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新版深圳广州沈阳牛津版八年级英语上unit5知识点语法练习

发布时间:2013-12-02 16:24:51  

新版深圳广州沈阳牛津版八年级英语上

unit5 educational exchanges知识点语法练习

一. 重点单词和短语

1. accept v. 接受;承认 (反义词refuse)

2. educational adj. 教育 (n. education)

3. exchange n. & v. 交换;交流 4. host n. 主人(反义词guest)

5. own adj. 自己的 v. 拥有( n. owner)

6. simple = easy adj. 简单的(反义词difficult)

7. culture n. 文化 (adj. cultural)

8. confident adj. 自信的 (n. confidence) 9. deep adj. 深的 (adv. deeply)

10. improve v. 改善,改进 ( n. improvement)

短语

1. take a visit / trip to … 去某处参观(旅行) 2. be able to do 能够做

3. give a talk about/ on sth. to sb. 向某人做关于某事的报告

4. throughout the world= all over the world 全世界

5. live/ stay with 与…生活在一起

6. go on sightseeing (tours) 去观光 7. make friends with 与…交朋友

8. as well as 还;也;不及 9. since then 从那时起;打那以后

10. keep/get in touch with 与…保持联系 11. in case 万一

12.in order that 为了…… 13. be confident of …..对…..感到有信心

14. look forward to doing…盼望做某事 15.apply for 申请

16.go on a sightseeing tour 进行观光旅游 17. be deeply moved 被深深地打动

18. win a scholarship 赢得奖学金 19. improve the situation 改善情况

语法--现在完成时

如果你想说“我已经看过某部电影,所以不想看了”、“某人曾经做过什么事情”等等,该如果表达呢?首先请看下面的句子:

(1)I have seen the film. I don’t want to see it again.

这部电影我已经看过,不想再看了。

(2)Have you answered all the questions? 所有的问题你都回答了吗?

(3)Have you ever looked at a travel brochure?

你看过旅游宣传册吗?

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(4)She has never visited the USA.

她从没有过去美国。

观察:以上句子的谓语动词的一个共同特点是_____________________________, 用于表示在以前的某个时间曾经做过的、发生的事情,这种行为对目前有某种影响。我们把这种时态称为“现在完成时”。

一、 现在完成时的概念。

①表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响或结果

She has been ill for three days. (她病了三天了。)

② 表示从过去某一时间开始一直持续到现在的动作或状态。

We've known each other since we were children. (我们从小就认识。)

I have been a member of the Party for 10 years.

二、构成:”助动词have, has + 过去分词”

随堂练习

.把下面变否定句、一般疑问句并作肯定和否定回答。

1. I have done my homework.

否定句:_______________________________________

一般疑问句:___________________________________

回答:_________________________________________

2. The plane has arrived.

否定句:_______________________________________

一般疑问句:___________________________________

回答:_________________________________________

三、动词的过去分词构成规则

(1) 规则变化

① 大部分动词在词尾直接加-ed cleaned helped

② 以不发音的e结尾的,直接加-d

liked lived

③ 以辅音字母+y结尾的单词,变y为i再加ed

tried studied

④ 重读闭音节词尾只有一个辅音字母的,需要双写最后这个辅音字母再加-ed.

planned stopped

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(2) 不规则变化 seen found

需根据不规则变化表进行专门记忆

随堂练习

写出下列单词的过去分词形式

work _________ finish ___________ arrive___________

change_________ see___________ have___________

marry__________ visit__________ miss___________

prefer__________ do___________ hear____________

live____________ clean________ study___________

meet___________ be __________ climb___________

plan____________ take_________ stop____________

keep____________ buy_________ spend____________

learn___________ forget__________ bring____________

四、 现在完成时用法归纳

1. (此种用法谓语动词用结束性动词)

如: The plane has arrived.

常用的时间状语和副词:already ,yet , ever , never

①already 已经; yet 尚未,仍未,还;强调前不久完成的动作对现在造成的影响,谓语动词使用非延续性动词。already 用于肯定句中,yet 用于否定句和疑问句的句末。

例如:I have already finished my homework. 我已经完成我的家庭作业了。

He hasn’t come yet.他还没有回来。

Has she finished cooking yet? 他做完饭了吗?

练:I have already done my homework. (变为否定句)

______________________________________________

②ever (曾经),句中;never (从不) ,表示否定,强调到目前为止的生活经历。谓语动词用延续性动词。

例如:Have you ever climb that mountain? 你曾经爬过那座山吗?

Have you ever been to Shanghai?你曾经去过上海吗?

I have never late for school.我从来没有迟到过。

③already ever与never应位于助动词have/has 之后,主要动词之前。

拓展:before (以前),句尾,独立用

I haven’t met him before. 我以前从来没有见过他。

just (刚刚),用于肯定句中,常用在助动词和过去分词之间。

如:I have just heard the news. 我刚刚听到消息。

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跟踪训练

( )1. Have you ______ heard of Disneyland?

A. always B. ever C. never D. sometimes

( )2. I have ________ finished my homework. So I can have a rest now.

