be away buy — have get to know — know go out — be off
( ×) I have bought a new dictionary for a week. I have had a new dictionary for a week. ( ) 我买一本新词典已有一星期了。 ( ) They have been here for two days. ( ×) They have come here for two days. 他们来这儿已经两天了。 He has joined the League member for two years. ( ×) ( ) He has been a League member for two years. 他已入团两年了。
The man has been dead for several years. The man has died for several years. 这个人已经死了几年了。
( ) ( ×)
1.I have borrowed the book for 2 weeks. ( B kept ) A B C 2.The film has begun for 5 minutes.( B been on) A B C
3. 这辆自行车我买了两年了。 had I’ve _____ the bike for _____ two years. 4. He left Nanjing two years ago. has been away _____ He _____ _____ _____ from Nanjing for two years.
5. The monkey died last month. The monkey _____ been dead for a month. _____ _____ has 6. A: Hong long _____ you ____ ( D ) B: Two weeks. A.did,get ill B. have,fallen ill C. were,ill D. have,been ill
练习：用have(has) been 或have(has) gone 填空 A: Where __1__ Li Fei __1__? B: He __2__ to Hainan Island. A: How long __3__ he __3___ there? B: He ___4__ there for three days. A: When will he come back , do you know? B: I’m afraid he won’t come back recently. A: Could you tell me the way t
o Hainan Island? B: Sorry, I __5__ never __5__ there. A: How many times __6__ Li Fei __6___ to that place? B: He __7__ there only once.
注意点三：have been in, have been to 与have gone to 的用法 1、have (has) been in 表示“在某地（多长时间）”，现在仍在那里。常与表 示一段时间的状语连用。例如： Mr. Brown has been in Shanghai for three days. 布朗来上海已经有三天了。 They have been in Canada for five years. 他们到加拿大有五年了。 2、have( has)been to表示“曾经去过某地”，现在已经不在那里了。可与just,
I have just been to the post office. 我刚才去邮局了。 Mary has never been to the Great Wall. 玛丽从未去过长城。 Have you ever been to Hangzhou before? 你以前曾经去过杭州吗？ Have (has) been to 后面可接次数，表示去过某地几次。例如： They have been to that village several times. 他们去过那个村庄好几次了。 3、have (has) gone to 意为“到某地去了”，表示到了某地或正在去某地的途
----Where is Tom? ----He has gone to the bookshop. 他到书店去了。 Jack Johnson has gone to London. 杰克.约翰逊到伦敦去了。
用括号中所给的动词的适当形式完成下列句子。 1. Mary _______(lose) her pen. ______ you ______ (see) it here and there? 2. ______ you ______ (find) your watch yet? 3. ---Are you thirsty? ---NO, I ______ just _______ (have) some orange. 4. We ________already ______ (return) the book. 5. ______ they _____ (build) a new school in the village? 6. ---Has Tom taught you English? ---Yes, he ______ (teach) us English for two years. 7. I ______(not finish) my homework yet. Can you help me? 8. What ______ they _____ (do) with the newspaper? They have read them. 9. --- The door is open. Who ______ (open) it? Do you know? --- Sorry, I don’t know. 10. My father _____ (read) the novel twice. 11. Wu Dong _____(be) a soldier for one year. 12. The students ______(study) in the middle school since last month. 13. How long ______ you ______(know) him? 14. Mike ______ (make) quite a few friends since he came to China. 15. I _____(give) my friend a nice book recently. 16. Li Ping and Wu Dong ______(see) the old man three times. 17. _____ she ever _____(teach) you English? 18. These children _____ (stay) in the park for two hours.
不规则变化： am/is-was-been begin-began-begun do-did-done drink-drank-drunk eat-ate-eaten fly-flew-flown give-gave-given grow-grew-grown know-knew-known ride-rode-ridden show-showed-shown sing-sang-sung take-took-taken run- ran – run
are-were-been break-broke-broken draw-drew-drawn drive-drove-driven fall-fell-fallen forget-forgot-forgotten go-went-gone hide-hid-hidden lie-lay-lain ring-rang-rung see-saw-seen speak-spoke-spoken come-came-come become-became-become