A. ever B. already C. never D. yet

( )3. She is a good student, she has _______ been late for school.

A. ever B. already C. never D. yet

( )4. I am very hungry , I haven’t had my breakfast________.

A. ever B. already C. never D. yet

2. 完成时可用于表示某时间段里完成的动作,常与today, these days, recently等时间状语连用。如:

Have you seen her these days? 译: _________________________

Have you been to the library today? 译:______________________

Have you read the book recently? 译:_______________________

3.现在完成时表示过去已经开始,持续到现在,可能延续到将来的动作和状态。

常与表示过去某一时刻延续到现在的一段时间状语连用。如:

a. for + 一段时间:for two hours

b. since + 时间点:since 1999, since last year

c. since + 一段时间+ ago: since two days ago

d. since + 从句(用过去时)

e. up to now, till now, until now, so far

f. in the past two years, in the last few days

g. recently, lately

如: Miss Zhao has taught math for five years.

His mother has worked in the shop since 1990.

The Greens have lived in London since three years ago.

[注]:其中在a,b,c,d 这四种结构中,

如: I have had this book for one and a half years. (这本书我已买了一年半了!)

跟踪训练

用since 或者for 填空

1. I have studied English _______ 5 years.

2. I have studied English _______ 5 years ago.

3. I have studied English _______ 2008.

4. She has taught math _________ 3 years.

5. She has taught math _________ 3 years ago.

6. She has taught math _________ 2010.

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4. 短暂性动词怎样和表示一段时间的状语连用。

英语中的短暂性动词,也叫做终止性动词、瞬间动词或非延续性动词,只表示一时的动作,在肯定句式中不能与表示延续的时间状语连用。常见的短暂性动词有:go, come, leave, find, buy, arrive, give, stop, join, marry, die, begin, start, borrow, close, open, lend等。

eg. I have bought this book for three months. (×)

非延续性动词与一段时间连用时可采用下列三种方法:

(1)将非延续性动词转化为延续性动词。

leave- have (has) been away from close- be closed

join- have (has) been (in) begin/start- be on

buy- have (has) had go- be there

die- have (has) dead finish- be over

come (arrive)- have (has) been here

borrow- have (has) kept

begin to work- have (has) worked

open- have (has) been open

get up- have (has) been up

put on – have (has) on

come back- have (has) been back

gone (left)- been away

joined – been

got to know – known

(2)时间状语的变化:把表时间的状语“for…”变为“数词+ 时间名词+ago”的短语形式。(即:将时间状语改为过去时间,并用一般过去时代替现在完成时)

如: 他参军五年了。(判断正误)

He has joined the Army for five years. ( )

He has been in the Army for five years. ( )

He joined the Army five years ago. ( )

他离开济南三年了。

He has left Ji’nan for three years. ( )

He has been away from Ji’nan for three years.

He left Ji’nan three years ago.

(3) 句子模式的变化。用句型“It is + 一段时间+ since从句”(从句中的谓语动词用非延续性动词的一般过去式表示)如:

The old man died two years ago.

= The old man has been dead for two years.

= It is two years since the old man died.

跟踪训练

句型转换。

1. I have borrowed a new book from the school library.

I _________ _________ a new book from the school library for two days.

2. She has gone there.

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She _________ ________ there _________ yesterday.

3. The film has begun.

The film __________ ___________ ___________ __________ five minutes.

4. The boy has come back.

The boy _________ ___________ _________ for an hour.

5. The man in a hat has left.

The man in a hat _________ _________ __________ _________ half an hour ago.

6. He has already died.

He ____________ ____________ ____________ for twenty years.

7. The young man has joined the League.

The young man ________ ________ __________ member _______ two years.

The young man _____ ________ _______ _______ League ______ two years ago.

5. have been to/ have gone to/ have been in 三种结构的区别

(1)have been to 去过某地(现已离开),可以与ever, never, once, twice等连用。

(2)has gone to 去某地了,说话时某人已离开此地,在去某地的路上或已在某地,总之现在还未回来。此句型一般用于第三人称。

(3) have been in 表示已在某地呆了多久,若该地为小地方则用at。

翻译:

你以前去过北京吗?___________________________

吉姆已经去了伦敦。___________________________

格林一家在中国已经两年了。_____________________

单项选择

( )1. I have ________ Beijing three times.

A. been to B. gone to C. been in D. been at

( )2.---Where is Mike?

-----He has _______ London .

A. been to B. gone to C. been in D. been at

( )3. Tony has never _______ China. He looks forward to coming to China

A. been to B. gone to C. been in D. been at

( )4.Lucy has ________ China for 5 years.

A. been to B. gone to C. been in D. been at

( )5.The teacher has ________ the village to teach the poor students for 10 years.

A. been to B. gone to C. been in D. been at

6. 现在完成时与一般过去时的区别:

(1) 侧重点不同:现在完成时是与现在有关的时态,属现在时态范畴,它侧重于过去的动作对现在造成的影响。而一般过去时是一种过去时态,侧重于表示过去的动作,与现在无关。如: Yesterday I went to the zoo. (仅说明昨天去了动物园,与现在无关)

Li Lei has read the book. (说明李磊了解那本书的内容)

(2)连用的时间状语不同:一般过去时常与ago, yesterday, last…, in 2000, just now等连用。而 6

现在完成时与already, yet, still, just, so far, in the last/ past…, before, ever, never, since…, for…等时间状语连用。

[注] 现在完成时不可与yesterday, last week, two days ago等过去时间状语连用。

综合训练

一、必背词组:(中英互译)

1. keep in touch with…

2. educational visits to…

3. accept sb. as..

4. be patient

5. become confident

6.the aim of our trip

7. improve the situation

8. a valuable experience

9. win a scholarship

二、完成句子:

A.用括号里词的正确形式填空:

1. We should show ________(deep) love for our motherland.

2. I plan to write an ________ (education)article this week.

3. Everyone is interested in Einstein’s _______.(think)

4. I tried hard to _________(improvement) our English study.

5. My grandma was ________ (move)by watching ZhaoBenshan’s _________ show.

6. Our English corner was _________(arrange) by our English teachers.

7.______________ (communicate) was quite difficult at first when I was in the USA.

四、.选择填空:

( )1. This TV set is too dear, __________ it gives you a better picture.

A. so B. and C. for D. though

( )2. My father got up ______ he wouldn’t be late for the meeting.

A. such early that B. early enough C. early so that D. early in order to

( )3. It was ______ we went fishing in the open air yesterday.

A. such a nice weather that B. such nice weather that

C. so nice weather that D. a nice weather so that

( )4. This question was ______ difficult ______ nobody in our class could answer it.

A. very; that B. such; that C. too; to D. so; that

( )5. He runs as fast as possible______ he ______ the first bus.

A. so that; could catch B. in order that; could miss C. in case; misses D. so; would

( )6. -- What a _______ movie it is ! -- Yes, and we are all moved ________.

A. moving, deeply B. moved, deep C. moving, deep D. move, deep

( )7. I make _______ with many students from other country.

A. friends B. friend C. a friend D. friendly

( )8. John has many foreign friends. He_____ them by email.

A. keeps in touch with B. take action C. pays attention to D .looks after

( )9.—How do you like the film, Tony?

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--It is_____ film that I have seen it several times.

A. a so interesting B. a such interesting C. such a interesting D. so interesting a

( )10. There is _______ cigarette smoke in the cinema _____ I can hardly breathe.

A. so much, that B. so many; that C. such many, that D. so little; that

语法部分

一、单项选择。

( )1. Miss Gao isn’t here. She ________ to the bus station to meet Mr. Brown.

A. go B. has gone C. has been D. would go

( )2. – How clean the bedroom is!

- Yes, I am sure that someone _______it.

A. cleans B. cleaned C. has cleaned D. had cleaned

( )3. Drison Break is the best American TV player that I _____ these years.

A. watch B. will watch C. have watched D.was watching

( )4. I’m not hungry because I ______ lunch already.

A. have B. had C. am having D. have had

( )5. – How long have Mr and Mrs Smith________?

- For more than twenty years.

A. married B. had married C. got married D. been married

( )6. In the past few years there ______ great changes in my hometown.

A. have been B. were C. had been D. are

( )7. — ________ you ______ the film Harry Potter Ⅱ?

— Not yet. I’ll see it this Sunday.

A. Did, see B. Are; seeing C. Have, seen D. Do, see

( )8. The Smiths moved to China ten years ago and ______ here since then.

A. has lived B. was living C. live D. have lived

( )9. – Will you watch the World Cup match this year?

- No, but I ________ several World Cup matches since I was a small child.

A. had seen B. see C. was seeing D. have seen

( )10. I won’t return the book to the library because I ______ reading it.

A. wasn’t finish B. don’t finish

C. won’t finish D. haven’t finished

( )11. – How many times _______ you ______ the Great Wall?

- Only once. I _______ there three years ago.

A. did, go to, have gone B. had, gone to, went

C. have, been to, went D. have, been to, have gone

( )12. - _______ you ______ the magazine from the school library yet?

- Yes, I ______ it for two weeks.

A. Have, borrowed, have kept B. Have, borrowed, have borrowed

C. Did, borrowed, borrowed D. Did, borrow, have kept

( )13. Premier Zhou (周总理) ______ for many years, but he still lives in the hearts of Chinese

people.

A. died B. had died C. has been died D. has been dead

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( )14. Her mother _______ in the factory. She _____ there since it opened.

A. is working, worked B. works, worked

C. works, has worked D. worked, has worked

( )15. – Hi! Jim! Nice to meet you!

- Hi, it’s one year since I last ______ you.

A. saw B. see C. seeing D. have seen

( )16. He _____ from the factory for a week.

A. has left B. has been away C. did leave

( )17. I _______ a letter from him since he left.

A. haven’t left B. didn’t receive C. didn’t have

( )18. – Oh, Mrs King, your coat looks nice. Is it new?

- No, I ________ it for two years.

A. had B. have had C. bought D. have bought

9 D. will leave D. haven’t feel

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